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Full text of "A biographical history of England, from Egbert the Great to the revolution : consisting of characters disposed in different classes, and adapted to a methodical catalogue of engraved British heads : intended as an essay towards reducing our biography to system, and a help to the knowledge of portraits : interspersed with a variety of anecdotes and memoirs of a great number of persons, not to be found in any other biographical work ; with a preface. Volume 3"

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A 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


OF 


ENGLAND
 


;jFrout iSgl1ert tfJe 
re4t to tfJr ltebolutiott: 


CONSISTIÑG OF 


CHARACTERS DISPOSED IN'DIFFERENT CLASSES, 


AND ADAPTED TO 


A l\IETHODICAL CATALOGUE OF ENGRAVED BRITISH HEADS: 


I
TENDED AS 


AN ESSAY TOWARDS REDUCING OUR BIOGRAPHY TO SYSTEl\I, A
D 
A HELP TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF PORTRAITS: 


INTERSPERSED WITH 


A VARIET"\
 OF ANECDOTES, 


AND 


MEMOIRS OF A GREAT NUMBER OF PERSONS 
. - , 
NOT TO BE FOUND IN ANY OTHER BIOGRAPHICAL WORK. 


"TITH A PREFACE, 


f'HEWING THE UTILITY OF A COLLECTION OF ENGRAVED PORTRAITS TO SUPPLY THE 
DEFECT, AND ANSWER THE VARIOUS PURPOSES, OF MEDALS. 


BY THE REV. J. GRANGER, 
\ ICAR OF SHIPLAKE, I:"i OXFORDS HIRE. 


Animom pictorâ pascit inani.-VIRG. 
Celebrare domestica facta.-HoR. 


FIE' THE D I T ION, 


nUll l1P\\ARDS OF FOUR HUNDRED ADDlTIO
AL U\ES. 


IN SIX VOLUMES: 
VOL. III. 


LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR \VILLIAl\I BAYNES AND SON, 
PATERN"OSTER ROW: 
-\7\lJ SULD UY W. CLARKE, NEW BOND STREET; J. I\IAJOR FLEET STREET' J Aì\D J ARC 
C'ORNIJILL: J. PARK ER, OXFORD: DEIGHTO
 A 
D SONS, CAI\JBRIVG
" II, 
H. S. HAYI\ESAI'\J) CO. EDINBURGH; A
D R.M. TlJ\IS, DPDLfN. 


1824. 



Printed by J. F. ÐOVE, St. .T ulm's Square. 



A 


BIOGRAPHICAL 


HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 


REIGN OF CHARLES I. CONTINUED. 


CLASS v. 


COMMONERS IN GREAT EMPLOYMENTS. 


SIR JOHN COKE, secretary of state. G. White J. 
h. sh. mezz. 


SIR JOHN COKE, &c. Sturt sc. 8vo. 


Sir John Coke, master of requests, was, upon the death of Sir 
Albert Moreton, preferred to the office of secretary of state. He 
was a man of considerable experience; and from long habit, more 
than from any extraordinary natural abilities, became a good pro- 
ficient in politics, as far as they related to this kingdonl: but as to 
foreign interests and connexions, the knowledge of which must 
ever have been essential to the secretary's office, he was totally 
ignorant. He was removed from his place to make room for Sir 
Henry Vane, the elder, who was promoted by the interest of the 
queen. 


SIR FRANCIS WINDEBANK,. secretary of 
state. P. Paul (De Wìlde),. an etching. 


VOL. III. 


B 



2 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


SIR FRANCIS 'VINDEBANK, ,vith John, lord 
Finch; s'JJzatl oval; sill;' Enp;lish verses; (Glover) 
scarce.' copied by Thane. 


Sir Francis \Vindebank, the secretary, was a creature of Laud's; 
a sufficient rèason for his being extremely obnoxious to the COln- 
n10ns. He was secretly suspected too of the crime of popery; and 
it was known that, from complaisance to the queen, and indeed in 
compliance with the king's Inaxims of government, he had granted 
n1any indulgences to Catholics, and had signed warrants for the par- 
don of priests, and their delivery from confinen1ent. Grimstone, a 
popular member called him, in the house, the very pander and 
broker to the whore of Babylon. Finding t.hat the scrutiny of the 
commons was pointed towards him, and being sensible that Eng- 
land was no longer a pl
ce of safety for men of his character, he 
suddenly made his escape into France.- Vide H ume. 


" SIR PHILIP PERCEVAL, knt. register of the 
court of wards, *" and one of the most honourable 
privy council to Charles I. born 1559, died 1647." 
Allt. TTandyclî p. C. Lenzpriere del. W. lIen. 70171S se. 
1738. Engraved for Lord Eg'JJlont"s "History of the 
House of Yvery." 
SIR PHILIP PERCEVAL, &c. Faberf.1743; 8vo. 
1nezz. enp;ravcdfoJ' Anderson's" Genealogy;" 8vo. 
Sir Philip Perceval, who, in the early part of his life, was too 
easily swayed by his passions, became afterward a man of a sedate 
and amiable character. He was a friend of virtue, and a lover of 
his country. He plunged deeply in business, and proved hinlself 
an able man in the management of his private affairs, and in every 
part of his conduct with regard to the public. He at first sided 
with the king, but shortly after, from what appeared to him 
honourable 11l0tives, warmly attached himself to the parliament. 
He appears to have had no conncxions with the independent party. 
He died the 10th of November, 1647, of a fever, occasioned by his 


.. In Ireland. 



OF ENGLAND. 


3 


perturbation of mind, from the prospect of those miseries which he 
apprehended would soon fall upon himself and his country. The 
parliament, then sitting, though his enemies, buried him at their 
own expense; and the celebrated primate Usher preached his 
funeral sermon. 


"D. BALTHAZAR GERBERIUS, Eques Aura- 
tus, primus, post renovatioúem Fæderis cunl I-lispa- 
niarum rege, anno 1630, a potentissimo et serenis- 
simo Carolo, Magnæ Britanniæ, Franciæ, et Hiberniæ 
rege, Bruxellas prolegatus; Ao. 1631, Æt. 42, 1634." 
Vandyck p. P. Pontius se. h. slz. 
SIR BALTHAZAR GERBIER, "vith his wife and 
children. P. P. Rubens,. lffc Ardell. 


The late Prince of 'Va]es had the fan1Ïly of Gerbier, a fine ori- 
ginal, by Vandyck, which had successively passed under the names 
of several English families, but was, at last, ascertained by Vertue, 
with this, and another portrait.*' The picture is still in the king's 
collection, at Buckinghmn-house, and has been engraved frOIn a 
drawing of Edwards, by 'Valker, in a large sheet. Sir Samson 
Gideon has a painting of the same family, but different. 
Balthazar Gerbier, a native of Antwerp, came into England in 
the late reign. He attended the king, when prince of 'Vales, and 
the Duke of Buckingham, into Spain; and was secretly an agent 
in the treaty of marriage with the infanta, though he only appeared 
in the character of a painter. In 1628, Charles conferred upon him 
the honour of knighthood, and afterward employed him at the 
court of Brussels, where he was resident several years. See more 
of him in the Class of ARTISTS. 


MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 


EDWARD HYDE, esq. after\vard Sir Edward 
II yde, and earl of Clarendon, a distinguished n1em- 


.. II Anecdotcs of Painting," II. p. 66, 67, 
d edit. 



4 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


ber of the House of Commons. The heads of him 
belong to the reign of Charles II. 


We see, in the instance of the celebrated person before us, as 
well as in many others, that the exertion of genius depends more 
upon chance or opportunity, than upon nature itself. The divisions 
and distractions of his country called forth the talents of this ex- 
cellent man. He had a principal share as a speaker, a writer, and 
an actor, in the transactions of this reign; and was thereby quali- 
fied to enlich the world with one of the best histories it ever saw. 


JOHN PYM, esq. Bower p. Gloverf. 8vo. 
JOHANNES PV1\I, Edelman, &c. Bower p. Copicd 
from Glover. C. Visscher e..l'cud. 


Maistre PrN (Pym), &c. in a fur gown; 4to. a 
scarce and curious print. 


JOHN PYl\I, esq. Houbraken sc. In the possession of 
Tlzonzas Hales, esq. Illust. Head. 
JOHN PYl\I, esq. Hollar f. snzalloval. 
JOHN PYl\I, esq. Vallderguclzt sc. 8vo. 


John Pym, esq. member for Tavistock, in Devonshire, was the 
greatest leader of the House of Commons in the Long Parliament. 
He was a remarkable instance of what strength of parts and force 
of eloquence could effect. He was commonly called" King Pym," 
and seemed alone capable of overturning the throne. His personal 
weight was superior to authority; but he was thought by many to 
have made a very ill use of his power. His intent was to reform, 
not to abolish, the government; but he was a principal engine in 
bringing about a revolution which he never intended, and which 
he did not live to see. He died of an imposthume in his bowe]s, *" 


.. Birch's II Lives of Illust. Persons," p. 80. Lord Clarendon, and the author 
of the" Mercuriu5 RUSlicus," say, that he died of the l\lorbu5 pediculosus. 



OF ENGLAND. 


5 


the 8th of December, 1643. His excessive application to public 
affairs, is supposed to have hastened his death. 


JOHANNES HAMPDEN, vindex libertatis. 
Audrall ð'C. De picta tabella apud virul1z illustrern 
Richardunz Ellys baronettul1l; h. she In Peck's " Life 
of Milton." 


JOHN HAl\IDEN; in al'"17Zour. Houbraken sc. 1740; 
Illust. Head. This is not from the same picture* as 
the above, which represents him younger. 


JOHN HAlYIDEN; oval, in a square franze; 4to. 
Baldlvin, 1813. 


JOHN HAl\iDEN, esq. .1J1". Vanderg'ucht sc. 8vo. 


John Harnden received the honourable appellation of Patriot 
Harnden, for his spirited and judicious defence of the laws and 
liberties of his country, in opposition to the illegal and opprf'ssive 
tax of ship-money. He argued the case with the judges for twelve 
days together, in the exchequer chamber, and had more reason to 
triumph, from his superiority in the argument, than the crown had 
for its victory in the cause. He had the command of a regiment 
of foot in the civil war, and received his death's wound, bravtly 
fighting, in Chalgrave-field, in Oxfordshire. He was regarded by 
his friends as a martyr to liberty. Baxter has therefore placed him 
with the saints in heaven,t and Lord Cobham with the worthies 


· It does not appear that there is any authentic picture of Harnden. Sir Richard 
Ellys is said to have bought an old painting at a stall, and called it by his name. 
The late 
Ir. Hollis told me, that he has made particular inquiry after a genuine 
portrait of him, to have it engraved, and that he could never find an undoubted 
original.f 
t U Saint's Everlasting Rest," p. 82, 83. 



 At Hampden-house in Bucks, there is a small bust of him in ivory, well ex- 
ecuted, and supposed to have been òone in his lifetime; it exhibits a thin Jong- 
visaged man with whiskcrs.-BnmLEY. 



6 


. 
BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


in his Elysium at Stow.* His patrÌotism has been suspected; 
and indeed it appears not to have been without ambiti.on; but pa- 
triotisI11 it unùoubtedly was. t Db. June 24, 1643. 


SIR HENRY VANE, the elder; fron/; an orig'inat 
drawing;. R. (:'ooper SC. 4to. 


This active statesman, who may be considered as the founder of 
the fortunes of the earls of Darlington, was the eldest son and heir 
of Henry Fane (as the name was then written), o(Hadlow, in Kent, 
esq. by his second wife, l\largaret Twisden. His father haying a 
command in the forces sent by Queen Elizabeth, in 1596, to the 
assistance of Henry IV. of France, died at Rouen, soon after his 
arrival, when his son was in the seventh year of his age.-At 
seventeen, he received the honour of knighthood from King 
James I. after which, he visited several parts of Europe with con- 
siderable improvement; and on his return, was elected member for 
Carlisle. His abilities and exertions, on some interesting question, 
having attracted the notice of the court, he obtained the office of 
cofferer in the household of Prince Charles, whose accession to 
the throne, in 1625, he notified, in quality of envoy to the states- 
general. 
The responsibility, which he had taken upon himself, with others 
for large loans obtained for the king, when prince of ,\7 ales, seems 
to have materially influenced his advancement. In 1630" being a 
privy-counsellor and comptroller of the household, he was sent to 
the continent, in order to renew the treaty of friendship and con- 
federacy with the kings of Denmai'k and Sweden, and the Ger- 
man princes in alliance with the latter. The chief object of this 
Inission was to procure the reinstatement of the elector palatine, 
kino- of I Bohelnia, in his dominion and dignities; but the fall of 
t:) 


· Under his bust is this inscri ption : 


U JOHN HAMDEN, 


u \Vho with great spirit. and cons.umn
ate abi.lities, began a noble opposit!on to .an 
arbitrary court, in defence of the liberties of Ills country; supported them In parlia- 
ment, and died for them in the field." 
t If tbe virtues of patriots and heroes were abstracted from vanity and ambition, 
they would shrink into a very narrow compass: unmixed virtues arc almost as rare 
as unmixed :mbstances. 



OF ENGLAND. 


7 


Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Lutzen, and the death of the 
unfortunate Frederick, both which events happened in November, 
1632, diminished the regret which the failure of Sir Henry's nego- 
tiations had doubtless occasioned. On his arrival in England, he 
was included in the commission for executing the office of lord 
lJigh-admiral.-In 1633, he attenrled the king to Scotland; and, 
on the royal progress, entertained the sovereign and his suite at 
Raby Castle. We find hinI named in many special commissions 
of high importance frOlll that period until 1639, when he was ap- 
pointed treasurer of the household, and, soon afterward, principal 
secretary of state for life. 
The king was so much offended by the part taken by Sir Henry 
Vane, in the prosecution of Strafford,'" that he removed him frOln 
his pìaces of treasurer of his household, and also from being secre- 
tary of state, though in the patent granting that office to him, he 
was to hold it during life: and thereupon, the parliament, when 
they raised their army, and published their declaration, avowed" it 
was only for tbe defence of the king's person, and the religion, 
liberties, and laws of the kingdom, and for those, who for their 
sakes, and .for those ends, had observed their orders." That by 
the instigation of evil counsellors, the king had raised an army of 
Papists, by which he intended to awe, and destroy the parJianIent, 
&c. and the putting out the Earl of Northumberland, Sir Henry 
Vane, and others from their several places and employments, were 
sufficient and ample evidences thereof. 
It does not appear, that he was concerned in any measure 
against the king, but continued in London, without acting in the 
rebellion. And on the 1st of December, 1645, the parliament de- 
bating on propositions of peace with the king, voted," That it be 
recommended to his majesty to create Sir Henry Vane, senior, a 
baron of the 
ingdoln; he lamenting the unhappy state of the 
nation in those times of confusion, and was not in any cOlnmission 
or employment under the parliament." In July, 1645, his castle 
of Raby was surprised by the king's forces, frOln Bolton Castle; 
but were again closely blocked up, by forces raised by Sir Henry 
Vanc, his son. 
Before the death of the king, he retired to his seat at Raby 


· Lord Clarendon attributes the presumed revengeful conduct of Vane, to this 
circumstance, that the Earl of Strafford had chosen for his second title that of Baron 
Raby, of Raby Castle, which estate belonged to Sir Henry Vane. 



8 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


Castle
 neither he nor his sons being concerned therein, but 
opposed it all that lay in their power. Lord Clarendon makes out, 
his growing at last into the hatred and contempt of those who had 
made most use of him; but it may more justly be represented, that 
he discovered the vile use they made of their power, and con- 
temning them, chose retirement. He lived to the latter end of the 
year 1654, when he died at his seat, Raby Castle, in the sixty-ninth 
year of his age. 


SIR HENRY VANE. P. Lely p. Houbraken sc. 
1742; Itlust. Head. Tile original was in the collectio'll. 
of the Earl of Olford, who gave it to the Earl of Dar- 
lingtoll. 
SIR HENRY VANE, knight, of Raby Castle, by 
Faithorne, but 'lvithout his nalne,. in an oval of foliage; 
4to. Before his " Life." 


SIR HENRY VANE, the younger; froln an oriÆ'inal 
painting'; 8vo. 


SIR HENRY VANE; in ðVmollett. Grignion sc. 


SIR HEKRY VANE; in Literary Magazine. Conde, 
1792. 


SIR HENRY VANE. R. Coopel
 sc. 4to. 


Sir Henry Vane, a chief of the independent party, and a pnncI- 
pal leader of the House of Commons, was one of those singular 
characters that are seen but once in an age, and such an age as 
that of Charles I. It is hard to say whether he was a more fantastic 
visionary, or profound politician. He did not, like the generality 
of enthusiasts, rely supinely on heaven, as if he expected every 
thing from thence; but exerted himself, as if he entirely depended 
on his own activity. His enthusiasln seems never to have precipi- 
tated him into injudicious measures, but to have added new powers 
to his natural sagacity. He mistook his deep penetration for a pro- 



OF ENGLAND. 


!) 


phetic spirit, and the light of his genius for divine irradiation. The 
Solemn League and Covenant was the issue of his prolific brain, 
which teemed with new systems of politics and religion. He pre- 
served a uniformity of character to the last, and died in expectation 
of the crown of martyrdom. Beheaded the 14th of June, 1662. 
See the Interregnum, Class IX. 
DENZIL HOLLES possessed, in a high degree, that intrepidity 
for which his family has been remarkable. He was very active in 
parliament, as long as the Presbyterians, of whom he was regarded 
as the leader, had any sway. That party, for a considerable time, 
went hand in hand with the Independents; but towards the conclu- 
sion of the war, they separated, and hated each other with all the 
ani
osity of brot
ers. See the next reign, Class III. 


" EDW ARDUS DERING, de Surenden Dering, 
in comitatu Cantii, n1iles et baronettus : pro comitatu 
prædicto miles ad parliamentum, 1640." C. JohnsoJl]). 
G. GI:Jver sc. Frontisp. to his "Speeches in 'Jnatters of 
Relig'ìoJl," 1640; 4to. 


ED'VARDUS DERING, &c. Copied from the above. 
Moncornet eL
'C. 4to. 


SIR ED'V AH.D DERING. Hollal" f. a slnall oval. 
ED'V ARDUS DERING, &c. 12nw. 


Sir Edward Dering, a man of parts and eloquence, was a great 
friend to the constitution, and no less an enemy to the exorbitancies 
of the adlninistration. He entered with zeal into the business of 
reforming abuses; but was carried by his vanity further than he at 
first intended to go. His principal motive, according to Lord Cla- 
rendon, for bringing the bill for extirpating bishops, deans, and 
chapters, into the House of Commons, was the application of two 
lines of Ovid,. which he thought a very pretty introduction to an 


· Cuncta prius telltandu, sed irnmedicabile vulnus 
Ense recidcndum est, ne pars sincera trahatur. 
II Metamorph." lib. I. ver. 190, 191. 
VOL. Ill. C 



10 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


harangue.. Upon the erection of the royal standard at Notting.. 
ham, he entered into the service of the king, raised a regiment of 
horse at his own expense, and commanded it in person. He ap- 
peal's to have been loyal from principle, though some imputed his 
loyalty to levity. He was a great sufferer in the royal cause, by 
imprisonment, sequestration, and plunder. Echard says that he 
entered into priest's orders, and became" an earnest suitor for the 
deanery of Canterbury; but being disappointed, turned again from 
the king, and ended his days in obscurity."t This is of very doubt- 
ful authority; justice seems to be done to his memory, in an ano- 
nymous letter, published by Hearne, at the end of his preface to 
" Tho. Sprotti Chronica." 


JOHN SELDEN, the learned lawyer, was sometimes a speaker 
in parliament against the court, and great attention was always 
paid hirn on account of his excellent knowledge of the constitution. 
He pleaded, as counsel for Harnden, in the famous trial concerning 
ship-money; was very active against the Earl of Strafford and 
Archbishop Laud; and a principal instrument in depriving the 
bishops of their votes. See the next Class. 


EDMUND \V ALLER, who had a rich vein of eloquence, as well 
as poetry, distinguished himself as a speaker in parliament, before 
he arrived at the age which is now requisite for admission into that 
great assembly. See Class IX. 


OLIVER CROMWELL, who had been long used to farming 
in the country, made a very uncouth appearance at his first coming 
into the House of Comnlons.t " Who (says Dr. South) that had 
beheld such a bankrupt, beggarly fellow as Cromwell, first entering 
the parliament-house, with a thread-bare torn doak, and a greasy 
hat (and perhaps neither of them paid for), could have suspected, 
that in the space of so few years, he should, by the murder of one 
king, and the banishment of another, af:cend the throne, be invested 


· His voice was remarltably sonorous and agreeable; he was, therefore, called the 
Sih'er Trumpet, at the bar of the House of Commons. 
t " History of England," p. 609. 
* See a picturesque description of his p
rson, in Sir Philip \Varwick's Memoirs," 
p. 427. 



OF ENGLAND. 


11 


in the royal robes, and want nothing of the state of a king, but the 
changing of his hat into a crown.". 


SIR JOHN HOTHAM, (a n1ember of the House 
of Commons) governor of Hull; on horseback,. large 
4lo. rare. 


SIR JOHN HOTHAl\I, &c. on horseback; snzall 4to. 
sold by P. Stent. 


S J R J 0 H 
 HOTHA 1.1, on horseback; 4to. Richardson. 


SIR JOHN HOTHAJ\I; ditto. Harding. 


SIR JOHN HOTHAl\1; oval. Thane. 


SIR JOHN HOTHAl\I; whole length, standing' In a 
room,. view of Hull, 
c. rare. 


Sir John Hotham, a man of a timid and irresolute nature, and 
without any firm principles of attachment to the king or parliament, 
was, by the latter, appointed governor of the town of Hull, the most 
considerable magazine of arms and ammunition in the kingdom. 
Charles, perceiving to what lengths the commons were proceeding, 
was determined to seize this fortress; but was peremptorily refused 
admittance, when he appeared before it in person, by the governor, 
who was instantly proclaimed a traitor. Though Hotham was em- 
ployed, he was not trusted: his son, who was much more devoted 
to the parliament, was a constant check and spy upon him. At 
length, both father and son were prevailed upon to listen to the 
overtures of some of the royalists, and to enter into a correspon. 
dence with them. This quickly brought them to the block. They 
died unlamented by either pa
ty; and were, by many, regarded 
as victims to the just vengeance of heaven, rather than martyrs to 
the royal cause. Db. Jan. 1644-5. 


.. " Sermons," I. p. 311. As Dr. South wag a severe satirist, we must makc 
some allowance for this description, which he has made somewhat outré to anSWCl 
his purpose. 



: 


Promoted 
Nov. 1. 
1625. 
Created a 
baron tbe 
10th of 
April. 
1628. 


. 


12 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


CLAS S VI. 


MEN OF THE ROBE. 


THOMAS, lord Coventry, lord-keeper. J. HOll- 
broken sc. 174]. In the possession of Willia1Jz Cooper, 
esq. II/list. Head. 


THOl\IAS COVENTRY, &c. 
fa]"tin D. (roeshout) se. 
4to. 


THOl\IAS COVENTRY, &c. C. Johnson p. Vander- 
Æueht se.. 8vo. There is a good portrait of him at 
Lord IIyde's: it came from Cornbury. 


THO::\1AS, lord Coventry. Gardiner'sc. 4to. 
THOl\IAS, lord Coventry. Elstracke sc. 


THOl\IAS, lord Coventry; in Park's "Noble 
A llthor s." 


THOMAS, first lord Coventry, lord-keeper. J. S. 
Agar se. 1815 ; front the original of Cornelius Jansen, 
in the collection of the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Clarendon,. ill Lodge's " Illustrious Portraits." 


It was the singular felicity of the lord-keeper Coventry to have 
raised himself to his high office, by his great knowledge of the 
laws; to have adorned it by the most exact and impartial correction 
of the abuses of them; and to have died when law and equity 
were themselves hastening to a dissolution. Db. 14 Jan. 1639440. 
Dorothy, his youngest daughter, wife of Sir John Packington, of 
'tYestwood, in W orcestershire, was supposed to be the author of 



OF ENGLAND. 


13 


" The Whole Duty of Man." It is certain that a copy of it in her 
hand-writing, was found at Westwood.* 


JOHN FINCH, lord Finch, of Fordwich (lord- 
keeper). E. Bower p. Hollar f. a sUlal1 oval. 
There is a small neat print of him and Sir Francis 
Windebank, with" Finch's wings, flying to a '''indy 
Bank:" i. e. to Sir :Francis Windebank; rare. 


JOHN FINCH, lord Finch, &c.fae-sìl1zìle copy of the 
above. J. Thane. 


JOHN, lord Finch; wood-cut; standing' betuJeenAreh- 
bishop Lalld, and Alder1Jzan Abel
' in HaY1vood's curious 
tract, " Reader, here you'll plainly see," Sse. See Abel, 
Class XII. 


JOHN FINCH, lord Finch. C. Jansen. (Vertuc.) 
In Clarendon's "History," 8vo. 
The character of Lord Finch was just the reverse of that of his 
predecessor. He was one of those men, who, with some parts, and 
more vanity, fancy themselves quaJified for the highest offices, 
without the due methods of study and preparation. He wrested 
the laws to a perverse meaning, to answer the purposes of a 


Promoted 
23 Jan. 
1639-40. 


· Ballard's II l\femoirs." 
'Villiam Chappel, bishop öf Cork and Ross in Ireland, was, by some, supposed 
to be the author of that excellent book. It has also been attributed to the arch- 
bishops Frewen and Sterne. 
At p. 74, of Oldfield's II Divine Discourses," it is said, that \Villiam Fulman, a 
native of Penshnrst, in Kent, and amanuensis to Dr. Hammond, was the author of 
it; but in the preface prefixed to the folio edition of the author of " The \Vhole 
Duty of :l\fan's \V orks," printed in 1684, it is plainly signified that the author was 
then dead: he, therefore, could not be Fulman, who undoubtedly died in 1688.t 
This book and Dr. Hammond's "Practical Catechism," seem to have been the 
main props of our religion after the restoration of Charles II. 


t See 'V ood, ii. co!. 824. See more on this subject in Ballard's "l\Iemoirs," 
Article PACKHWTON. 



14 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


despotic court; and was ever an advocate for ship-lnoney, or any 
other illegal imposts. Soon after the meeting of the Long Parlia- 
ment, the apprehension of being brought to severe justice, hurried 
him into a foreign country, and he died in exile. 


SIR EDWARD LITTLETON, lord chief-justice 
of the Con11llon Pleas, after\vard lord Littleton of 
Mounslow in Salop, lord-keeper of the great seal. 
A. Vandyck p. (Faitlzor'ne.) Peake e.rc. scarce. 


SIR ED'V ARD l..ITTLETON, &c. Vandyck p. R. Wil- 
lia'l7lsf. lz. sh. 'Jnez::;. 


This print, which is well executed, was extremely scarce. 1\lr. 
'Valpole and the late Mr. 'Vest had the only proofs* that I had 
seen before the first edition of this work was printed. I have since 
seen several, in other collections. 


SIR ED'V ARD LITTLETON, &C. Voerst sc. 


ED,\r AnD LITTLETON, &c. lord-keeper. Peake 
h. s/z. 


EDV_-\RDUS LITTLETON, &c. W. Faithorlle, 'lDzthout 
his nanzc,. sold by Robert Peake,. suzall oval; scarce. 
EDVARDUS LITTLETO
, &c. R. TVhzte; fol. 


ED"r ARD LITTLETO
, &c. 8vo. in Clarendon. 


Lord-keeper LITTLETON; lit" l\Toble Authors," by 
Mr. Parh'. 


.. It may not be improper here to inform some of my readers, that (I proof-pT'&lIt 
is one of the first that are taken from a copper-plate. Il is generally known by the 
strength and clearness of the impre!!sion, and having no inscription, which is sup- 
posed to be added aftcrward. But a p'l'Ooj: simply, is used for any print wrought 
off from a copper-platc, and answers to a copy of a book wrought off at the printing. 
press. 



OF ENGLAND. 


15 


ED'VAHD LITTLETON, &c. lord-keeper. 5
ent; 
12JJlo. 
There is an original of him in the long gallery at Gorhambury. 
Edward, lord Littleton, descended from the famous Judge Lit- 
tleton, author of the" Tenures," and was himself as eminent a 
lawyer. "His very name," says Lloyd, "carried an hereditary credit 
with it ;"* and the world knows, that the credit of it was never 
carried higher than it was by the late lord. Sir Edward Coke, who 
was far from being inclined to speak too favourably of any person 
of his own profession, styled him "a well poised and weighed 
man;" and he is well known to have held the balance of justice 
even, when there was the greatest need of a steady hand. As 
long as he kept the seal, he was careful never to Inisapp1y it: anu 
when he could keep it no longer, he, with his own hands, delivered 
it to the king. He died the 27th of August, 1645, and was then 
colonel of a regiment of foot in Oxford. His principal work is 
his" Rer,orts," published in 1683 1 folio. 


Promoted 
23 Jan. 
1640-1. 
Created 
baron, 
18 Feb. 2 
8 Car. I. 


RANULPHUS CRE'V, eques auratus, DUper 
capitalis justiciarius ad placita coram rege tenenda 
assignatus. 
 Hollar f.. 1664. This, and several 
other good heads 
f judges, by Hollar, are in Sir 
'Villiam Dugdale's" Origines Juridiciales ;" fol. 
Sir Randolph Crew was, in 1626, removed from his place, for 
not promoting the loan. His example was followed by two or 
three only of the judges. The rest ,vere willing to keep their 
places; and soothed their consciences, by altering a clause in their 
patent:t as if there were any material difference betwixt breaking, 
laws already made, and making new ones without proper authority. 
Sir Randolph died in 1642. 


Promoted 
26 Jan. 
1624. 


ROBERTUS HEATH, justiciarius, &c. Hollarf. 
h. sll. ubi supra. 
There is a portrait of him in the master's lodge, at St. John's 
College, in Cambridge. 


· cc State ,V orthies," p. 1003. 
t May's U Breviary of the Hist. of the Par!." p.7. 



Promoted 
26 Oct. 
1631. 


164!. 


Promoted 
3 May, 
1617. 


16 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


SIR ROBERT IIEATH. J. Thane. 


Sir Robert Heath was, by the interest of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, made attorney-general in the reign of James 1.;* and in that 
of Charles, constituted lord chief-justice of the Common Pleas. In 
October, 1634, he was removed from his office, and ,vas, in 1640, 
made a justice of the King's Bench. Lloyd speaks of him as a 
man of a conscientious character; but he is contradicted by other 
writers. His words are," When he doubted his Inajesty was ad- 
vised to press too much upon the subjects, he, rather than go 
against his conscience, quitted his place of chief-justice of the 
King's Bench."t According to the Earl of Clarendon, he was made 
lord chief-justice of that court, to attaint the Earl of Essex, and 
Inany others, who were then in arms against the king.! It is 
certain, whatever his character was, that he was obnoxious to the 
parliament, and that he fled into France. He died at Calais in 
1649, Æt. 75. He was author of " Maxims and Rules of Plead- 
ing," 1694; 8vo. 


SIR RICHARD HUTTON,ol)e of the justices 
of the I(Ìng's Bench. W Hollarf. a s'llzalloval. 


Sir Richard Hutton, who looked with more reverence upon the 
laws than upon the king, pleaded for Hamden in the famous case 
of ship-money. Charles, who knew his inflexible character, still 
continued to call him "The honest judge." This excellent lawyer, 
and good man, died in February, 1638. He made it his request, 
that no sermon should be preached at his funeral, though many 
of the clergy were very ready to do that justice for him. His 
virtues, which could not be concealed, sufficiently spoke for them- 


. Sir Anthony \V f'ldon tells us, that Sir Robert Heath and Lord Bacon paid 
l)cnsions to the Duke of Buckingham, out of their places: but we must be cautious 
in giving credit to this author, who was inclined to think and believe too much ill 
of mankind, always to do them justice.- u Court and Character of King James," 
p. 129. 
t U l\iemoirs," p. 584. He was not then chief-justice of the King's Bench. 
See the H Summary of the Hist. of England," at the end of H Rapin's Hist." See 
also the " Lives of the Chancellors," Artic. FINCH. 
t Clarendon, II. p. 42. He is there said to have succeeded Sir John Bram- 
stone, who was lord chief-justice of the King's Bench. 



OF ENGLAND. 


17 


selves.. His" Argument," &c. concerning ship-money, was pub- 
lished in quarto, 1641. His" Reports" have been twice printed; 
the last edition in 1682, fo!' 


GULIELMUS JONES, eques auratus, et utri- 
usque banci justiciarius. W. 
ïzfßrwin SC. Before his 
" Reports ;" Jol. 
Sir William Jones was of eminent skill in the municipal laws ; but 
his memory suffers on account of his open judgment for ship-money; 
the unhappy c.onsequences of which he did not live to see. He 
was author of " Reports of divers special Cases in the King's 
Bench and Common Pleas, from the eighteenth of King James r. 
to the sixteenth of King Charles I." in French, folio. This book 
is cited as First Jones's Reports, to distinguish it from the Reports 
of Sir Thomas Jones, who flourished in the reign of Charles II. 
Ob. 1640. 


Promoted 
to the Com- 
mon Pleas, 
the 16th of 
Oct. 1624. 
To tbe 
King' ! 
Bench, the 
3d of April, 
1627. 


GEORGIUS CROKE, eques auratus, et utriusque 
banci justiciarius. Vaughan ð'C. h. sh. 
SIR GEORGE CRook (Croke). Hollar J. a s1Jzall 
oval. 


GEORGIUS CROKE. Gaywoodf. h.sh. 
GEORGI US CROKE. R. White SC. h. sh. 


This, and the other heads, are before his " Reports." 


4\1 I would have every man's virtues do the same; and am not at all concerned 
that funeral sermons are now disused; though I have good materials of that kind 
by me, and the practice of preaching them would be a considerable augmentation 
of a small vicarage. It is always expected that something handsome should be said 
of the deceased; and it is sometimes impossible for a preacher to satisfy his con- 
science, and the expecting part of his audience. I was lately credibly informed, 
that an honest clergyman in the country was obiiged to preach a sermon at the fu- 
neral of a person who had very few virtues to counterbalance a great number of no- 
torious vices; and that he summed up a very ambiguous panegyric on him, which 
consisted almost wholly of negatives, by saying, that H As the world goes, be was a 
tolerably honest man." 
'VOL. III. D 



Promoted 
to the Com- 
mon Plea! 
the 11th of 
Feb. 1623. 
To the 
King's 
Bench, the 
9th of Oct. 
1628. 


18 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


SIR GEORGE CROKE. Crossse. 1664; to the "Con- 
veyancer's Light." 


Sir George Croke, son of Sir John Croke of Chilton, in Bucking- 
hamshire, joined to a very uncommon natural capacity, all the in- 
dustry requisite to make a figure in his profession; and what was 
more to his honour than both, an invincible integrity. He pleaded 
with his usual ability against ship-money; and his arguments in 
that case are publised with Sir Richard Hutton's. He died the 
15th of February, 1641. His" Reports," in three volumes, folio, 
were published after his decease, by Sir Harbottle Grimston, 
his son-in-law: the third edition was printed 1683. Of the same 
family was - Croke, esq. of Chilton, who was notorious for 
swearing a robbery against Mr. Robert Hawkins, the parson of his 
parish, with whom he had a quarrel about tithes. The trial, which 
contains a curious relation of much artful villany, and as artful 
a discovery of it by Sir Matthew Hale, the judge, is in print. 


SIR THOMAS MALLET. Cooper se. 4to. fro111 
a drawing in the King's " Cla1"endon." 
Sir Thomas Mallet, one of the judges appointed by King Charles 
the First, coming under the displeasure of the House of Commons 
for only being reported to have seen a petition from the county of 
Kent, "that the militia might not be otherwise exercised in that 
county, than the known law permitted; and that the book of Com- 
mon Prayer, established by law, might be observed ;" was, by the 
house, committed prisoner to the Tower, but shortly after regaining 
his liberty, in the summer circuit sat as judge of assize at Maid- 
stone, when some members of the House of Commons, under 
the title of a committee of parliament, came to the bench; and, 
producing some votes, orders, and declarations of one or both 
houses of parliament, required of him that they should be read. 
He told them" that he sat there by virtue of his majesty's commis- 
sions, and that he was authorized to do any thing comprised in 
those commissions; but he had no authority to do any thing else; 
and, therefore, there being no mention, in either of his commissions, 
of those papers, or the publishing any thing of that nature, he 
could not, and would Dot do it." Finding no respect paid by the 
judge -to their mission, the committee returned to the ho
se, where 



OF ENGLAND. 


19 


they represented Judge Mallet " as the fomenter and protector of 
a malignant faction against the parliament." Upon this charge, a 
troop of horse was sent to attend an officer; who came with a war- 
rant from the houses to Kingston, in Surrey, where the judge was 
holding the general assizes for the county; and in a forcible and 
violent Inanner took him from the bench, and carried him prisoner 
to 'Vestminster; from whence, by the two houses, he was com- 
mitted to the Tower of London, w bere he remained for the space 
of above two years, witbout ever being cbarged with any particular 
crime, till he was released by exchange of another person, wbose 
liberation the parliament desired. 


SIR ROBERT BARKLEY (BERKELEY), one of 
the justices of the King's Bench. W. Hollar f. a s1nall 
oval. 


SIR ROBERT BERKELEY, knt. from an orig;inal 
picture in the possession of Robert Berkeley, esq. of 
Spetchly, his great-grandson. G. Powle f. 8vo. Tile 
print exactly corresponds with the picture, which is ajust 
likeness of him. 


SIR ROBERT BERKELEY. Cross sc. 1664; in the 
title to the" Conveyancer's Light." 
SIR ROBERT_ BARKLEY; small oval. w: Richardson. 


SIR ROBERT BERKELEY, with Alderman Abel; 
wood-cut; curious. His monument in Spetchly church, 
engraved also by Powle, is in Dr. Nash's "History 
of 'V orcestershire." 


Sir Robert Berkeley, who was the second son of Rowland 
Berkeley, esq. of Spetchly, in Worcestersbire, was, by tbe female 
line, descended from Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, who 
flourished in the reign of Henry IV. and V. As he lived in an age 
when the genius of the government had a 
trong tendency to des.. 


Promoted 
the 11th of 
Oct. 1632. 



20 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


potism, when the prerogative had been exerted upon almost every 
emergency, and when the judges held their places during the plea- 
sure of the king, he, with eleven of his brethren,. gave his opinion 
for ship-money; and, if we may judge from the tenor of his con- 
duct in private life, as well as upon the bench, from honest motives. 
As he had been active in what he seems to have thought his duty, 
and was a man of fortune, he was singled out by the parliauwnt as 
a proper object of their vengeance. He was impeached of high- 
treason, and adjudged to pay a fine of 20,000l. to be deprived of 
his office of judge, and rendered incapable of holding any place, or 
receiving any honour in the state or commonwealth; he was, 
moreover, to be imprisoned in the Tower during the pleasure of the 
House of Lords. Having made some " satisfaction" for his fine to 
the parliament, he was, by their authority, discharged from the 
whole, and set at liberty, after he had been upwards of seven 
months in the Tower. He afterward suffered greatly by the plun- 
derings and exactions of the rebels; and a little before the battle 
. -of Worcester, the Presbyterians, though engaged in the king's ser- 
vice, retained their ancient animosity against him, and burnt his 
house at Spetchly to the ground. He afterward converted the 
stables into a dwelling-house, and lived with content, and even 
dignity, upon the wreck of his fortune. He was a true son of the 
church of England, and suffered more from the seduction of his 
only son Thomas to the church of Rome, at Brussels, than from all 
the calamities of the civil war. He died on the 5th of August, 
1656, in the seventy-second year of his age. Some of his descend- 
ants are now in a flourishing state, at Spetchly, in 'V orcestershire. t 
I am credibly infornled, that a great deal of his face has been 
transmitted to his posterity. 


SIR JOHN BRAMSTON. Cooper sc. 4lo. ft
oln 
a drawing" in the King's " Clarendon." 


Sir John Bramston, a man of great learning and integrity, was 
made chief-justice of the King's Bench, in this reign, but without 
any purpose of disfavour was by the king removed from that office, 


· Namely, John Bramston, John Finch, Humphry Davenport, John Denham, 
Richard Hutton, William Jones, George Croke, Thomas Trevor, George Vemon, 
Francis Crawley, and Richard Weston. 
t Flom authentic papers communicated by John Berkeley, of Charlton, esq. 



OF ENGLAND. 


21 


in order to make way for Justice Heath to sit upon a commission 
of Oyer and Terminer, to attaint the Earl of Essex, and many other 
persons (who were in rebellion) of high-treason. The reason of 
Sir John for declining this duty was, because he stood bound by 
recognizance to attend the parliament, upon an accusation depend- 
ing there against him. 
Sir Jolin Bramston, it appears, was never out of favour with the 
parliament; for in one of the humble addresses of both houses to 
the king at Oxford, presented by the Earl of Northumberland, one 
of the requests was, that his majesty would be pleased by his , 
letters patent, to make Sir John Bramston chief-justice of the 
court of King's Bench: but it does not appear he ever acted in 
that capacity after the appointment of Chief-justice Heath to that 
office. 


SIR JOHN GLANVILLE, Æt. 55, 1640, speaker 
of the House of Commons in the short parlian1ent. 
Clanlp sc. 


SIR JOHN GLANVILLE; fol. 
 N. Gardinersc. 


Sir John Glanville, younger son of John Glanville, Qf Tavistock, 
in Devonshire, was bred an attorney, and studied the common law 
in Lincoln's Inn. He became an eminent counsellor, and was 
elected recorder of Plymouth, and burgess to serve that place in 
several parliaments.. He was Lent reader of Lincoln's Inn, and 
in 1639, made seljeant at law: the year following he was elected 
speaker for that parliament which begun on the 13th of April, 
in which he shewed himself active to promote the king's desires; 
and the same year he became one of the king's serjeants, being 
esteemed an excellent orator, and a good lawyer. In 1641 he re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood from his majesty at Whitehall; 
and when the king was forced to leave the parliament, he followed 
him to Oxford, and was very serviceable to him. In 1645 he lost 
his seat in parliament for his delinquency. He withdrew into 
retirement; but when the king's cause declined he was committed 


\ 
tit See his speech on the petition of right, ill the year 1628 (in Rushworth's Col- 
lections, vol. i. p. 574). It may be considered as one of the most nervous, and 
spirited, pieces of oratory in the English language. 



22 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTOR Y 


to prison; although on nlaking a composition he was released. 
In 1660, after the return of King Charles II. he was made his ser- 
jeant. He died 1661, and was buried in the church at Broad Kirton, 
in Wiltshire. See Harding's "Biographical Mirrour," " Wood's 
Fasti," &c. 


SIR WILLIAlVl NOY,* attorney-general. C.John- 
. son p. 8vo. 


WILLIAl\1 Nov, attorney-general to Charles I. 
large ruff. Before his" COJ7zpleat Lawyer;" 8vo. 


gIR WILLIAM: Noy, in a Van Dyck dress,' in an 
oval. H. Meyer, 4to. (Faithorne.) 


Promoted 
1631. 


William N oy, attorney-general, was, for his quick apprehension, 
solid judgment, and retentive memory, equal, at least, to any of the 
lawyers of his time. But with all these great, he had no amiable 
qualities; he was ill-natured, haughty, and unpolite. He had the 
principal hand in the most oppressive expedients for raising money 
for the king, and seems not to have had the least notion of public 
spirit. He was, in a word, a man of an enlarged head, and a con- 
tracted heart. t See an account of his learned and judicious works, 
in the" Athenæ Üxon." Ob. 9 August, 1634. 


· In Archbishop Laud's II Diary," where his death is noted, he is styled ]}lr. 
William Noy. 
t Howel informs us, that his heart was literally contracted; II that it was shrivelled 
like a leather penny purse, when he was dissected." See Howel's II Letter to Lord 
Savage," vol. i. p. 241, which contains some particulars relative to the above cha- 
racter.-l\fr. Hargrave, in his edit. of Coke upon Littleton, has the following note 
at p.54. " As Lord Hale makes so frequent a reference to Noy's Reports, it may 
not be amiss to apprise the student, that the book is known by the name of that 
very learned lawyer, yet there is not tbe least reason to suppose that such a loose 
collection of notes was intended by bim for the public eye. In an edition of Noy's 
Reports, penes Edit01'em, there is the following observations upon them in manu- 
script: A Simple Collection of Scraps oj Cases, made by Serjeant Sizer þ'om Noy's loose 
Pape-rs; and imposed upon the World for the Reports oj that vile prerogative Fellow 
Noy. This account of Noy's Reports, which was probably written soon after the 
first publication in 1656, though expressed in terms inexcusably 
ross, contains an 
anecdote not altogether useless." 



OF ENGLAND. 


23 


SIR DUDLEY DIGG.ES; froln all original pic- 
ture by Cornelius Jansen, ill the possession of Thornas 
Dowdeswell, esq. H. R. Cooke sc. 4to. 


SIlt DUDLEY DIGGES; in an oval,. 'fne.zz. Woodbul'n 
e,,'l'c. 8 vo . 


Sir Dudley Digges wa-s Lorn in the year 1583; and in 1598 
entered a gentleman commoner of University College, Oxford; 
where, in 1601, he took the degree of bachelor of arts. He after- 
ward studied the law in the inns of court, and having received the 
honour of knighthood, commenced his travels, in order to improve 
his skill in languages, and increase his general knowledge. 
In 1618
 King James sent him ambassador to the Emperor of 
Russia; and two years afterward he was commissioned, with Sir 
Maurice Abbot, to proceed to Holland to demand restitution of 
some English property which had been seized by the Dutch in the 
East Indies
 He was a member of James's third parliament, which 
met in January 1620-21 ; but he complied so little with the des- 
potic measures of the court, that the king ranked him among the 
number whom he was pleased to stigmatize by the phrase" ilI- 
tempered spirits." He wàs likewise a member of the first parlia- 
ment of Charles I. in 1626, and not only joined with those patriots 
who were for bringing Villiers, duke of Buckingham, the king's 
great favourite, to justice, but so strenuously exerted himself in the 
business of the impeachment, as to be chosen one of its chief ma- 
nagers; a conduct which gave such high offence, that the king 
committed him to the Tower, together with Sir John Elliot, another 
manager, who, like Digges, had descanted on the duke's guilt. 
Within a few days, however, they were both released; Charles 
finding it necessary to appease the storm, which thi8 arbitrary 
arrest had produced. 
In 1627-28, Sir Dudley was chosen a knight of the shire for 
Kent in Charles's third parliament; in which it appears that his 
opposition to the ministry was not so determined as before. In 
the following year, when the commons were on the eve of being 
dissolved, in consequence of their firm stand against the illegal 
proceedings of the king, the speaker, Sir John Finch, interrupted 
the business by saying, "There is a command laid upon me, that 
I must order you not to proceed," and attempted to "go fo
th of 



24 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


his. chair,'
 but was held in by force, till the house had voted a 
strong protestation against innovations in religion, and levying the 
subsidies of tonnage and poundage. On this occasion Sir Dudley 
vented his uneasiness in these words: "I am as much grieved as 
ever. Must we not proceed? let us sit in silence: we are miser- 
able: we know not what to do." 
The great talents of Sir Dudley, and his influence in the com- 
mons, made the court consider it as a matter of the first impor- 
ance to sway him, if possible, to their interest. Accordingly, in 
1630, they tempted him with a reversionary grant of the honour- 
able and advantageous office of master of the Rolls; which partly 
answered the intent, as he accepted the grant on the 30th of N 0- 
vember; yet, as no other parliament was called during tbe conti- 
nuance of his life, how far his tergiversation might have been car- 
ried is unknown. When tbe mastership became vacant, on the 
decease of Sir Julius Cæsar in April, 1636, Sir Dudley was put into 
possession, yet he did not enjoy it quite three years; for he died 
on the 18th of March, 1638-39: his death, as his epitaph ex- 
presses it, being" reckoned by the wisest men, among the public 
calamities of the times." He was buried within a small chapel or 
monument room, which he had himself caused to be erected in 
Chilham churcb, Kent, in remembrance of his lady, who died in 
May, 1631. Their issue was eight sons and three daughters: of 
whom Dudley, the third son, was master of arts, and fellow of All 
Souls College, Oxford. West Digges, the well-known comedian, 
was great-grandson of Sir Dudley; he being the issue of John 
Digges, by Elizabeth, daughter of John, lord Delaware. 


SIR CHARLES CÆSAR, knt. master of the 
Rolls; 4to. Il. fVilkillson eL1. ' C. 


Sir Charles Cresar was the third son of Sir Julius, but by the 
death of both his elder brothers became his heir. He was born 
the 27th of Jan. 1589, educated at All Souls College, Oxford, ad. 
lnitted doctor oflaws in that university Dec. 7th, 1612, and received 
the honour of knighthood, at the palace of Theobalds, Oct. 6th, in 
the succeeding year. He, like his father, first practised in the pro- 
fession of the civil law, and, having held for some years in its court 
the office of master of the faculties, was promoted to the now 
obsolete station of judge of the court of audience, which then 



OF ENGLAND. 


25 


1'anked with the highest in that branch ôf jurisprudence: like his 
father also, he relinquished that profession for, or at least mingled 
it with, that of a chancery lawyer, in which court he became a 
master on the 30th of Sept. 1619. He rose too at length to the 
important and dignified post of master of the Rolls, in which he 
succeeded Sir Dudley Digges. True it is, however strange it may 
appear, that he purchased the appointment of Charles the First, for 
a sum of money, in the commencement of tllat unfortunate prince's 
distresses. \Ve find in the MSS. of his second son, Mr. Charles 
Cæsar, the following memorandum: "June the 14th, 1640, Sir 
Charles Cæsar, knight, was sworn master of the Rolls in Chancery, 
or assistant judge to the lord high-chancellor of England; for which 
high and profitable office he paid to King Charles the First, 15,0001. 
broad pieces of old gold; and lent the king 2,000l. more, when he 
went to meet his rebeUious Scotch army, invading England." 
He enjoyed the fruit of his purchase little more than two years, 
for on the 6th of December, 1642, he fell a prey to the small-pox, 
a malady peculiarly fatal in his family, aged 53. 
Sir Charles Cæsar was twice married; first to Anne, daughter 
of Sir Peter Vanlore, knight, an eminent merchant of London, by 
whOln he had two daughters. His second lady was Jane, daughter 
of Sir Edward Barkham, knight, an alderman of London, who 
served the office of lord mayor in 1622. 


DAVID JENKINS, a judge in the civil (common) 
law; 4to. whole length,. rare. 


DAVID JENKIXS, &c. Sl.r Eng'lish verses. fJZ M. 
(lJIarshall) se. 121Jlo. 


DA VID JENKINS; frontispiece to his Works, 1681; 
12vlo. 


David Jenkins, a Welsh judge, imprisoned and condemned 
several persons for bearing arms against Charles I. for which he 
was sent to the Tower. When he was brought to the bar of the 
House of Commons, he peremptorily disowned their jurisdiction. 
Expecting daily to be hanged, he came to a resolution to suffer 
with the BibJe under one arm, and l\iagna Charta under the other. 
VOJ... III. E 



26 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


His vindication of himself, and several other occasional pieces of 
his writing, \vere printed in 12mo. 1648, with his head by Marshall. 
Ob. 1663, Æt. circ. 81.. Ant. Wood, for reflecting on the Earl of 
Clarendon, in his account of this judge, in the" Athenæ Oxoni. 
enses," vol. ii. p. 212, was sentenced to bave a copy of that book 
burnt, to be fined thirty-four pounds, and e
pelled the university of 
Oxford. See Granger's " Letters," p. 272. 


llICHARDUS BROWNLO'V, armiger, capitalis 
protonotarius in curia de Banco. T. Cross sc. 4to. 
Æt. 86. Frontisp. to his I' Bret'ia Judicialia," fol. 


RICHARDUS BRO'VN LO'VE, &c. T. Cross se. 4to. 
Æt. 86; sornewhat differentfrom theformet'. Before his 
U Declarations and Pleadings;" 4to. 


Both these prints are evidently after an original of him which I 
saw at Belton, in the library of the late Sir John Cust, bart. speaker 
of the House of Commons. They are dated, Æt. 86; but it 
appears from the original, that he was not so old when that was 
pain ted. 
Richard Brownlowe, esq. prothonotary of the King's Bench, was 
founder of the Tyrconnel family. Besides the above-mentioned 
works, he was author of a "Book of Entries," and joint-author 
with J. Goldsborough, esq. of a book of" Reports." See \Vorrall's 
" Catalogue of Law Books." 


JOHANNES SELDEN US; ex tabula, in Biblio- 
theca Bodleiana. Vandyck p. Fabel",jun.f. 1713; 4to. 


4 Captain Jenkins, his great-grand!-on) was said to have had his ears cut off, in 
the reign of George II. by a captain of a Spanish ship, who insultingly bid him 
carry them to the king, his master: to this Mr. Pope alludes: 
-- " The Spaniard did a waggisll thing, 
'Vho cropt our ears, and sent them to the king." 
This was a falsehood, propagated to inflame. A friend informed me, that be was in 
the House of Commons when Captain Jenkins was examined before the parliament 
concerning this affair; and that he then saw both his ears-: 
nd that they were on 
at the time of his death.' 



O
. ENGLAND. 


27 


JOHANNES SEI
DENUS, jureconsultus. LeZy p. Vel"- 
tue sc. 1725; It. she 


JOHANNES SELDENUS. Before Dr. Pocock's edition 
of " Eutychius," fol. 


JOHANKES SELDENUS. Burghers sc. In the fron- 
tispiece to the " Catalogue of the Bodleian Libra1"!!,'. 
lvith thefollnder, and principal benefactors. 


JOHANNES SELDEKUS. Van Hove sc. 1677; 12nlo. 


JOHANKES SELDENUS. R. White sc. h. she 


JOHAK
ES SELDEN, &c. a library ill the background; 
10la" Latin verses. G. L. p. h. she scarce. 
JOHANNES SELDE
US. J. Chantry sC. to his " Na- 
tivity of Christ." 


JOHN 8ELDEN. 
 Faithorne; J. Sturt. 


JOHN SELDE
. P. Le(,l/,' W. Birch; 1789. 


JOH
 SELDEN. W. Holl sc. From the original of 
1YIytcns, in the Bodleian Gallery, OL'l'ford. 


John Selden, sometimes styled" The great dictator of learning 
of the English nation," and pronounced by Grotius, his antagonist, 
to be the glory of it, was a man of as extensive and profounà 
knowledge as any of his age. He was thoroughly skilled in every 
thing that related to his own profession; but the general bent of 
his studies was to sacred and profane antiquity. The greater part 
of his works are on uncommon subjects. Like a man of genius, he 
was not content with walking in the beaten track of learning, but 
was for striking out new paths, and enlarging the territories of 
science. His" History of Tithes" gained him more enemies than 



28 BIOGRAPHICAL HIST OR Y 


any of his works, and his "Mare clausum usum" did him the 
most honour.. Towards the close of his life, he saw the emp- 
tiness of all human learning; and owned, that out of the num- 
berless volumes he had read and digested, nothing stuck so cl03e 
to his heart, or gave him such solid satisfaction, as a single passage 
out of St. Paul's Epistles.t Ob. 30 Nov. 1654, and was buried on 
the south side of the round walk in the Temple church. His 
works were published in three volumes, folio, by Dr. David 'Vil- 
kins, 1725.: 


WILLiAM PRYNNE, esq. oval. Stent. 
Another, .LEt. 40, 1640; four English verses. 


W ILLIA
l PRYNNE. Hollar f. a s17zalloval. Under 
the print, is an account of his being: pilloried, þened, and 
imprisoned, for writing his " Histro-lJ;Iasti

'," 
c. 
W
 ILLIAIvI PRYNNE, barrister at law; 8vo. in L01"d 
Clarendon's " History." 


WILLIAM: PRYNNE; 'Jnezz. R. DunJ,:arton-,. sllzall 
quarto. 
W ILLIAl\I PRYNNE; III 
"tJJzollett's "History." 
Benoist sc. 


WILLI A 1\1 PR YNN E,. oval; in prison; four verses, 
" Alljleslt is grass," 
c. a sheet of letter-press, with an 
account of the places and tÙnes of imprisonment, 
"c. 
Æt. 49, 1653. In the rnanner of Hollar,. rare. 
W ILLIA1\I PRY NN E, ]Jresenting' his book to King 
Charles IL sheet,. scarce,. from his " Rec01"ds." 


.. \Vritten against Grotius, of whom he had the advantage. 
t Titus ii. 11-14. 
Properly in six, though they arc sometimes hound in threc.-BINDLEY 



OF ENGLAND. 


29 


In the Bodleian Gallery at Oxford, is a portrait said to be of 
him; but I believe it to be of some other person. It belonged to 
the late Dr. Rawlinson. 
'Villiam Prynne, a man of sour and austere principles, took upon 
himself the office of censor, and boldly stepped forth to correct every 
enormity in church and state. He wrote against bishops, players, 
long hair, and love-locks; and was therefore dignified by his party 
with the appellation of Cato. He was a man of great reading; and 
there appear in his writings a copiousness without invention, and a 
vehemence without spirit. Mr. Wood supposes that he wrote a 
sheet for every day of his life, computing from the time of his 
arrival at man's estate. He says, "His custom was, when he 
studied, to put on a long quilted cap, which came an inch over his 
eyes, serving as an umbrella to defend them from too much lig'ht; 
and seldonl eating a dinner, would every three hours, or more, be 
nlaunching a roll of bread, and now and then refresh his exhausted 
spirits, with ale."* To this Butler seems to allude, in his address 
to his muse: 


" Thou that with ale, or viler liquors, 
Didst inspire Withers, Prynne, and Vicars; 
And teach them, though it were in spight 
Of nature, and their stars, to write." 


This voluminous rhapsodist gave his works, In forty volul11e
 
folio and quarto, to the society of Lincoln's Inn. There is a cata- 
logue of them in the "Athenæ Oxonienses." The most valuable 
of his performances by far, is his" Collection of Records," in four 
large volullles, which is a very useful work.t Ob, 24 Oct. 1669. 


ROBERT AYLETT, master in Chancery, IG35, 
Æt. 52. T. Cross f. 8vo. It is before his "Divine 
and Moral Speculations," in verse, 1654; Svo. Copied 
by W. RichardsfJn.t 


· II Athenæ Oxon." ii. col. 434. 
t After the restoration, he was made chicf-ke('pcl' of the records in the Towl'r, 
with a salary of 500t. a year. 
f The print may be placed here, Ilt::l.t to the common lawyer:,; or after Richard 
Brownlow, esq. in this clas,. 



30 



 


BIOGRAPHICAI
 HISTORY 


Robert Aylett was educated at Trinity Hall, in Cambridge, 
where, in 1614, he commenced doctor of laws. It was his usual 
practice to relax himself after his severer studies with poetry. 
Besides the book just mentioned, he wrote" Susanna, or the 
Arraignment of the two Elders," in verse, Lond. 1622, 8vo. IVlr. 
Wood starts a question, * whether he was author of " Britannia 
Antiqua Illllstrata, or the Antiquities of ancient Britain derived frOlll 
the Phænicians," published under the name of Aylett Sammes; but 
said to be written by his uncle. Certain it is that the nominal 
author was unequal to it; though much learning and labour have 
been spent on that wild work to very little purpose. 


DR. ISAAC DORISLAUS, assassinated at the 
Hag'lte, lIIay 12, 1649; Iroln an original dra1üiJlg in 
the collection of Sir John St. Auhyn. l
 Richardson e.1?c. 
8vo. 


DR. ISAAC ÐORISLAUS; in Caulfield's" High Court 
of Justice;" 8vo. 


DR. ISAAC DORfSLAUS, standing, with e1Jzhle1Jls of 
Tinle and Truth. C. Pass; scarce. 
There is a curious Dutch print of his assassination; 
4to. 


Doctor Dorislaus was a native of Holland, a scholar and a gen- 
tleman, who came to England to prosecute his studies: he resided 
for a considerable time in the university of Oxford, where he ob- 
tained a degree as a doctor of laws, and became likewise a cele- 
brated professor there; at the commencement of the civil war, he 
became judge-advocate in the parliament arroy.-He was in the 
habit of strict intimacy with Sir Henry Mildmay, at whose house, in 
Essex, he is reproached with ordinarily playing at cards on Sundays, 
and that it was through Sir Henry's means he was employed to draw 
up the charge against King Charles the First; the rather, as no 
Englishman could be found hardy enough to undertake the same! 


· "Fasti," ii. col. 207. 



OF ENGLAND. 


31 


this however appears to be little more than surmise, for if a Brad- 
shaw as president, and a Cook as solicitor-general, to recite the 
charge in open court, could be procured, what doubt can be enter- 
tained, but similar individuals should have been found with equal 
intrepidity to undert
ke, at any rate, a task of tqual daring? 
After the execution of the king, Dorislaus was selected by the 
parliament as a fit person to go as their envoy to the states-gene- 
ral; it being imagined he would be better received in that capacity, 
as their own countryman, than any other person; and the know- 
ledge he possessed of most traRsactions during the progress of the 
war, rendered him every way qualified to place the actions of the 
British government in the mo!t favourable light. He arrived at the 
tlague in his quality of foreign minister in May, 1649; but the first 
night, as he was at supper, one Colonel Whitford, a Scotchman 
(then attending the king's court), with about twelve other royalists, 
regretting and disdaining the affront done to the king, by the impu- 
dent boldness of Dorislaus' address to the States in the face of his 
majesty, entered his lodging, and with a broad sword cleaved his 
head and killed him, suffering his page to escape; but, by a mis- 
take, wounding another Dutchman for him at their first coming in ; 
and, having done the deed, quietly departed: and though the States 
pretended a hue and cry, yet the people were generally well satis- 
fied, and applauded the execution. The government of England, 
on the contrary, as soon as intelligence of this assassination reached 
London, was highly exasperated, and set forth a declaration, wherein 
they imputed this fact to the royalists, and upon the next occasion 
threatened to retaliate it upon those of that party then in their 
hands; notwithstanding which, Anthony Ascham, their agent and 
envoy to the court of Spain, some time after, with his interpreter 
Signior Riba, was served in the same manner, on his arrival at 
Madrid at his inn, by one Sparks, and other English merchants, 
upon the same account. When Sparks fled to the Venetian ambas- 
sadors, and thence to sanctuary, from which he was, however, soon 
taken, and publicly executed. 
The war which broke out between the Commonwealth and the 
states of Holland in 1655, was, in great part, occasioned by the 
public affronts offered to the ambassadors of the former, Dorislaus, 
and St. John, in the very presence of the states-general: and they 
gave the Dutch a taste of their displeasure, by their act, forbidding 
fOff'ign ships to trade hither. 



32 


BI UG RAPHICA L HISTORY 


A SCOTCH LAWYER. 
SIR ALEXANDER GIBSON (his name not 
inscribed). D. Paton dclin. R. White se. judge's robes; 
laced eap; largoe beard. 


Sir Alexander Gibson, of Durie, one of the senators of the college 
of Justice, was author of " Decisions of the Lords of Council in 
Scotland, in cases of importance, frmll July, 1641, to 1642, with 
the Defenders and Pursuers' Names," fol. Edinburgh, 1690. The 
head is prefixed to this book. 


SIR THOMAS HOPE; fronz the orig'inal, by 
Janzesolle, iiz the possession of the Earl of Hopetoun. 
E. Harding se. 8vo. 


This eminent lawyer was the son of Henry Hope, a merchant of 
Edinburgh, who had many commercial transactions with Holland, 
where he afterward resided, and where he married Jacque or Jac- 
queline de Tott.. 
His son Thomas soon distinguished himself at the bar: and was 
made king's advocate in 1627, when he was also created a baronet 
by King Charles I. He however attached himself to the Cove- 
nanters, and was consulted by them in all difficult points. The 
king nevertheless, perhaps either to render him suspected to that 
party, or with a view to win him over, appointed him commissioner 
to the general assembly in August, 1643. 
Sir Thomas Hope died in 1646, leaving large estates to three 
sons; the youngest, Sir James, being ancestor of the Hopetoun 
family, which arose to great wealth from his marriage with Anne, 
heiress of John Foulis of Leadhills, in Lanarkshire, these mines 
being an unfailing source of opulence. 
The works of Sir Thomas Hope on the Scotch law continue to be 
valued: they are his Minor Practics, and his Decisions. He also 
wrote some Latin poems, and an a
count of the Earls of Mar. 


· A second son W<lS, it is believed, the ancestor of the famous Hopes of Am- 
sterdam. 



OF ENGI
AND. 


33 


CLAS S VII. '" 


OFFICERS OF THE ARMY AND NAVY. 


FIRST DIVISION. 


OFFICERS OF THE KING'S ARMY. 


As the generality of the persons mentioned in the ensuing Class 
were soldiers by accident, the accounts of them will, for the most 
part, be found in other Classes: most of the general officers are 
placed here. 


" SIR JOHN BURGH, knight,* descended from 
the house of the Lord Burgh, and heir-male to the 
barony; captain of an English foot company' in the 
United Provinces; governor of Frankendale; colonel 
of a regiment of foot in the expedition with Count 
Mansfield; colonel-general in the Isle of Rhee, where 
he was slain with a musket-bullet, 
-September 11, 
1627." T. Cecill sc. very scarce.-Prefixed to a very 
scarce poetical quarto pamphlet, called, "The De- 
scription of that ever-to-be-falned knight, Sir John 
Burgh, colonell-general of his Majesties armie, with 
his last service at the Isle of Rhee, and his unfortu- 
nate death then when the armie had most need of 
such a pilote. Written by Robert Markham, captain 
{)f a foote con1pany in the same regiment; and shot 
also in the same service." Printed 1628. 


Sir John Burgh, the brave governor of Frankendale, was of the 
same family, but not the same person with Sir John Burgh, who 


· He is placed here in order of time, not to interfere with the officers wbo com
 
Jßanded in the civil war. 


VOJ... III. 


F 



34 


BIOGRAPIIÍCAL JIISTOR Y 


was lieutenant-general to Sir )V alter Raleigh, in his expedition to 
Panama, and who.took the great and rich ship called the Madre de 
Dios. They were both descended from Sir Thomas Burgh, lord 
Burg:l of Gainsborough. The elder Sir John died in 1593; and the 
younger 011 the lIth, or rather the 20th, of September, 1627, in the 
41st year of his age.* He was one of the best soldiers of his time, 
and greatly distinguished himself by his active and passive valour. 
His portrait is among the rest of Sir Horace Vere's captains, at 
Lord Townshend's, at Raynham, in Norfolk. Sir James Burrow, 
fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, is of the same family, 
and has another portrait of him. I frankly own, that I fancied the 
elder and younger Sir John Burgh to have been the same person, 
and should have continued in that mistake, if this learned and 
ingenious gentleman had not, with his pen, cleft in two my phan- 
tom, which was of a substance too gross ever to re-unite. 


THOMAS HOW ARDUS, comes Arundeliæ et 
Surriæ, &c. An. 1639, 
 contra Scotos, supremus et 
generalis militiæ dux. A. Vandyck p. 
 Hollar f. 
1646; h. sh. See Class II. 


HENRY RICH, earl of Holland, lord-general, &c. 
Stent h. sh. 


Henry Rich, earl of HoHand, was lord. general of the horse under 
the Earl of Arundel, in the expedition against the Scots, in 1639. 
He was sent with a considerable part of the army, to engage a 
small body of the Scottish forces under General Lesley, but retired 
without striking a stroke. See Class III. 


· In a manulìcript copy of poems by George Lawder, afterward an officer of 
high rank in the service of the States GeneraJ, there is an epitaph on Sir John Bur- 
rows, as there called; it ends thus: 
II To tell thee who it is, let this suffice, 
Here noble, valiant, leam'd, brave Burrows lies." -LORD HAILES. 



OF ENGLAND. 


35 


OFFICERS BELONGING TO THE NORTHERN DIVI- 
SION OF THE ARl\1Y, UNDER THE EARL OF 
NEWCASTLE AND PRINCE RUPERT; ACCORD- 
ING TO THE LIST OF THE ROYAL AND PARLIA- 
MENTARY FORCES, PRINTED IN 1642; 4to. 


'VILLI AM CAVENDISH, earl of Newcastle, general of the 
foot. See Class III. 


WILLIAM VILLIERS, viscount Grandison, lieutenant-general 
of the foot. See Class III. 


SIR WILLIAM DA VENANT, poet-Iaureat, was a great fa- 
vourite of the Earl of Newcastle, who appointed him lieutenant- 
general of his ordnance;* but it was thought that he might easily 
have found a person much better qualified for that command. We 
read, that Alexander took Homer's Works with him in his expedi- 
tions; but it is not probable that he would have taken the poet 
himself, if he had been then living. V oltaire informs us, t that 
Lewis XIV. in his pompous expedition to Flanders, was attended 
by Vander Meulen the painter, and Pelisson the historian, to design 
and record his victories; but he does not say that he took Boileau 
with him to sing them;1: and, if he did, he knew better how to em- 
ploy him than to make him a lieutenant-general. See the next 
reign. 


SIR FRANCIS 'VORTLEY, col. of the fifth regiment of foot, 
under the Earl of Newcastle. See Class IX. 


ENDYMION PORTER, col. of the seventh regiment of foot. 
See Class VIII. 
COLONEL JOHN BELLASYSE, co!. of the ninth regiment of 


.. His name is not in the list above mentioned. 
t 'SiecIe de Louis XIV." 
t He did take Boileau, and Racine too, as his histriographers along with him in 
one of his campaigns.-LoRD ORFORD. 
Boileau and Racine were taken to be present at one of Lewis's campaigns of 
parade, where the king rode in a great state coach filled with ladies.-LoRD 
HAILES. 



36 


BIOGRAPHICA.L HISTORY 


foot, and afterward a lieutenant-general. See Lord BELLASYSE 
in the next reign. 


SIR CHARLES LUCAS, col. of the twelfth regiment of foot. 
He had the command of the Earl of Newcastle's horse, at the battle 
of Marston 1\1001', where he signalized that valour for which his 
family were distinguished;* but was, after the utmost exertion of 
it, forced to yield to the determined Cromwell. His head is de- 
scribed in the eighth Class, with that of Sir George Lisle. 


EDWARD NICHOLAS, secretary of state, commanded a troop 
of horse under the Earl of Newcastle.t 


RUPERT, prince Palatine, general of the horse, &c. 1642. 
See Class I. 


GEORGE, lord Digby, had the command of two troops of horse 
under Prince Rupert. See Class III. 


ARTHUR, lord Capel, commanded two troops of horse. See 
Class III. 


THE FOLLO'\VING OFFICERS ACTED 
CHIEFLY IN THE WEST. 


WILLIAM SEYl\10UR, marq,,-is of Hertford, general, &c. See 
Class III. 


. 


RALPH, lord Hopton, baron of Stratton; Z'll 
armour; band, 
'c. 


RALPH, lord Hopton, his majesty's general of the 
western army. Frolll a painting; in Sir Jacob Astley's 
hands. Vandergucht sc. 8vo. 


.. \Ve read on the monument of his sister, the Dutchess of Newcastle, in West. 
minster Abbey, that II all the brothers were valiant, and all the sisters virtuous." 
t See the" List oíthe Armies," 1642. His portraits belong to the Interregnum, 
. and the reign of Charles II. 



OF ENGLAND. 


37 


The lord HOPTON ; from a picture at the Honourable 
A1'tlzllr Onslow's, esq. Vertue se. One of the set of 
Loyalists. There is a print of hinz on horseback, by 
S/zerwin. 


SIR RALPH HOPTOX, governor of Bristol, &c. 'lvlzole 
length, sing'ula]'ly dressed ,. troops 1JzareJÛng' in the baelc 
g;rollnd. 5hld by TV: Bentley; very rare. 


Ralph, lord Hopton, a nobleman of admirable accomplishments 
of body and mind, was trained up in a good school of war in the Low 
Countries. After exerting himself in the House of Commons, in 
the royal cause, he retired into the west; where, in a few l11onths, 
he raised a formidable army, and fortified no less th
n forty garri- 
sons. He was so great a master of discipline, that his army moved 
as one man; and was, in every re
pect, different from those licen- 
tious and tumultuous rabbles, of which there were many instances 
in the civil war, that more resembled a herd of banditti, than a well 
appointed army. His victory at Stratton, which was the most sig- 
nal in the course of that war, is an astonishing instance of what de- 
termined valour can effect. He weB knew how to improve it, and 
it was oI;lly an earnest of several others. After he had done as 
much as courage, conduct, and activity could do, he, for want of 
.suppJies, was forced to retire before Fairfax; and approved hÎ1nself 
as great a general in his retreat, as he had done before in his vic- 
tories. He died at Bruges, in September, 1652. See Sir W IL- 
LIAM \V ALLER in this Class. 


Created 
a baron, 
19 Car. I. 


I\Iay 16, 
1643. 


PRINCE MAURICE, general of the West. See Class I. 


GEORGE, lord Goring (general, &c.) Vandergucht 
8C. A pag;e putting on his sword; 8vo. 


George, lord Goring, was a man of ready wit, good understand- 
ing, and clear courage; but too mercurial to be at the head of an 
army, and too vicious to be in any station, where example could 
corrupt. He was so totally devoid of principle, that he was under 
no check or restraint from any laws human or divine. But such 
were the sprightliness of his behaviour, and the sallies of his wit,. 



38 


llIOGRAPHICA.L HISTORY 


July 3, 
1644. 


that those who detested his character, could never hate his person. 
That part of the country where his army lay, was a scene of ravage 
and licentiousness; and he was generally, in effect, doing the work 
of the enemy.- At the battle of l\larston Moor, he totally routed 
the left wing of the Scottish army; and was brave and resolute in 
his defence of Colchester. Having gained his pardon, but lost his 
estate, he retired, in the time of the Interregnum, to the little court 
of Charles II. and his manners were perfectly adapted to it, when 
it rose to the height of frolic and debauchery. In the 20th year of 
Charles I. he was created earl of Norwich. HE' died suddenly in 
1663; some say in 1662. 


ROBERT DORl\IER, earl of Caernarvon. Van- 
dyck p. Vertue se. Front an orig'illal at }Vilton. One of 
tlte set of Loyalists. 


ROBERT, earl of Caernarvon. Vandyck p. Baron se. 
a lal
'e head. 1"'1zis seenlS to have becn done froul {[ 
tracing' taken frol1l tlte jine fi17Jlily picture, at tVilloJl. 
His portrait, together with that of his lady, by Vandyck, is also 
at Longleat. 


ROBERT DORl\IER, earl of Caernarvon (general of 
the horse). Vanderg'ueht se. 8vo. 


The Earl of Caernarvon, though he seemed born for the camp, 
never ...thought of commencing soldier before he was roused to action 
from a principle of loyalty. He was vigilant, active, and patient in 
his command; and wanted only experience to be an accomplished 
general. He was quick in discerning any advantage over the 
enemy, eager to lay hold of it, and steady to pursue it. He dis- 
tinguished himself in every action in which he was engaged, and 
particularly in the memorable battle of Roundway Down. After 
he had defeated a part of the enemy's horse, at Newbury, he feU 


· It is said that 'Villiam, prince of Orange, thus expressed himself, u I could 
not understand how my father-in-law proved so unfortunate. in war, till I became 
acquainted with his gencrals."-LoRD HAILES. 



OF ENG LAND. 


39 


by the ignoble hanel of a straggling trooper, who ran him through 
the body.. Just as he was expiring, a certain nobleman came to 
him, to ask him if he had any request to make to his majesty, as- 
suring hiln that it would be punctually fulfilled. He replied, "I 
will not dje with a suit in my lllouth, but to the King of kings." 
He died the 20th of September, 1643. The king, who justly re- 
spected him as one of the bravest and most accomplished persons 
in his army, was extremely sensible of his loss. 


BEVILLUS GRANVIL, &C. Æt. 39, 1640. By 
Faithorne, but 'without his nanze; 4to. Before the Q.:tford 
Verses Oil his Death. 


SIR BEVIL GRANVILLE. G. Vertlie sc. Front an 
original, ill the possession of Lord Lansdown. One of 
tlie set of Loyalists. 
SIR BEVIL GRANVILLE, LEt. 39, 1640. JaJJzes 
Fittler, in Prince's" Wort/Ûes of Devon /' 4to. 1810. 
SIR BEVIL GltANVILLE. R. Cooper sc. Private plate; 
engraved for the lJIarqllis of Buckinglzal1z. 


The following verses, which are as perfect an examp1e of the 
bathos as any Longinus has given us of the sublime, are under the 
head. They are taken from the Oxford verses written upon his 
death, soon after the battle of Lansdown: 


U Thus slain thy valiant ancestor did lie, 
When his one bark a navy did defy;t 
JVhere shall the next fam'd Granville's ashes stfUld? 
Thy gmndsire'sfill the sea, and thine the land." 


SIR BEVIL GUANVILLE (CO!. of a regiment, under 
Lord Hopton); 8vo. 


Sir Bevil Granville, one of the worthiest and most popular men 
in the county of Cornwall, had a principal hand in every signal ex- 



 Fuller's II '\Vorthies," in Bucks, p. 141. 
t See the reign of Elizabetb, Class VII. 



40 BIOGIlAPJIICAL HISTORY 


July 5, 
1643. 


ploit in that great scene of action. He was killed, bravely fighting, 
at the battle of Lansdown, near Bath. He contributed greatly to 
the defeat of the parliament arnlY; but the royalists knew not how 
to esteem that as a victory, which was purchased with the life of so 
excellent a person. 


SIR THOMAS BYRON; fro/lz a dra'lving ill the 
King's "Clarendon." R. Cooper sc. 8vo. 
Sir Thomas Byron, a gentleman of great skill and courage, had 
the command of the Prince of Wales's regiment at the battle of 
Hopton Heath; and charged the enemy with great slaughter, after 
the death of the Earl of Northampton, who was slain in the fight; 
but night coming on, and the place being found full of coal-pits 
and holes, dangerous to cavalry, Sir Thomas deemed it prudent to 
defer farther fighting until the morning, and stood all that night in 
the field, though severely wounded by a shot in the thigh; but 
when Illorning came, there was no enemy to be seen, for as soon 
as night drew on they had left the field, in hope that their 
cattered 
horse would find them in quarters more remote from danger .-Sir 
Thomas Byron, and the troops under his c.ommand (many of which 
were wounded), retired to refresh themselves at Stafford; after they 
had taken the spoils off the field, and buried their dead. 
He continued to serve the king with unabated zeal and vigilance, 
but at length the total ruin of the royal cause, compelled him to 
seek his personal safety in private seclusion; until the troubles of 
the time became a little abated. 


COL. GILES STRANGEW A YS -rlistinguished himself on se- 
veral occasions in the civil war. See an account of this active and 
worthy loyalist in the next reign. 


SIR NICHOLAS SLANNING; from a drawing 
in the ](ing;'s "Clal"endon." R. Cooper sc. 4to. 
SIR NICHOLAS SLANNING; in an oval. Rodd eJ/c. 
8vo. 


Sir Nicholas Slanning, knight, and governor of Pendennis Castle, 
was a native of the county of Devon, and born in the parish of 



OF ENGLAND. 


41 


Dicklegh, not far from the tOWh of Plymouth.-After spending 
some time in the university of Oxford, he went into the Low Coun- 
tries, at that time as great an acaùemy of arms, as the other was of 
arts. Here he continued, until he became Inaster of the art of 
war. Thus excellently accomplished, he returned into England, 
and taking the court in his way home, received the honour of 
knighthood fronl the hand of Charles I. and shortly after married 
a daughter of Sir James Bagg;, of Saltern, near Plymouth, knt. by 
whom he left issue, one son, Sir Nicholas Slanning, knight of the 
Bath at the coronation of King Charles II. and created a baronet 
1662. 
When the contentions between the king and parliament ran to 
that height, as to break out into open war, Sir Nicholas, who had a 
seat in the House of Commons for one of the western boroughs, 
was appointed by the king to the weighty trust of Pendennis Castle, 
a port of great importance opposite the coast of France, from whence, 
at that time, supplies might be expected, lying in the Levant. Spa- 
nish, Indian, and Irish road; where most merchants touch, and 
many are driven. 
In the year 1643, the loyal gentry of the western parts entered 
into an association, to assis t the king against the parliament then in 
arms against him: they met first in a great body near Pendennis, in 
Cornwall, where Sir Nicholas joined them with the forces under 
his command, and the whole was led by Sir Bevil Granville, and 
marched into Somersetshire. 
Sir 'Villiam 'V aller, the parliament's general, met theln at Lans- 
down, a little beyond Bath, where, intending to break this western 
association, he was beaten out of his lines; though to effect this, it 
cost the royalists the lives of many gallant men.-Sir Nicholas 
Slanning was engaged in this action, and is reported to have done 
wonders, in advancing from hedge to hedge, in the front of his men, 
in the mouths ûf muskets and cannon.-Soon after the western 
forces marched towards Bristol, and sat down before that city, then 
garrisoned by Colonel Fiennes for the parliament. Prince Rupert, 
the general for the king, attacked it so vigorously, that after three 
days'siege he had that important place surrendered into his hands. 
Sir Kicholas Slanning greatly distinguished himself on this occa- 
sion, but his courage and impetuosity carrying hiln a little too far, 
as he made a brave asscl.ult on the town, on the 26th of July, 164

, 
he was unfortunately slain, to the great grief of all the army. 
I-Ie was one of those noble gentlemen which were called the four 
VOL. III. G 



42 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


wheels of Charles's wain, all Devonshire or Cornish men, and all 
slain at or near the same place, at the same time, and in the same 
cause; according to an ode made upon the occasion, in which they 
are thus mentioned: 


The four wheels of Charles's wain, 
Granville, Godolphia, Trcvannion, Slanning slain. 


SIDNEY GODOLPHIN. Clamp se. In Harding's 
" Biogra}Jhical MirrOlll";" 1793. 


SIDNEY GODOLPHI
; 4to. 


Sidney Godolphin, second son of Sir William Godolphin, in the 
county of Cornwall, became a commoner of Exeter College, in Ox- 
ford, from whence he was removed to one of the inns of court. He 
afterward travelled into foreign countries, and accompanied the 
Earl of Leicester in his embassy to the court; where his excellent 
disposition, manners, and qualifications, made him very acceptable. 
Though every body courted his company, yet he loved very much to 
be alone, being in his constitution fond of retirement among his 
books, and inclined to melancholy. Yet the civil war no sooner 
began than he put himself into the first troops, which were raised 
in the west for the king, and bore the dangers and fatigue of 
winter marches with an exemplary courage and alacrity. By too 
brave a pursuit of the enemy into an obscure village in Devonshire, 
he was shot with a musket, upon which, without saying any word 
more than-" Oh God, I am hurt!" he fell dead from his horse, 
1642-3. His death occasioned excessive grief to all who knew 
him, and was an irreparable loss to the public.-He lived in inti- 
macy with tbe famous Thomas Hobbes, though of very different 
sentiments, and by his last will bequeathed him 200l. 


COLONEL JOHN TREV ANNION; froln a 
dra'wÙlgo in the King's "Clarendon;" 8vo. 


Colonel John Tr{1vannion, a Cornish gentleman, heir to a con- 
siderable fortune, on the general rising in that county on the part 
of Charles I. in conjunction with Sir Bevil Granville, Sir Nicholas 
Slanning, and John Arundell (all four of them members of the 



OF ENGLAND. 


43 


House of Commons, and therefore exactly acquainted with the 
desperate humours of the adverse party), undertook to raise regi- 
ments of volunteers: many young gentlemen, of the most consider- 
able families of the county, assisted them as inferiQr officers; so 
that within a shorter time than could be expected, from one single 
county, was raised a body of near fifteen hundred foot, armed, 
and well disciplined for action; at the head of which, and such a 
body of horse and dragoons as they could muster, they advanced 
to Tavistock, in Devonshire, to join the Earl of Stamford, the Lord 
Mohun, and Sir Ralph Hopton. 
Col. Trevannion distinguished himself with great gallantry, in 
several actions, but was unfortunately killed at the taking of Bristol, 
from a wound in the thigh by a musket-ball. He had scarcely 
attained the age of twenty-eight; and was equally regretted by the 
army, and his royal master in particular. 


OFFICERS OF DISTINCTION, 'VHO ACTED 
IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE KINGDOM. 


ROBERTUS BARTY, comes Lindsæi, &c. 
Miel'evelt p. Voel'st sc. 1631. UZ Webb eL
'cud. scarce. 


ROBERTUS BARTY, comes Lindsæi, &c. Geldorp p. 
Voerst sc. h. she 


ROBERTUS BARTY, &c. Geldorp p. Voerst sc. 4to. 


ROBERT, earl of Lindsey. C. Johnson p. Houbraken 
sc. 1742. In the possession of Charles Bertie, esq. 
Illust. Head. 


ROBERT B ERTlE, earl of Lindsey. Vandyck p. 
Vertue sc. From a painting at the Dulie of Ancaster's. 
One of the set qf Loyalists. 
ROBERT, earl of Lindsey (when Lord 'Villoughby 



4-1 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


of Eresby); on horseback, 'with the Earl of Esse:t'; 
'rare. See Essex. 


ROBERT BERTIE, earl of Lindsey, lord-general, &c. 
Ul arnlOllr. 


ROBERT BARTUE (Bertie), earl of Lindsey, his 
majesty's general; 8vo. 
Robert Bertie, earl of Lindsey, son of Peregrine, lord 'Vil- 
loughby, of Eresby, inherited all the martial spirit of his fat11er.* 
In the reign of Elizabeth, he was at the siege of Amiens, under Sir 
John Baskerville and Sir Arthur Savage; and that of Cadiz, under 
the Earls of Essex and Nottingham, where he was knighted for his 
gallant behaviour. He had a share with George, earl of Cumber- 
land, and other persons of eminence, in several adventures; and. 
was one of those brave Englismen who, in the late pacific reign, 
distinguished themselves in the Low Countries, under Prince lVIau- 
rice, and had the honour of contributing to the victories of that 
great general. In 1635, he was constituted lord high-admiral of 
England,t and sent out with a fleet of forty sail, to maintain the 
dominion of the Narrow Seas; and upon the breaking out of the 
civil war, he was appointed general of the king's forces. He was 
mortally wounded at the battle of Edge-hill, where the royalists 
claimed the victory. But the loss of so able a comman
ler was irre- 
parable, and his death was alone equal to a defeat. Ob. 23 Oct. 1642. 


l\IONTAGU BERTIE, earl of Lindsey, &c. 
ill arnlOllr. Vandyck p. Faitllorne sc. lz. slz. finely eu- 
g'raved, and very scarce. 
Montagu Bertie, earl of Lindsey, son of the former, and heir of 
his loyalty and valour, greatly distinguished himself at Edge-hill in 
endeavouring to rescue his father, after whose death he seems to 
have attached himself to the king with the affection of a son, as 


.. Peregrine, lord 'Villoughby, offered to meet ß person, who sent him a very 
impertinent challenge when he had the gout in his hands and feet, with a piece of a 
rapier in his teeth. Queen Elizabeth called his son" the young general," and of- 
fered to stand gollmother to him. "Diog. Britain.>' Art. Ih.nTlE. 
t He was also lord high-chamberlain in this reign. 



OF ENGLAND. 


45 


we1J as tbe duty of a subject. He commanded the life-guards in 
several of tbe most considerable battles which were foug'ht in the 
course of the civil war, and was wounded in that of Naseby. HIS 
affectionate regard to his unhappy sovereign was conspicuous after 
his death; he attended his body to the grave, and paid his last duty 
to him with tears. He, after the restoration, lived in retirement 
with dignity, and approved himself an example of a better age. He 
died at Camden-house, in Kensington, the 25th of July, 1666. 
He married two wives; from the first of whom the Duke of Ancaster 
is descend.ed, and from the second the Earl of Abingdon. 


" SIR JACOB ASTLEY, created lord Astley, 
baron of Reading; field-marshal, and serjeant-n1ajor- 
general of his majesty's arnlY; lieutenant-general of 
the forces in the counties of \V orcester, Gloucester, 
Hereford, and South \Vales; governor of the garrisons 
of Oxford, Rea,ding, &c." ilI. VllJlderg'llcht se. J?roJJl 
all orig'inal paintinp; at Sir Jacob Astley's hOllse, called 
" The Palace" at J1Iaidstonc, -.in ](ent,. 8vo. 


There is a portrait of him by W orlidge, done for Sir Ed ward 
Astley; 8\ o. 
Sir Jacob Astley served in the Netherlands under Prince Mau.. 
rice, and his brother Henry; and afterward under Christian IV. 
king of Denmark, and Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. He 
was, for his signal services, created baron of Reading, 20 Car. I. 
He was among the first that entered into the service of that mo- 
narch, and his last hopes, in the decline of his affairs; but this 
brave and loyal old soldier was totally defeated with the remnant 
of the royal army, near Stow in the ,V ould, in Gloucestershire, th> 
21st of March, 1645-6. Ob. 1651. 


There is, in Lord Clarendon's, "l-listOJ:lj,
' {lJl octavo 
prillt by Vanderg;ucht, of SIR BERNARD ASTLEY, 
son of Sir Jacob. 
SIR BERN ARD ASTLEY; neatly etched by TVorlidg'c
' 
COJllpanioll to the one of his father, by the SllJne artist. 



46 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTOR Y 


He had the command of a regiment in the civil war, and sig- 
nalized his courage at the siege of Bristol, and the second battle 
of Newbury. 


ROBERT PIERPOINT, earl of Kingston. Vertlle 
sc. Fronz a picture of the late Duke of KiJl,gston's, who 
'lvas descended fronz hÙn. One of the set of Loyalists. 
ROBERT PIERPOINT, earl of Kingston ; from a pic- 
ture in the possession of W. Bryant, esq. B. Reading sc. 


ROBERT PIERPOINT, earl of Kingston. J.Nutting. 
ROBERT PIERPOINT, earl of Kingston ;froJJz a silver' 
'IJlcda l. 


Robert Pierpoint, earl of Kingston, who was popularly called 
"the good," was lieutenant-general of the king's forces in the 
counties of Lincoln, Rutland, Huntingdon, Cambridge, and N 01'- 
folk. He was very active in executing the royal commission of 
array, in opposition to the militia, and his success was answerable 
to his activity. He, in a short time, brought to the king four 
thousand men; two thousand of whom entered into his service; and 
the rest supplied him with arms and money, to the amount of 
24,0001. He was surprised, at Gainsborough, by Lord Willoughhy 
of Parham, and hurried aboard a pinnace, which was ordered to 
convey him to the garrison at Hull. The vessel was chased by 
Colonel Cavendish, and happened to run aground upon a shallow. 
The royalists peremptorily demanded the prisoner, who was as pe.. 
remptorily refused. The rebels, to deter them from firing, exposed 
the earl upon deck; where he and a faithful servant were killed by 
a shot, which was intended for the enemy. Ob. 30 July, 1643. 


SIR EDMUND VERNEY, standard-bearer to 
Charles I. Rivers sc. 


Sir Edmund Verney, son of Sir Edmund Verney of Middle 
Claydon, in the county of Bucks, was born in London 1596, and 
with an education suitable to his birth, induced him to spend some 
time with George, lord Goring, in the Low Country wars; he after- 



OF ENGLAND. 


47 


ward attended Lord Herbert and Sir Henry Wotton to France and 
Italy, and went with the Earl of Bristol into Spain: on his return 
was, by King Charles, appointed knight mareschal;* and served 
in parliament for the borough of Aylesbury and Chipping 'Vy- 
combe. He attended his majesty in 1639 against the Scots, and 
held the standard at Nottingham, and declared, that by the grace 
if God (his u3ual expression), they that would take that standardfrom 
his hand, must .first wrest his soul from his body. Accon1ingIy, at the 
battle of Edge-hill, fought 23d of October, 1642, he boldly charged 
with it among the thickest of the enemy, to engage the soldiers to 
follow him; and being surrounded by nUll1bers, was offered 11is 
life if he would deliver up the standard; he rejected the offer, and 
fell for his country with great honour, having that day killed six- 
teen gentlemen with his own hand. The standard wa3 taken, but 
rescued by Captain John Smith, an officer of the Lord Grandison's 
regiment of horse.-His son, Sir Ralph, was created a baronet by 
King Charles II. 
There is a fine portrait of Sir Edmund Verney, by Vandyck, at 
l\liddle Claydon. 


SIR WILLIAM CLARKE; fro17z an orig'inal 
picture. 
 ffiIaddocks se. 4to. 
Sir William Clarke, a gentleman of good fortune in Kent, raised 
at his own charge a regiment for the service of King Charles the 
First, and joining the army under the command of the Earl of 
Cleveland, was killed in the fight at Cropl'edy-bridge. 


SIlt 'VILLIAM M
t\IN'V ARING, of West- 
Chester, knt. 1643. N. SclzeJleker sc. snzall oval; in 
Harding/8 " Biog'raplzical Mirrour." 
Sir William l\lainwaring, son of Sir Edmund Mainwaring, LL. D. 
and chancellor of Chester, who was the younger son of Sir Randle 
Mainwaring, of Over Peover, in the county of Chester, knight 
treasurer of Ireland. He died most valiantly in the service of his 
prince and country, in the defence of the city of Chester, 1645, 


· l\IareschaJ, in French, imports a general of an army; in England, whoever en- 
joys the post of knight mareschal is obliged to carry the royal stanùard in timc 
of war. 



48 


llIOGRAPHICAL IIISTORY 


in the 20th year of his age, where he seems to have been in great 
distress. See his Letter in the Topographer, vo1. ii. p. 68, &c. 
and Harding'::; " Biographical Mirrour." 


SIR JO
N OWEN, knt. J. Caldwall sc. 4to. III 
Pennant's " Toar in Wales." 


Sir John Owen, knight, of Clenneney, in Caernarvonshire, was a 
gallant officrr, and strenuous supporter of the cause of Charles I. 
He greatly distinguished himself at the siege of Bristol, when it was 
taken by Prince Rupert, and was desperately wounded in the at- 
tack. Congenial qualities recommended him to his highness; who, 
superseding the appointment of Archbishop 'Villiams to the govern- 
ment of Conway CaRtle, in 1643, constituted Sir John commander 
in his place. This fortress was soon given up to General l\.Iytton, 
by the contrivance of the prelate, and the power of his friends; anrl 
the knight retired to his seat in the distant parts of the county. 
In 1648, he rose in arms to make a last effort in behalf of his fallen 
master, probably in concert with the royalists in Kent and Essex. 
He was soon attacked by 'Villiam Lioyd, sheriff of the county, 
whon1 he defeated, wounded, and made prisoner. He then laid 
siege to Caernarvon; but hearing that certain of the parliament 
forces, under the Colonels Carter and Twisleton, were on their 
march to attack him, he hastened to meet them, and took the 
sheriff with him on a litter. He met with his enemies near Llande- 
gai: a furious rencontre ensued, in which Sir John had at first the 
advantage; but falling in with their reserve, fortune declared 
against him. In a personal contest with a Captain Taylor, he was 
pulIed off his horse, and n1ade prisoner; and his troops, disheartened 
by the loss of their comlnander, took to flig'ht. The sheriff died 
the same day. The victory was esteemed of that consequence, 
that Captain Taylor, who was the messenger of the news to the par- 
liament, received a reward of 2001. out of Sir John's estate. 
Sir John was conveyed to vVindsor Castle, where he found four 
noblemen under confinement for the smne cause. On the 10th of 
November, a vote past for his banishment, and that of the Lords 
Goring, Loughborough, Capel, the Earl of Holland, and lVlajOlo- 
general l.anghorn; but after the execution of their royal master, 
sanguinary measures took place. The Duke of Hamilton, the Earl 
of HolIa.qd; alid the Lords Goring and Capel, were put upon tlwir 



OF ENGIJAND. 


49 


tria1s. Sir John shewed a spirit worthy of his country. II e told 11is 
judges, that" he was a plain gentleman of 'Vales, who had been 
taught to obey the king; and that he had served him honestly 
during the war; and finding that Inany honest men endeavoured 
to raise forces, whereby he n1Ïght get out of prison, he did the 
like ;" and concluded like a man who did not much care what they 
resolved concerning him. In the end he was condemned to lose 
his head; for which, with a humorous intrepidity, he Inade the 
court a low reverence, and gave his humble thanks. A by-stander 
asked what he meant: he replied aloud, " It was a great honour 
to a poor gentleman of Wales to lose his head with such noble 
lords; for by G-, hc was afraid they would have hanged him. 
Sir John, by mere good fortune, was disappointed of the honour 
be was flattered with; being, as his epitaph says, Famæ plllS quam 
Vitæ Sollicito. He neither solicited fo.r a pardon, nor was any pe- 
tition offered to parliament in his favour; which was strongly im- 
portuned in behalf of his fellow-prisoners. Ireton prove\.l his ad- 
vocate, and told the house, "That there was one person for whom 
no one spoke a \vord; and therefore requested, that he might be 
saved by the motive and goodness of the house." In consequence, 
mercy was extended to him; and after a few months' imprison- 
ment, he was on his petition set at liberty. I-Ie retired again into 
his country, where he died in 1666, and was interred in the church 
of Penmorva, in Caernarvonshire, where a small monument was 
erected to his Inemory. 


IIis Hon r . Captin IIOTHAM, S:c. on Ilorsebacl
; 
an etclzing'. J. Caulfield C.vc. 
Captain John Hotham, son of Sir John Hotham, of Scarborough, 
in Yorkshire, was brought before a court-martial at Guildhall, 
Nov. 30, 1644, Sir William 'Valler, president, upon a charge
 
that he being a commander in the service of the parliament, had 
betrayed the trust in him reposed, and perfidiously adhered to the 
enemy, by endeavourin
 to betray a regiment of horse, and other 
forces into their hands. 
He produced a great number of witnesses to invalidate the credit 
of the evidcnce against him, but no regard was paid to their testi- 
mony; and he was ordered to be beheaded, which sentence was 
executed Jan. 1st, 1645, on Tower-hill, one day preceding the 
execution of his father at the same rlace for a similar offence. 
VOL. III. II 



50 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


BERNARD STUART, earl of Lichfield, cOlnmandcr of the 
king's troops. See Class III. 


SPENCER COl\1PTON, earl of Northampton, colonel of a 
regiment of foot. See Class 111.* 


SIR GEORGE RA '\VDON, an excellent field officer. See the 
next reign, Class VIII. 


SIR JOHN SUCKLING, the poet, who had made a campaign 
under Gustavus Adolphus, raised a splendid troop of horse, at the 
expense of 12,000/. for the service of the king. This troop, with 
Sir John at its head, behaved so ill in the enga;;ement with the 
Scots, upon the English borders, in 1639, as to occasion the 
famous lampoon, composed by Sir John lHennis: cc Sir John he 
got him an ambling nag," &c. This ballad, which was set to a 
brisk tune, was lTIuch sung by the parlialuentarians, and continues 
to be sung to this day. This disastrous expedition, and the 
ridicule that attended it, was suppo3ed to have hastened his death. 
See Class IX. 


GEORGE 'VHARTON, afterward Sir George, sold his pater- 
nal estate to raise a troop of horse for the king, and took the com- 
nland of it himself. At the time of the Interregnum, he was a 
writer in various branches of literature, and seems to have taken 


· Lord Digby and Colonel Lunsford were accused by John Lilburne and other 
incendiaries, of an intention to bring a large party of the king's forces to 'Vestmin- 
ster, and massacre the parliamentary leaders. It was as falsely reported, that thc 
innocent colonel indulged his brutal appetite with the flesh of children. It appears 
from the following lines of Cleaveland: that there was II a picture," or print of him, 
making such a horrid meal: 


They fear the giblets of his train; they fear 
Even his dog, that four-legg'd cavalier; 
He that devours the scraps which Lunsford makes, 
'Vhose picture feeds upon a child in stakes.t 


It is highly probable, as I have never met with this print, that it has been indus- 
triously destroyed. The brave colonel, who was a man of a fair character, and far 
from being an epicure, much less a cannibal, was killeil, in 16:13, at the siege of 
Bristol. See more of him, in Grey's II Huùibras," vol. ii. p. 312, first edit. 


t Cleaveland's II Rupertismus," at p. 67 of his works, eùit. 1677. 



OF ENGLAND. 51 


up that profession from the necessity of his affairs. See the reign 
of Charles II. Class IX. 


JOHN DOLBEN, born at Segroit, in Denbighshire, a student 
of Christ Church, in Oxford, was an ensign in the royal army at the 
siege of York, and the battle of Marston 1\loor, where he was dan- 
gerously woundeu in the shoulder, by a musket-ball. He was 
afterward promoted to the rank of a major. Having entered into 
holy orders, he was, after the restoration, made a canon of Christ 
Church, and was successively bishop of Rochester, and archbishop 
of York. See the next reign, Class IV.- 


SIR BERNARD GASCOIGNE; fronz a drawing 
ill the ]{iJlg"s "Clarendon." R. Cooper sc. 


Sir Bernard Gascoigne was a gentleman of Florence, who out of 
gallantry had volunteered his service to King Charles I. He was 
taken at the siege of Colchester, with Sir Charles Lucas and Sir 
George Lisle, by General Fairfax, and all three sentenced by a 
council of war to be shot. Sir Bernard, who had but English 
sufficient to lllake himself understood, requested pen, ink, and 
paper, that he might write a letter to his prince, the great duke, 
that his highness might know in what manner he lost his life, to 
the end his heirs might possess his estate. The council, who were 
ignorr.nt of his being a foreigner (having only selected him as a 
person of quality, and preferred him for being a knight, that they 
might sacrifice three of that rank, on account of the obstinate de.. 
fence of the place), came to the determination of sparing his life, 
nnd putting to death his fellow-prisoners, Sir Charles Lucas and Sir 
George Lisle, who were accordingly shot, August 28, 1648. 


SIR JOlIN BOYS, of Bonnington, governor of 
Donnington Castle. Stow sc. 


.. John Fell, afterward bishop, was an ensign in the same cause with Dolben. 
See H Athen. Oxon." II. 795. So William Eeaw, afterward a bishop, was a major - 
in the king's service, Ibid. 1179. Two otllcrs, who became bishops, were also in 
the royal army, See Pctcr l\Iews. Ibid, 1178; and Joh11 Lake, ill Itichardson's 
.c Goodwin," p. ;)16. 



52 


BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTORY 


Sir John Boys was a captain in the royal army, and governor of 
Donnington Castle, in Berkshire, and by the bravery with which 
he defended it, during a long siege, shewed himself well worthy 
of the trust. It was attacked by the parliament army under the 
command of l\'l

or-generall\tIiddleton. In return to the general's 
summons, the governor sent the following spirited reply: "Sir, I 
mn intrusted by his majesty's express command, and have not 
learned yet to obey any other than my sovereign. To spare blood, 
do as you please; but myself, and those that are with me, are 
fully resolved to venture ours in maintaining what we are here 
intrusted with; which i3 the answer of -- JOHN Boys. 
The kir.g" knightel
 the governor for his good services;* he died 
166-1, and was buried at Goodneston, in K
ent. 


SIR I-IENRY GAG.E; frolll all orig'illal drauJing; 
aJl ctching'. (Clausin.) Publi:ÛICd by Tr
 llichardsoll. 


S Ut HE:\T RY GAGE. Thaue e.rc. 8vo. 


The Earl of Clarendon says, "He was in truth a veryextraor- 
dinary man, of a large and very graceful person, of an honourable 
extractioì1, his grandfather (great-grandfather it should be) having 
been knight of the Garter; besides his great experience and abi- 
lities as a soldier, which were very eminent; he had very great 
païts of breeding, being a very good scholar in the polite parts of 
learning, a great master in the Spanish and Italian tongues, besides 
the French anù the Dutch, which he spoke in great perfection. He 
"\-vas likewise very conversant in courts, having for many years 
been much esteemed in that of the archduke and dutchess, Albert 
and Isabella, at Brussels, which was a great and very regular court 
at that time; so that he deserved to be looked upon as a wise and 
accomplished person. He was made govcrnOl" of Oxford, and 
knighted; and soon after shot through the heart with a musket- 
bullet, Jan. 1614, in attempting to break down Culham-bridge, 
near Abingdon, where he intended to erect a royal fort. 


COLON.EL HUG}I GROVE; a sJlzallltcad, in the 
jì'ontispiece to vVinstantcy's " LO!Jat JIart!}rotog:y," 1 GGj; 
8vo. 


.. S
C Ly
ou'
 " .Mag. Brit:' vol. I. p. Sj(j, &c. 



OF ENGLAND. 


53 


COLO
EL IIUGH GROVE; cnlarged froJ7z the above 
print
. 8vo. 
Colonel Hugh Grove, in conjunction with Colorw1 Penruddock, 
raised a body of near two hundred horse, well armed, for the service 
of King Charles the Second, which they prpsnmed would every day 
be improved upon the access of those who had engaged themselves 
in the western association, especially after the fame of their being 
up and effecting any thing, should come to their ears. 'Vith this 
force they surprised, and took possession of the city of Salisbury, 
which they entered about five o'clock in the morning; aIul 
appointed some officers, of which they had plenty, to cause all the 
stables to be locked up, that all the horses might be at their devo- 
tion; others to break open the gaols, anu set free all persons in- 
imical to the parliament party: they kept a good body of horse 
upon the market-place, to encounter all opposition; and gave order 
to apprehend the judges and the sheriff, who were yet in their 
beds, and to bring thenl into the market-place with their several 
commissions, not caring to seize upon the persons of any others. 
All this was done with so little noise and disorder, as if the town 
]tad been all of one mind. They who were within doors, except 
they were commanded to come out, stayed still there, being more 
desirous to hear than to see what was done; very many being wen 
pleased, and not willing that others should discern it in their coun- 
tenance. 'Vhen the judges were brought out in their robes, and 
humbly produced their commissions, and the sheriff likewise, Sir 
Joseph \Yagstaff, a vViltshire gentleman, who had formerly been 
nlajor-general of the foot in the king's western army, re3olved, after 
he had proclaimed the king, to cause them all three to be hanged; 
but tbis was so violently opposed by Gïove and Penruddock, that 
'Vagstaff durst not persist in it, but was prevailed on to dismiss the 
judges after taking their commissions from them; determining still 
to hang the sherifl
 who positively, though humbly, and with many 
tears, refused to proclaim the king, which being otherwise donE', 
they likewise prevailed with him rather to keep the sheriff alive, 
and to carry him with thelll to redeelTI an honcster man out of the 
hands of their enemies. 

hcy did nothing resolutc1y after their first action, but were in 
such disorder and discontent among themselves, that they left the 
town, and took the sheriff \vith them, about two of the cJoek in 
the afternoon; but were so weary of thcir day's labour, and their 



54 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


watclling the night before, that they grew less in love with wIlat 
they were about, and differed again amongst themselves about the 
sI)(;:
riff
 whom many desired to be presently released; and that 
party carried it, in hope of receiving good offices afterward frOln 
hin1. In this manner they continued on their nlarch westward. 
They from Hampshire, and other places, who were behind them, 
being angry for their leaving Salisbury, would not follow, but 
s.cattered themselves; and they who were before them, and heard 
in what disorder they had left \Viltshire, likewise dispersed; so that 
after they had continued their journey into Devonshire, without 
meeting any who would join with them, horse and men were so 
tired for want of Ineat and sleep, that one single troop of horse, 
inferior in number, and commanded by an officer of no credit in 
tne war, being in those parts by chance, followed them at a distance, 
till tl1ey were so spent, that he rather entreated than compelled 
them to deliver themselves: some, and amongst them Wagstaff: 
(juitted their horses, and found shelter in some honest men's houses, 
where they were concealed till opportunity served to transport them 
iuto the parts beyond the seas, where they arrived safely. But 
Penruddock, Grove, and most of the rest were taken prisoners, 
tlpon promise given by the officer, that their lives should be saved; 
'which they quicldy found he had no authority to make good. For 
Cl"omwell no sooner heard of this cheap victory, than he sent 
judge3 away with a new commission of Oyer anù Terminer, and 
<>rdcrs to proceed with the utmost severity against the offenders. 
But Rolle, his chief-justice, who had so luckily escaped at Salisbury, 
lmd not recovered the fright; and would no n10re look those men 
in the face who had dealt so kindly with him; but expressly re- 
fused to be employed in the service, raising some scruples in point 
of law, whether the men could be leg'ally condemned; l1pon which 
CroHl\vell shortly after, turned him out of his office, having found 
uthGrs who executed his commands. Grove and Penruddock lost 
their heads at Exeter, and others were hanged there; many were 
sent to Salisbury, and tried and executed there, in the place where 
they had so lately triumphed. 


COLONEL EUSEBIUS ANDRE\VS; a sJ/zall 
bead, ill thcji'(}Jlti,',piece to JViJlslllJl[CY'S "Loyal iJIa/'- 
L!Jrolo
"y," IGG5; 8vo. 



OF ENGLAND. 


55 


COLONEL EUSEDIUS ANDRE""S; enlarg'cd fl'OJJl the 
above }Jrints,. 8vo. 


This gentleman was in the profession of the law, and practised 
as a counseHor at Gray's Inn; but on the breaking out of th
 civil 
war, he laid his gown aside for the sword, and faithfully adhered to 
the cause of the king; after whose death he was implicated in a 
1)]ot to overturn the Commonwealth, in which the chief agent was 
one Bernards, who had formerly served under him in the army as 
major. This man, with another named Pitts, are stated to have been 
suborned by Bradshaw and Sir Henry fvlildmay to swe8r against 
him, and notwithstanding a very aLle defence, in which he endea- 
voured to prove the illegality and authority of proceeding by a 
hig'h court of justice, he was found g'uilty, and beheaded on 
Tower-hill, Aug. 22, 1650. Colonel Andrews acted for some tilne 
in the capacity of secretary to Arthur, lord Capel. 


COLONEL POYER; a sJ7zali head, in the frontis- 
lJÏece to TVinslanley's " Loyal 
fartyrolog'}j," 1665; 8vo. 


COLONEL POYER; enlarg;edfro1Jl the above print; 8vo. 


Colonel Poyer, a gentleman and soldier of fortune, for some 
time served in the parliament army; but joining with Major-gene- 
ral Langhorne and Colonel Powel, he took up ar
ns for the J,.ing in 
South 'Vales; the enterprise, llowcver, failed, and they were defeated 
at S1. Fagon's by Colonel Horton, whereupon they retreated with 
the broken renlains of their army to the town of Pembroke, which 
they fortified, and valiantly defended for the space of three months, 
ag'ainst l-1orton and Cromwell, who with a great power, had come 
to the other's assistance. \Vhen being ill want of necessaries, and 
hopeJess of obtaining relief, they were compelled to surrender at 
mercy: the effect whereof was, according to the order of a council 
of war, "That the three colonel:; should draw lots for their lives," 
which fell upon Colonel Poyer, who was in consequence shot to 
death in Covent-g'ardell. 


lVIAJO R PITCl-IER; {l sJnall head, in the frontis- 
piece to JVinslan{ey' 8 " Loyal 
Iart!J J'o{og'}j," 1 (365; 8vo. 



56 


B IOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


IVIAJon PITCH EH; cnlarg;edfro'JJl the above print,. 81"0. 



Iajor Pitcher, a valiant and loyal gentlenlan, was one of the 
brave officers th
t ùef
nded Pelnbroke, against the army under 
Cromwell, for the space of three months; when finding no hope of 
relief, they surrendered upon articles, in which it was stipulated, 
I\Iajor Pitcher should depart the kingdom for three years, and not 
return in that time upon pain of death. But he thinking to render 
the king further service, outstayed the time prescribed for trans- 
porting himself abroad, was betrayed by some he confided in, and 
apprehended in London; when being brought to trial before a 
council of war, was condemned to be shot to death, which sentence 
was carried into execution, against the door of St. Faith's church, 
in St. Paul's churchyard, Dec. 29, 1648. 


A SCOTCI-I GENERAL. 


JAl\IES GRAHAl\I, marquis of l\1ontrose (or 
IVloxTlloss). A. lTandyck p. IIollbrllkc/l ð'C. 1740. 
III the posscs.Ûon of tlte Duke of M"oJltrose; Illllst. 
I-Iead. 


J A)IES GRAIIAl\I, &c. Tlertue sc. One of the Loyalists, 
fronl the SGl1Ze oriÆ'inal as the above. 


J Al\IES GRAHAl\r, &c. A cOP
lJ fronz lIoubral.:en, by 

ìraJlge. III Dr. Sinolfclt"s " History." 
Marchio Mont. Rosar. con1. de Kincardin, &c. .sil' 
Latin verses; 4to. A copy úy Vertue. 


J A l\IES, marquis of Montrose; four verscs; "Scot- 
land's G lory," 
'c. 4to. scarce. 


JAQUES, marquis de Montrose. Pontius sc. 8vo. 


JAJIES, lllarquis of l\1ontrose. A. lJIatlLaul f. 8vo. 



OF ENGLAND. 


57 


J AJ\IES, Inarquis of Montrose. Vandel"g'ucht se. 8vo. 


The Marquis of l\lontrose, &c. .Arms, 8sc. in tIle 
upper corners. I believe this is the same as A. J\tIa- 
than1's mentioned above. 


JAl\IES, marquis of Montrose. Gerel'lÛa se. In 
u ]{oble J..4uthol's," by .1J:lr. Park. 


James GrahaIn, marquis of Montrose, was comparable to the 
greatest heroes of antiquity. He undertook, against ahnost every 
obstacle that could terrify a less enterprising genius, to reduce the 
kingdom of Scotland to the obedience of the king; and his success 
was answerable to the greatness of his undertaking. By a thousand 
efforts of stratagem and valour, he, in a few n10nths, effectuated his 
great design; but, for want of supplies, was forced to abandon his 
conquests.. After the death of Charles,t he, with a few men, 
Inade a second attempt, but was presently defeated by a nun1erous 
army. As he was leaving the kingdom in disguise, he was betrayed 
into the hands of the enemy, by the Lord Aston, his treacherous 
friend. He was carried to his execution with every circumstance 
of indignity that wanton cruelty could invent, and hanged upon a 
gibbet thirty feet high, with the book of his exploits appendant to 
his neck t He bore his reverse of fortune with his usual greatness 
of mind, and expressed a just scorn at the rage and insult of his 
enemies. 'Ve nleet with nlany instances of valour in this active 
reign; but Montrose is the only instance of heroism. Executed 
1\lay 21, 16.50. See the Interregnum. 


· He, on several occasions, gave as signal proofs of his humanity, as he did of his. 
comage. It is worthy of remark, that in the memorable battle which he gained in 
September, 1644, the word of the rebels was" Jesus, and no quarter." 
t Tùe verses which he wrote on that occasion are as spirited as his valour. 

 This book, \o\hich was published in small octavo, 1647, is written in elegant 
Latin. It has, at the bottom of the title-page, A. S. the initials of Agricolâ Sopho- 
carùio, the ùisguised name of George Wisehart, afterward bishop of Edinburgh, 
who was the author of it. J. G. at the top of the same page, stand for Jacobus 
Græmus, the christian and sUillame of the marquis. The book, of which an Eng- 
lish translation was published in 164-9, is ullcommon. 


'OL. III. 


1 



58 


BIOGR.APHICAL HISTORY 


OFFICERS OF THE NAVY. 
"SIR JOlIN PENNINGTON, knight, one of 
the gentlemen in ordinary of his majesty's privy- 
charnber; governor and captain of Sandown Castle 
in Kent, and vice-adluiral of his majesty's fleet for 
this expedition,* Ao. 1636, and 1637." C. Van Dalen 
se. 4to. scarce. 


SIR JOHN PENNINGTON, knight, &c. w: Richard- 
son. 


SIR JOHN PEX
INGTON, in an oval. E. l-!ardiJlg. 


Sir John Pennington was a man of great courage, openness, and 
generosity; and what heightened everyone of his virtues, of un- 
16,12. common piety. When the Earl of Northumberland was indisposed, 
be was appointed by the king to supply his place; but the parlia- 
l11ent strong'ly remonstrated against this; as Sir John, who was a 
very loyal person, was one in whom they could '/lot co1Jfide, and they 
therefore recomnlended the Earl of \Varwick. Such was the situ- 
ation of the king's affairs, that he knew not how to refuse their 
request, which carried with it too much of the nature of a command. 
Sir John Pennington was, after some altercation, set aside; and 
the Earl of "Varwick was, upon the revocation of the Earl of N 01'- 
thumberland's commission, constituted lord high-admira1. The 
parliament strongly invited him to enter into their service; but he 
never could b
 prevailed with to serve against the king. Ob, 
Sept. 16-16. 
SIR KENELIVI DIGBY, by his eager pursuit of knowledge, 
seemed to be born only for contemplation. But he was thought 
to be so well qualified for action, that, in 1628, he was appointed 
commander of a squadron sent into the Mediterranean, to chastise 
the Algerine pirates, and the Venetian fleet. The former had com- 
mitted frequent depredations on the vessels of our merchants, and 


· Tu maintain the 
ovcreignty of the British seas. 



OF ENGLAND. 


59 


the latter had obstructed their trade. He exerted himself with an 
the spirit and conduct of a brave and experienced officer: and 
having brought the Venetians to reason, made reprisals on the 
Algerines, and set at liberty a great number of English slaves; he 
returned home with great credit to his country, and honour to him- 
self. See Class IX. 


OFFICERS OF THE PARLIAMENT ARMY. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex. Dobson p. 
Faithorne sc. Engraved witlzout lzatclziJl
', in the 'luan- 
neI'" of Mellan; h. sh.* 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. on horseback, 1643; 
Hollar f. h. she 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. whole len
.th. Vauglzansc. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. 
'old by Stent,o 12nlo. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. Jl;Ia1"shall sc. Before the 
U List of the Arnzies, 1642;" 4to. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. G. Glovc'J" f. 4to. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. on horseback,. battle of 
]{ewbury; Overton,ot 4to. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, lately deceased; 
12mo. in Ricraft's book. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. in arlnour. Hulett sC. In 
Peck's " Life of Crollzwell/' 4to. 


· This is the 
arnc plate, as Endymion Porter, altered. 
t The name of a printsellcr, successor to Stent, whose stock in trade he purchased. 



60 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


The Earl of ESSEX and the Lord 'ViLLOUGHBY of 
Eresby ; tlVO equestrian portraits in OJle plate; large 4to. 
The print, 'lv/licit is but indifferently engraved, is very 
scarce. 


The Lord \Villoughby has been n1entioned before as earl of 
Lindsey. 


" The portraitures of the parlianlent's forces by 
sea and land: ROBERT, earl of Essex, late general of 
the parliamenfs army; Lord FAIRFAX; Sir TH01\IAS 
FAIRFAX, general of the army, and constable of the 
Tower of London ; Lieut.-general CR01\l\\TELL; Major- 
general SKIPPON; Earl of \V AR"TICK, adlniral of the 
narrow seas; ALEXANDER LESLEY, general of the 
Scots; Earl of MANCHESTER." All on horseback. Sold 
hy Stent,. large h. sh. scal'ce. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, lying in state 
in Westnziuster Abbey,. fol. cig/it Englislt verses. P. 
Stellt. 


ROBERT, earl of Essex, ..IEtatis sua 56. Tf T . Hole. 
A 'JJlournefull cloud, 
'c. 1646; to CodriJlg,ton's " Life 
of R. E. of Esse.v;" 4to. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, with hat and 
featlzel",. g'eneral of the ar1Jzy; standing whole lcngth. 
W. Hollar; scal'"ce; 4to. Stent e.v. 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex; frol1z the above. 
W. Richardson. 


ROBERT DE\TEREUX, 3d earl of Essex. Gere1Jzia 8C. 
In " Noble Authors," hy lJIr. Par/i; 1806. 



OF ENGLAND. 


GI 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex, fronl the ori- 
p;inal in the possession of Charles Clzallwick, esq. 

ìJ'iJlg'eJ' del. Basire sc. III S'lla1v's " History of Staf- 
fordshire." 


ROBERT DEVEREUX, &c. sJJlal1 'lvhole leng,th,. CJJl- 
hleJ7zatic devices,. deatlt with his dart:}" hour-g'lass witlt 
wings of tÙue :}" f01l1
 Eng'lish lines, 


CC Prepare for death, lest hee 
Send thee to woe and miserie; 
Time swift doth run 
. To judgment thou must come." 


"Sinal! 4to. Sold by P. Stent,. scarce. 


ROBJ
RT DEVEREUX, earl of Essex; 8vo. Van 
Dyclc; ill Clarendon's" History." 


Ro BERT, earl of Essex, with General Lesley; Sir 
Thomas Fairfax; Ed \vard, earl of l\lanchester; Ge- 
neral Skipp on ; Oliver Cromwell; Sir William 
\Valler; Sir William Brereton; General Massey, 
and General Brown; ten ovals; with a pe1fect list of 
all the victories obtained by the parliaJ1lentary forces, 
with the nanles of the cities, t01VJlS, castles, and forts, 
taken since the beginning, to this present rnonth, Aug'llst, 
1646; by Josiah Ricraft:}. a folio sheet:}" rare and cu- 
'riolls:}' in the collection of Sir lJfark lJIastcr1JlaJt Syl,:es, 
bart. 


Robert, earl of Essex, was the only son of the unfortunate fa- 
vourite of Queen Elizabeth, and inherited much of his father's po- 
pularity. He acquired, in the Low Countries, a great reputation 
as a soldier; a kind of merit, that was despised by James I. and 
overlooked by Charles. His courage was great, his honour was 
inflexible; but he rather waited, than sought for- opportunities of 



62 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


fighting; and knew better how to gain, than improve a victory. 
'Vhen he took the cOlnnland of the parliament army, he was 
better qualified than any man in the kingdom for that post; but 
was soon eclipsed by a new race of soldiers, who, if not his supe- 
riors in the art of war, went far beyond him in spirit and enterprise. 
He died the 14th of September, IG46: and his death helped to 
open a way for the ambition of Crolnwell. 


SIR THOl\IAS FAIRFAX, knight, general of the 
forces raised by the parliament. Ed. BO'UJe1'"s p. 

 Marshall sc. On horseback. Frontispiece to "Eng"- 
land's Recovery.' being' the Histo1'"Y of the Ar17zy under 
the conduct of Sir TIt01JlaS FairJa.-'l};" Jol. 1647. 


TnOl\IAS, (afterward) lord Fairfax. Cooper p. 
Floubraken sc. In the collection of Brian Fai1fa

', esq. 
Itlust. fIead. 


SJ R THOl\IAS FAIRFAX ; from a uzlniature in the 
hands of Brian FairJa
r, esq. Hulett se. In PecIc's 
"Life oj CroJJl'lvell,." 4to. The original picture was 
painted úy Heywood. 


SIR THOl\IAS F AIRFAX. Walke1'" p. Faithorne sc. In 
ar171ollr,. h. she scarce.* This is copied by Vandergucht, 
in 8vo. 


SIR THOl\IAS FAIRFAX; etched hy Streeter,t in an 
oval of pabns. This is in the view oj the battle of Naseby, 
in " Eug'land's Recovery," cS"c. nzentioned above. 


SIR THOl\IAS FAIRFAX; 1648. Hollar f. 12nlo. zn 
an oval. Joan Huyssens eJ/clldit Antwerpiæ. 


· The first impressions are.sold by Rowlett, the second by Thomas Hinde. 
t Afterward scrjcant-paint('r to Charles II. 



OF ENGLAND. 


63 


TH01tIAS FAIRFAX, general; in a cloak, staff, 
e. in 
Hollar's Jnanner; 8vo. 


THO
IAS FA IRF Ãx, &ë. eight verses, ill High Dutclz; 
larg,'e 8vo. 
SIR THO
IAS FAIRFAX, on horseback. Sold by TllO- 
'JJlas Iliude,. h. she 


SIR TU01\IAS FAIRFAX. Stellt:; 4to. 


SIlt THO:\IAS FAIRFAX; aJlag'ralll1na, Fa.r erit fa- 
'J1l0sa,. 4to. 


SIR Tn01\IAS FAIRFAX; "Cætera norunt," 
'c. 
large 4to. 
THOJ\IAS FAIRFAX, generalis exercituum, &c. 12n20. 
SIR THOl\IAS FAIRFAX. lJ:foJlcornet e.re. 4to. 


THOI\IAS FA I RFAX, 'Jlovæ Ang,'licanæ roeipublicæ, "5'c. 
capitancus generalis. 


FA IUFAX, the lord-general of the forces raised by 
the parliament; sash ahollt his waist;}. 4to. 


THOl\IAS, lord Fairfax; a sash about his waist. 
1 T ertlie se. Copiedfroul theforegoing. 


THOMAS, lord Fairfax; profile;}' hat,. holding his 
sword and papers,. sL
' Dutch verses. Savry e.l"e. larg"c 
4to. a curiolis print. 


THOl\I.AS, lord Fairfax. T. JVorlidge f. 3! inches 
hy 2i. 



ü4 


BJOG RA PHICAL IIISTOR Y 


TH01\IAS, lord Fairfax, baron of Cameron, &c. in 
a r JJlOur. 


LORD FAIRFAX, u,ith a Hebrew inscription, in Eng;- 
lislt, "His integrity hatlt broken the wild ass /' 4to. 


TH01\IAS, lord -Fairfax. Bocquet sc. III "Noble 
Authors," hy 11:/1'. Park. 


TnOl\IAS FAIRFAX, general du parlement; zn 
Larrey's "Ilistory of Eng'land." 


Thomas, lord Fairfax, was formed as a soldier under Horatio, 
lord V ere, in the Netherlands; and was at the taking of Bois Ie 
Duc from the Spaniards. He was one of the first characters of his 
time for integrity, and military accomplishments; but his natural 
simplicity was so great, that he was ever the dupe of Cromwell, 
who had only the appearance of it. He was a very useful instrument 
in the hands of that aspiring man, who quickly reaped the fruit of 
aU his victories. Sir Horace Vere, his master in the art of war, 
was remarkable for doing great things with few men; and Fairfax, 
with the loss of few. He had a considerable share in the resto- 
ration of Charles II.. See Class IX. 


OI-oIIVER CROMWELL, lieutenant-general. JOOlJ't 
IIartg'ers c..rc. 8vo. 


Oliver Cromwell united, in a very high degree, the characters of 
tl1e politician and the general; and occasionally assumed those of 
the buffoon and the preacher. He broke forth from his obscurity, 
at an age when others think themselves doomed to it for ever; and 
when many beg'in to entertain thoughts of retiring from the world, 


· 1\Ir. Ralph Thoreshy informs us, in the account of his o\Vn II 1\Iuseum," that 
Lord Fairfax: made a collection of engraved portraits of warriors. He also made a 
collection of coins and medals, which were purchased by "'\Ir. Thoreshy's father. 
It should he remembered to his honour, tbat he allowed a considerable pension 
to that able and industrious antiquary, Roger Dod
worth, wIm had the greatest 
hand in the II ]}[onasticoll.' J 



OF ENGLAND. 


G5 


he began to lnake the most conspicuous figure in it. He availed 
l1Ïmself of the virtues and the vices, the talents and the weaknesses 
of mankind; and such obstacles as would have been insunnount- 
able to an inferior genius, helped greatly to carry him on in his 
career. His lnost signal exploit in this reign, was at the battle of 
N aseby, where, in that decisive action, he wholly turned the fortune 
of the day.* See the Interregnum, Class I. 


MAJOR-GENERAL THOMAS HARRISON; 
fi
07Jl an original painting. 111. Vande}
llclzt sc. 8vo. 
In Clarendon's "History." There is a 81Jlall Pl'iut of 
lzÙJl, ltolding a tr'ullcheoll. 


Major-general Harrison, son of a butcher, at Nantwich, in 
Cheshire, was bred an attorney; but quitted that profession in the 
beginning of the civil war. He was a man of courage, and of great 
volubility of tongue; and was of singular service to Cromwell, in 
subduing the presbyterian faction. He was one of those who 
pleaded for a legal trial of Charles I. whom he undertook to bring 
from Hurst Castle for that purpose. He amused Fairfax with long 
prayers, for whick he had an admirable talent, at the time of the king's 
execution. He was one of the ten regicides who were executed in 
October, 1660. He died exulting in the cause for which he suf- 
fered. See the Interregnum, Class IV.t 


FERD IN AND, lord Fairfax. Sold by Hen. Dochen; 
whole len2,'tlt; 4to. 
FERDINAND, lord Fairfax. T. Worlidg'ejecit. 


· It has been asserted, that his body was carried, by his own direction, to that 
part of Naseby field, where he won the victory, and there with great privacy in- 
terred. "Complete Hist. of England," iii. p. 228, in the notes. 
t In Cowley's comedy, called " The Cutter of Coleman-street," act iii. towards 
the end, it is said that" 1\lajor-general Harrison is to come in green sleeves,
 from 
the north, upon a sky-coloured mule, which signifies heavenly instruction." This 
}>assage was censured as profane: but says the author, in his preface, " Is it pro- 
fane to speak of1Jarrison's re(urn to life again, when some of his friends really pro- 
fest their belief of it, and he himself had been said to promise it ?" 


YOLo III. 


* Probably then worn by butchers. 
K 



ßß 


BIOGRAPII rCAL 11IST 0 R Y 


The Right Honourable 
FERDI NAND, lord Fairfax; 
'lvh ole length. W. Richardson. 


FERDIN AND, lord Fairfax; zn SÙnon's ".1Jlcdals,'
 
pl. 11. 


FERDINAND, lord Fairfax; a s1Jzall head.* 
Ferdinand, lord Fairfax, father of Thomas, above mentioned, 
was general of the parliament forces in the North. He was 
totally routed by the Earl of Newcastle, at Adderton Moor, in June, 
1643: but he and his son gained a complete victory over Colonel 
Bellasyse, governor or York, at Selby, the 11th of April, 1644, for 
which the parJiament ordered a general thanksgiving. After Sir 
Thomas Glelnham had surrendered York, and the earl had retired 
beyond the seas, he succeeded to the government of that city, and 
of the northern counties. He died at Y ork
 March the 13th, 
1647-8. 


WILLIAM, earl of Bedford, general of the horse 
(under the Earl of Essex); G. G. (Glover) f. 4to. 
See Class III. 


SIR WILLIAM WALLER, knt. serjeant-major- 
general, &c. C. J. p. 1643. Rotternlondt inc. large 
4to. very scarce. t 
SIR W ILLIAl\I WALLER,. &c. 121710. Copied frol7Z 
the above.. 


· This is in a book called II A Survey of England's Champions, and Truth.s 
faithful Patriots, by Josiah Ricraft," 1647, 8vo. In the same book are twenty 
mare sroan heads; among which are Lord Roberts, Lord \YiIloughby of Parham J 
l\Iajor-generaI :L\Iassey, Major-general Skippon, l\Iajor-general Poyntz, l\1ajor- 
general Brown, thf' Earl of Calendar, Sir 'Villiam Balfour, Sir 'Villi am Brereton, 
and Sir J olm :L\IeJdrum. The rest need not be enumerated, as being in general 
copies from well-known prints. The book is very uncommon. 
t The first impressions have H The Right Valient and FaithfuJl and famous 'Yar- 
riour," &c. P. Stellt exc. afterward only U Sir WiIJiam 'VaUer." 



OF ENGLAND. 


67 


S [R WILLI Al\vI 'V.A LLER, knt. chief-general of all 
the forces in Glocestershire, &c. whole length. Stellt; 
4to. 


SIR W ILLIAl\I 'V ALLER, on horseback; inscribed, 
Rig'ht Valiant and E,Tpert C071l1nander. w: Riddiard 
c.'t'clldit; very rare. 


9 
SIR WILLIA
I WALLER; oval. P. Aubrey c.r. sl1lall 
quar(o. 
SIR W ILLIAl\1 WALLER; slJzalloval. Hollar. 


SIR \VILLIAl\I WALLER; ditto. W. Richardson. 


SIR 'VILLIAl\I WALLER, 1647. R. Walkcr. J. 
Aliltoll; 1793. 


SIR WILLIAl\I WALLER, ill ar112our,. bottom part 
oval. Rotternzondt,. Woodburn e..r. 


Sir \Villiam \Valler, son of Sir Thomas Waller, constable of 
Dover Castle, and lYlargaret, daughter of Sampson Lennard, lord 
Dacre, served in the Netherlands, in the same camp with Sir Ralph 
Hopton; and was in the army of the confederate princes against the 
emperor. He was one of the most able and active of the parliament 
general:;, and was for a considerable time victorìous, and therefore 
called, 'Villiam the Conqueror. He was defeated at the battle of 
Lansdown, near Bath, and afterward totally routed at Roundway 
Down, near the Devizes. Hence, with a little variation, it was 
called Runaway Duwn, and continues to be called so to this day. 
Sir Arthur Haslerig's cuirassiers, well known by the name of 
lobsters, were among the fugitives. Cleaveland says, that "they 
turned crabs, and went backwards.". The conqueror's fame sunk 
considerably from this time; but he afterward had the honour of 
defeating his former fellow-soldier, the Lord Hopton at Alresford. 
See the next reign, Class IX. 


July 5, 
1643. 
July 13, 
1643. 


· Cleaveland's U W oris," 1). 114, edit. j 677.. 



68 llIOGJtAPIIICAL HISTOR Y 


SIR 'VILLIAM BALFOUR, lieutenant-general of the horse 
under the Earl of Essex, commanded the reserve at Edge-hill, with 
which he charged so vigorously, that he soon dispersed the king's 
best infantry, and seized his artillery. He also greatly distin.. 
guished himself in the taking of Newbury. See the next Class. 


EDWARD, lord Mountague (Montagu), baron of 
Kimbolton, viscount Mandeville, earl of l\1anchester; 
front a painting", whcn olle of the ulcnzúers. AI. Vandcr- 

llclzt sc. 8vo. Another, 
vith the s{[}ne inscription,. 12)]10. 
square. 
ED'" ARD MONTAGUE, lord Kimbolton; Il/ust. 
Head. 


ED'VARD MOUNTAGUE, lord Kimbolton; in 5Z1J10n"S 
" ..lJIedals," p. 15. 
ED'" ARD, lord Montague, oval. TV. Richardson. 
ED"! ARD, e
rl of Manchester, on lzorsebacli; 
truJlcheon in his hand; 4to. very 'rare. 
ED,,, ARD, lord Mountague, &c. major-general of 
the association; J 21710. in Ricraft's book. 
ED'V ARD, lord Mountague, &c. major-general of 
the parliament's forces, in the associated counties of 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, &c. W lIollar f. 1644; a 
SJJZlll1 oval. 


Edward, earl of Manchester, a nobleman of many great and ami. 
able qualities, was a zealous, and no less able patron of liberty; 
but without enmity to monarchy, or the person of the king. lIe 
was one of the avowed patriots in the House of Peers, and the only 
member of that house who was accused by Charles of high-treason, 
together with the five members of the House of Commons. In the 
civil war, he had the charge of seven of the associated counties; 
and with his usual activity and address raised an army of horse, 



OF ENGLAND. 


6Ð 


which he commanded in person. Soon after he entered npon his 
command, he forced the town of Lynne to submit to the parliament, 
and defeated the Earl of N ewcastIe's army at Horn Castle. In 
1644, he took Lincoln by storm, and had a principal share in the 
victory at l\1arston l\Ioor. After the battle of Newbury, he was 
suspected of favouring the king's interest; was even accused by 
Cronnvell of neglect of duty, anJ by the self-denying ordinance 
deprived of his commission. He heartily concurred in the resto. 
ration of Charles II. who appointed him lord-chamberlain of his 
household. Db. May 5, 1671, Æt. 69. 


Oct. 27, 
164.1. 


PIIILIP SKIPPON, esq. In arl710llT',. 12J7lo. zn 
Ricraft's book. 


PHILIP SKIPPON, esq. major-general of the army. 
}
 Richardson. 


Philip Skippon was serjeant-major-general of the parliament 
army, major-general of the London militia, and governor of Bristol. 
A fter the passing of the self-denying' ordinance, he was preferred 
to the same post in the army that he held before; to which he was 
thought justly to be entitled on the foot of his merit. He was pre- 
sident of the council of war, under the Earl of Essex; and both in 
the cabinet and the field, approved himself an excellent soldier. 
lIe commanded the infantry at the battle of Naseby, where he 
exertèd himself with his usual intrepidity. "Magnanimous Skippon," 
S3YS l\fay, " was grievously wounded, yet would not forsake the 
battle; but with all possible endeavours discharged his part, till 
the victory was obtained."*' He was a zealous republican, and 
indeed went the greatest lengths with that party. His name fre- 
quently occurs as a member of the House of Commons in the 
Interregnum. He was also one of Cromwell"s council of state. 
He had 10001. a year in lands of inheritance, assigned him by' the 
parliament, for his services:'t Walker says, ,. he was heretofore 


*" :lUay's Ie Breviary of the Hist. of the Parliament," p. 96. 
t The Duke of Buckingham"s estate, at Blccheley, in Buckinghamshire, was 
gi vt'n him, on that noblcman"s forfeiture; but, at the restoration, it reverted to the 
legal owner. 



70 


BIOGRAPHICAL I-lISTOR Y 


waggoner, to Sir Francis Vere.". But if he were a waggoner, 
which is extremely improbable, it adds much to the greatness of 
his character, to have been able to raise himself to such eminent 
posts in the army and the state, under every disadvantage of edu- 
cation. I am informed that he was father to Philip Skippon, esq. 
who travelled with l\1r. Ray. Quære. 


COLONEL MASSEY, appointed lieutenant- 
general of the horse, raised for Ireland, by the 
parliament; hair, 'll)lziskers, 
'c. 12JJlo. 


ED'V ARD MASSEY, on horseb{lck,. 4to. ß7: Slzer'lvill; 
scarce. 


EDWARD MASSEY, esq.lnajor-general of the West; 
in arJnOllr,. in Ricraft and Leicester's" Surveys." 


The undaunted Co!. MASSIE, &c. W Bressie f. 
whole leng.th, 4to. scarce. His head is prifi..
1ed to "An 
historical Relation of the 1Jzilitary GOVCrJl71Zent of Glou- 
cester," 
'c. 1 û45; 12nlo. 
There is a painting of him, by Coker, at Coddington, in Cheshire. 
Major-general Massey, a Presbyterian, and a soldier of fortune, 
offered to enter into the king's service, before he was retained by the 
parliament, which he served with a fidelity that was greatly ap- 
plauded. He was governor of the city of Gloucester, which he held 
out with invincible resolution against the flower of the royal army, 
till the Earl of Essex could be supplied with a sufficient body of 
forces to raise the siege. The defence of this city is one of the most 
signal instances of bravery in the whole course of the war. He was 
set aside by the Independents, upon the passing of the self-denying 
ordinance, and we find him a major-general of the army, under 
Charles II. in January, 1659-1. 


. · 'Va]ker's " Hist. of Inrlepenclency," 1. p. 45. Sir Francis Vere is there called 
Pere: I h:we substituted tll(' true reading. 
Skippun \..a
, perhaps, wl\ggoner to Sir Francis Vere, ill the same sense as Sir 
Laurence Dumbs wag to Prince .Ferdinand. 



OF ENGLAND. 


71 


l\1:AJOR-GENERAL POYNTZ (POINTZ); ill ar- 
'J/lOllJ"" a small head, in Ric'l'lift's " Survey." 


In the book of 1YIedals 
lJ the SÙnolls, plate XXI. lS 
a 1Jzedal of POINTZ; on the Tevel'1se, " 1646, Sideni 
Pointz, * 10,000 Equit. et Pede associat. Septent. 
Dux. Sum. Ebor. Gubern." 


IVIAJOR-GENERAL POYNTZ. if: Richardson. 


l\lajor-general Pointz, a man of courage and activity, gained a 
very considerable name, by his vigilance as wen as his valour, in the 
north and north-west, where he, in several skirmishes, had the ad- 
vantage of the royalists. He conlmanded a large body of the parlia- 
ment forces, with which he harassed the poor relnains of the royal 
army, after the battle of Naseby. His most signal exploit was 
routing the king's horse at Chester, and killing many gentlemen and 
officers of note, particularly the gallant Earl of Lichfield, who was 
the third brother of that illustrious house, that sacrificed their lives 
in the course of the civil war. It has been said, that his views in 
entering into this war were purely patriotic; and that he was never 
known to be influenced by covetou sness or ambition, when he had 
frequent opportunities of amply gratifying these passions. 


JOHN LAMBERT, major-general, &c. 


RICHARD BROWN, esq. major-general of Ox on. 
Berkshire, and Buckinghan1; 12nw. square. In lli- 
craft's book. 


RICHARD BRO'VN, esq. JV: Richardson. 


RICHARD BRO\V"N; in 
l'J710n'S " Aledals," p. 15. 
SIR RICHARD BnO'VN, bart. ambassador from 


· Ricraft styles him Sir Sydcnham Poyntz-. 



72 


llIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTORY 


King Charles I. and II. to the court of France; en- 
l!;rllvcd by Philip Azulillct, fronl an orig;iJlal dra-wing' by 
R. A-'aJ/tcllill, at Paris, 4to. ill Evelyn's" lJIeJJzoirs." 


Uichard Brown, all eminent citizen of London, and a warm advo- 
cate for presbytery, greatly distinguished himself in the field, and 
hall no small influence in the parliament, where he was a }'epresen- 
tative for the city of London. He attended the Earl of Essex when 
he first marched against the king, and had a considerable hand in 
defeating the royalists near 'V orcester, and at Edge-hill. He took 
Arundel Castle by storm, and seizing on Abingdon, bravely defended 
it against the whole force of the garrison of Oxford. In a sudden 
saUy from Abingd0n, he surprised and took Bellasyse-house, which 
was strongly garrisoned by the royal party, and found in it a good 
supply of provisions. He was one of the commissioners deputed 
to receive the king from the Scots army, where, perceiving the great 
advantage his majesty had in his disputes with their politici
ns and 
divines, and probably penetrating the designs of the Independents, 
he returned to his allegiance, and ever after inflexibly adhered to 
it. He was much in favour with Charles II. whose resident he was 
at Paris, before the restoration; and was soon after created a baro- 
net, having before received the honour of knighthood. He had the 
con1mand of the city militia, and was lord Inayor of London, in 
1660. His only daughter and heiress espoused John Evelyn, esq.* 
during her father's residence in France.t 


HENRY IRETON, commissary-general. 


HE
 RY IRETOY, autogy'aplt and seal; in Cau!lield's 
" lligh Court of Justice." 
John Lambert and Henry Ireton, who were of genteel extraction, 
studied the common law at the inns of court. Upon the commence- 


· Cowley, in his II Garden," addressed to this worthy gentleman, comp1imcnts 
Jlim upon his taste for horticulture aud books, and his happy choice of a wife, who 
Jléld, as he expresses it. 
The fairest garden in her looks, 
And in her mind the choicest books. 


t Yita Jo. Barwick, 'Vood, Ricraft, &c. 



OF ENGLAND. 


73 


. 
Inent of the war, they entered into the parliament army, and seelll 
to have set out with the same principles and views: but Lambert's 
ambition, which was his ruling passion, carried hiln at length much 
farther than that of Ireton. They both distinguished themselves at 
the battle of N aseby, and were both concerned in drawing up the 
remonstrance of the army to the parlimnent; in which they de- 
manded, in the style of lawgivers, that the house should be purged 
of such as they deemed unfit to sit in it; and that no parliaments 
should be dissolved by the king, without their consent. Ireton had 
the greatest hand in drawing up the ordinance for the king's trial, 
and the precept for proclaiming the high court of justice, in which 
he sat as a judge. See the Interregnum, Class II. 


COLONELS, AND INFERIOR OIi"FICERS. 


LORD ROBERTS; a ð'lllall ltead,. in Ricraft's 
book. 


JOHN, lord Roberts, afterward earl of Radnor; in 
" Noble Authors," by ffiIr. Park,. fro1Jl, a miniature hy 
Cooper. 
John, lord Roberts, had the cOlnmand of a regiment under the 
Earl of Essex. He, at Newbury, led the parliament forces to the 
charge with great gallantry, and by his courage and conduct routed 
the royal army. He, with part of his brigade, defended Plymouth 
against the combined force of the enemy, and several times repulsed 
them to their great loss. See RADNOR in the reign of CHARLES II. 
. 


LORD WILLOUGHBY, of Parham; a s1Jzall head; 
in the sanle book with that of Lord Roberts. 
FRANCIS, lord Willoughby, of Parham. A. Bant- 
voort; rare. 



RANCIS, lord Willoughby. Harding'. 
The Lord WiHoughby, of Parham, greatly distingu
shed bimself 
in taking by storm, at midnight, the strong garrison of Gainsbo- 
VOL. III. L 



74 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTORY 


rough

 and in it the Earl of Kingston, and many gentlemen and 
common soldiers. He afterward besieged and took the castle of 
Bolingbroke, with a considerable quantity of arms and ammunition;. 
and signalized his courage on many other occasions. 


CHARLES SEATON, second earl of Dunfernl- 
line. Ob, 167 4. 
 Richardson. 


AlJlong; the nzedals oj' the 5 Y i'l7l0nS is a characteristic one 
of SIR JOHN SEA'fON,t a Lancashire gentleman, 
who by his courage and activity had a principal hand 
in subduing the powerful army cOlllmanded by Lord 
Strange, and reducing the county of Lancaster to 
the obedience of the parliament. 


COLONEL (JOHN) OKEY; on horseback. Stent. 


COLONEL JOHN OKEY; in fin oval. }
 Richardson. 
COLONEL JOHN OKEY; on /Zorsebacli:; 4to. (Clalls- 
sin.) 
 llichardson. 
· COLONEL JOH
 OKEY, 'with hisautog1"aph and seal; 
in Cau{jield's " Hig;h Court of Justice." 
Colonel Okey, a man of low birth, and said to have been by 
occupation a drayman, was one of those who were called" Root 
and branch men;" who hated the name anù office of a king, and 
were resolved to extirpate .monarchy. He sat in juùgment upon 
Charles, and his hand and seal is the sixth on the warrant for hig 
execution. He was one of those regicides who were brought from 
Holland, in 1662, in which year he was executed at Tyburn, glorying 
in the cause for which he &uffered. 


SIR 'VII
LIAM BRERETON; a sllzalllzcad; l1l 
Ricraft's hoo/t. 


. . 
· July, 1643. 
t Qllærf'. if of the sallIe famjl.v as Lord ÐunfcrmJin{'. 



OF ENGI.lA
D. 


75 


SIR WII.LIAl\I BRERETON, major-general of Che- 
'Shire. W. Richardson. 


SIR W
 BUERETON, IVI. G. of Ches. Staf. and Lan. 
sJJzal1 oval,. in Leicester 'ð' " Chronicle,." scarce. 


This brave volunteer gave abundant proof of his valour in the 
tilne of the civil war. He, in a sharp skirmish, defeated Sir Thomas 
Aston, near N antwich, and soon after gave battle to the Earl of 
Northampton, in Staffordshire, where that gallant and loyal noble- 
man was unfortunately slain: he presently after took the town of 
Stafford by stratagem. He next defeated Lord Capel; and, aided 
by Sir Thomas Fairfax, forced Lord Byron to raise tIle siege of 
N antwich. On the 18th of August, 164ð, he gained a memorahle 
victory over Prince Rupert, in Cheshire. In November, the saIne 
year,' he, in a fierce battle, totally routed a large party of the king's 
army, in conjunction with all the Welsh forces under the command 
of Sir William Vaughan, which composed a body of six thousand 
Dlen. He also took several castles, the town of Rippon, and the 
citie
 of Chester and Lichfield. *' 


CO LO NEL L UN S FO RD ; fronz an original pictl[.1
e 
in the collection of Richard Ald'llJorth Neville, esq. 
W. N. Gardiner sc. 4to. 


COLONEL LUNSFORD; a satyrical print, prifi
rcd to 
a rare palJ7phlet, in the collection of tracts given by;, 
/Ûs late 'llzqjesty to the British ffiIltsellJu. 


COLO
EL LUÑSFORD; a head only,. copiedfrolll the 
above in Baldwyn's edition of Grey's Hlldibras. 


Colonel Thomas Lunsford was a man of an ancient family in 
Sussex, but of a very small fortune, and of no great education, 
having been compelled to fly the kingdOln to avoid the hand of 
justice for some riotous misden1eanour; by reason of which he spent 


to See Ricraft. 



76 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTOR Y 


some time in the service of the King of France, where he got the 
reputation of a man of courage and a good officer of foot. 
In the beginning of the troubles in the reign of King Charles the 
First, he had some command in the king's army, and was promoted 
to the lieutenancy of the Tower of London, in the room of Sir Wil- 
liam Balfour, during the confinement of the Earl of Strafford; but 
Lunsford was so little known, except upon the disadvantage of an 
ill character, that in a more peaceable time the promotion of such a 
person to so important an office would have appeared very ungrate- 
ful to the public in general. He was utterly a stranger to the king, 
and it was quickly understood to proceed from the single election of 
the Lord Digby, who had in truth designed that office for his brother 
Sir Lewis Dives, but he being not at that time in town, and Lord 
Digby having some secret reason to fill tl\at place in the instant 
with a man who might be trusted, he suddenly resolved upon this 
gentletnan, as one who would be faithful to him for the obligation, 
and execute any thing he should direct. The House of Commons 
however became so enraged on the occasion) that they desired the 
lords to join them in a petition to the king to put the Tower into 
better hands; and indeed Lunsford was not known enough, and of 
reputation equal, to so invidious a province; and therefore within 
two or three days he resigned the place, and the king gave it to Sir 
John Byron. 
Colonel Lunsford manied Katharine, daughter of Sir Henry 
N eviUe, of Billingbear, and was taken prisoner by the parliamentary 
army at the battle of Edge-hill; but at what time be died is un- 
certain. 


CORNET JOYCE, wlzoseized ([}ldtoolt Killg
Charle8 
the lJ'irst, prisoner at l/olJ1zby, June 3, 1647 ; frolJl all 
original picture; 4to. W. llicllardsoJl. 


CORN ET J OY.CE; frorn a beautiful 'JniJliatare, ]Jainted 
on silvel'", in tile collection of E. TV. lIfartiJl, eð'q. 8vo. 
B. lleading se. 


,. 
This daring feHow, who was by profession a tailor, f'ntered into 
the parliament army, became an active agitator, and soon attained 
the rank of cornet. 'V hen the plan was formed for sci1;ing the per- 



OF ENGJ...AND. 


77 


son of the king, at Holmby-house, without being opposed by the 
guard, whose affections were all on his side, Joyce came into the 
king's presence, armed with pistols, and told him, that he must im- 
mediately go along with him. 1Vhither? said the king. To the army, 
Teplied Joyce. By what 'warrant? asked the king. Joyce pointed 
to the soldiers, whom he had brought, all of whom were tall, hand- 
some, and well accoutred. Your warrant, said Charles, smiling, 
is 'writ in fair characters, legible without spelling. The parliament 
commissioners came into the room, and asked Joyce whether he 
had any orders from the parliament? he said, No. From the general? 
No :-by what authority he came? He made the same reply as to the 
king. They would write, they said, to the parliament to know their 
l1leasure.- You may do so, replied Joyce; but in the mean time the 
king must go with me. Resistance was in vain; the king after pro- 
tracting the time as long as he could, went into his coach, and was 
safely conducted to the army, who were hastening to their rendez- 
vous at Triploe-heath, near CaInbridge. The parliament, informed 
of this event by their commissioners, were thrown into the utmost 
confusion. Fairfax himself was no less surprised at the king's 
arrival. The bold measure, executed by Joyce, had never been com- 
municated to the general; the orders were entirely verbal; and 
nobody avowed them. 'Vhile everyone affected astonishment at the 
enterprise, Cromwell, by whose counsel it had been directed, 
arrived from London, and put an end to their deliberations.-- Vide 
Burne. 


SCOTCH GENERALS, &c. 
GENERAL LAS LAY (LESLEY), earl of Leven, &c. 
Vandyck p. III Clarcndon's " IIistol:1J;" 8vo. 
This print is placed in a part of the history which relates to David 
Lesley his kinsman, for whom he was mistaken by the maker of the 
index. Sec' the " British Compendium" for Scotland, p. 218. See 
also l\lay's "Bre\'Íary of the History of Parliament," p. 75; and 
Hilkiah Bedford's "Anonymous Translation of Dr. John Bar- 
wick.s Life," p. 146. 


ALEXAKDER LASLEY, general of the Scotch army; 
ill Ricraft"s book. 



78 


ßIOGltAPIIIC.AL IIISTOR Y 


ALEXANDER LESLY, general of ye Scottish army
; 
oval; one of the set by Peake,. rare. 


ALEXANDER LASLEY, general, &c. in ar1JlOlll", with 
sash,. tru/lcheon in his hand :I' " are to be sOllld by John 
Stafford, in RoselJla1"y-layne, ago. ye Roles, 1642;" 4lo. 
fine and rare. 
ALEXANDER LASLEY, &c. Tiebout. 
. ALEXANDE
, earl of Leven, governor of Stralsund; 
8vo. 


July 2, 
1644.. 


Alexander Lesley (or Lesly), earl of Leven, acquired the highest 
reputation as a soldier, under Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, 
who appointed him governor of Stralsund, which he bravely and 
vigilantly defended against the Imperialists.. He was also governor 
of the cities along the coast of the Baltic; and afterward " felt- 
marshall over the army in Westphalia."t He had the supreme 
comn1and of the Scottish army when it invaded England, and was, 
upon the cessation of arms betwixt the two kingdoms, created an 
earl; and about the same time made governor of the castle of 
Edinburgh. He also commanded the army that nlarched into 
England in 1644; and which had so considerable a share in the 
battle of Marston IVIoor, the greatest that was fought during the 
civil war. Soon aft.er the defeat of the royal army at this place, 
General Leven, the Earl of Manchester, and Fairfax, with their 
combined forces, sat down before York, which presently surrendered 
upon terms. They soon after divided their armies; and 1.evcn 
returning intø the north, took the rich town of Newcastle.! It 
sbould be observed that Alexander Lesly has been sometimes 
confounded with David. See an account of the latter in the Inter- 
regnum, Class VII. 


1651. 


. He was a mcre soldier. One day on a march in Scotland, he said to an officer, 
u there is the house where I went to school." II How genl'ral," answered the officer, 
u I thought you could not read?" " Pardon me, I got the length of the letter G." 
Old Zachary Hamilton, preceptor to the Pretender's sun, told l11e this story.-LoRD 
HAILES. 
t l\Ionro's e>..pedition, 'Feb. 16:)7, p. 77. and 0 
. 
t l\Iay's " Breviary," &c. p. 7
. 


. 



OF ENGLAND. 


79 


JACOBUS l..EVINGSTONIUS, comes Calen- 
deriæ
 baro de Aumont, &c. Ant. Vander Does " ill 
armOllJ",o It. sh. 


The Right Honourable the Earl of CALENDAR, &c. 
in Ricl'ajt's boo/c. 
The Right Honourable the Earl of CALENDAR, &c. 
J
 Richardson. 


James Levingston, earl of Calendar, who descended from the 
house of Linlithgow, was formed as a soldier, in the wars of 
Bohemia, Holland, Sweden, and Germany, and acquired a great 
reputation in his military character. He was a gentleman of the 
bed-chamber to Charles I. who created him Lord Livingston, of 
Almont, in 1633, and Earl of Calendar, 1641. Upon the eruption 
of the civil war, he took the side of the parliament, but afterward 
attached hirrlself to' the king. He marched into England, soon 
after the battle of l.\tfarston Moor, with ten thousand men, to assist 
the Earl of Leven in reducing York. He was lieutenant-general of 
the Scots army that attempted to rescue Charles from his confine- 
ment in the Isle of \Vight. His most signal exploit was the taking 
of Carlisle, in which he found a seasonable supply of arms and 
ammunition. Ob. Oct. 1672. 'if: 


SIR JOlIN l\IELDRUM, general of the county 
of Lancaster, &c. a slnall head; ill Ricraft's "Sllrve
lJ 
of Eng'Zand's ChoJJzpions," (.
'c. 


SIR JOHN MELDRU1\I. JV. Richardson. 


Sir John Meldrum, a Scotsman, when he entered into the service 
of the parliament, joined himself to Sir \Villiam \Valler, and first 
displayed his military talents in the west, particularly at the taking 
of Portsmouth. \Vhen the Earl of Newcastle besieg'ec1 IIull a 
second time, he made a bold sally from that fortress, beat the earl 
and his whole army from tl1eir works, and raised the siege. U pOll 



 SCe' Crauful'll's II Peerage," p. 59. 



80 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTOR \"" 


this success, l1e, with the assistance of Sir Thomas Fairfax, took 
the strong town of Gainsborough,* and a few weeks after, the Isle 
ofAxholm. He next defeated a body of forces under the COln- 
mand of the Lords Byron and Molineaux, near Ormskirk. The 
most signal of his actions was the taking of the town and castle of 
Scarborough. According to Ricraft, he was mortally wounded in 
taking this castle; but Bishop Kennet informs us, that he received 
his death's wound at Ailresford, in Hampshire, and that he was 
buried in 'Vestminster Abbey; but his body was, in 1661, taken 
up, and, with several others, buried in a pit, in St. Margaret's 
churchyard.t 


JACOBUS RAMSAY, Scotus, eques auratus, 
gen. maj. Æt.47, 1636.t 


Continuo orando feliciter omnia cedunt ; 
.Adde, laborando memorabile nomen habebis. 


III armollr; a helnzet on a table. 


SIR J A1\IES RAl\lSAY; in "Thcatru1Jz EUT'opæ," 
vol. iii. p. 910. 


It was a maxinl with this pious major-general, that a soldier 
could do much more by" wrestling with God" in his closet, than 
by fighting in the field, and that prayers and baiting never hindered 
a journey. 


RUPERT DUG LASS. P. de Jode; 4to. 


ROBERTUS DUG LASS, S. R. M. zn arlJlOll1'"; iJl all 
oval. Wolfgang Kilian sculp:J' 4to. 


· 20 Dec. 1643. 
t See Kennet's " Register," &c. sub, ann. 1661. 
t Sir James Ramsay was called the Black, to distinguish him from another of 
tlle same name called the FaÏr'.-The life of this general was latcly pnblis.hcd in 
4to,; it makes one of the numbers of tbe Biographia Scotiæ. 



OF ENGLAND. 


81 


The following person, who was a Scotsman of an 
illustrious fanlily, "'as general of the horse to Chris- 
tina, queen of Sweden. He is 1"eprcsented in armour 
1lJitlz a peaked beard. Hispl"int is thus inscribed: " lllustri 
ac generoso Domino, Domino RUPERTO DUGLASSIO, 
s. R. M. Sueciæ lVlilitiæ Equestris generali, et Asses- 
sori Collegii Militaris Holn1ensis, Libero Baroni Hæ- 
reditario in Huitingham, Domino in Schalby, zeven, 
& floch, Satten, &c. Domino suo gratioso dedicat & 
offert J. Falck, S. R. M. Chalcographus." D. B.!l. 
J. F. se. 


flEER WILHELM BROG, ridder, ende coronel 
generael vande Scotsche natie; 1635; 11l arnlOUl'" 
C. v. Queborcn se. 4to. 


HEER 'VILHEL:\! BROG, &c. W Richardson. 


W II
LIA:\l BROG, &c. Æt. 37, 1600. F. Baltesys. 


He served under Frederick Henry, prince of Orange; particu- 
larly at the siege of Bois]e Due. His name was Brocke, that is 
Badger. 


.l\N IRISH GENERAL. 


ALGERNON SIDNEY, lieutenant..general of the horse in 
Ireland, and governor of Dublin, 1646. See the Interregnum, 
Class V. and the reign of CHARLES II. Class IX. 


There is an octavo print of a young man about 
eighteen, holding a helo1et. It is inscribed, "VeTa 
çfjigies Henrici Coltlzu1"st; LOJldini natus. Hollar f. 
1644;" in an oval; scarce. I k.now nothing of this 
person. 


YOLo III. 


1\1 



82 


BIOGRAPHICA.L IIISTORY 


CLASS VIII. 


SONS OF PEERS WITHOUT TITLES, BARONETS, 
KNIGHTS, GENTLEMEN, AND PERSONS IN 
IN FERIOR CIVIL Ej\;JPLOYl\IENTS. 


SIR CHARLES LUCAS. Dobson p. Vertue sc. 
Froul tlte ort:!!,'iJlal ill the possession of Lord Byron. One 
(if the set of Loyalists. The head is ill the saJ1ZC ]J!ate 
'lDith Sir Georg'e Lisle's. 


SIR CHARLES LUCAS. W. Dobson p. 8vo. III 
[Ylarendoll's " llistory." 


SIR CHARLES LUCAS; prfji.vcd to tIle 
, Loyal Sacri- 
fice;" 12nlo. 


There is a portrait of him, exactly similar to this print, at Bil- 
lingbere, the seat of Richard Neville Neville, esq. in Berkshire. 
Sir Charles Lucas was son of Thomas Lucas, esq. next brother to 
Sir John, who was afterward the first lord Lucas.. He was governor 
of the garrison of Colchester; and signalized himself in the time of 
the civil war, at Newbury, Enborne-heath, Cawood Castle, and Tet- 
bury. Though he was esteen1ed a strict, and by some a rigid, discipli- 
narian, no man took less advantage of a fallen enemy, or was more 
ready to give that quarter which, to the disgrace of humanity, was 
refused himself in the day of his distress. Sir Charles was at the 
head of those loyalists, who, in 1648, shut themselves up in CoI- 
chester, anù defended it with incredible resolution against the army 
of Fairfax for three months. "\Vhen the garrison yielded to the 
enemy, their ammunition was reduced to a barrel and a half of 
powder; and their provision to two horses, anù one dog. t Sir 


.,. See the H Duke of Newcastle's Life" by his dutche
s. 
t l\Ir. Wood informs us, that Sir Charles was amuseu frulll time to timc with ex- 
pectation of relief by John Humphrey, ala astrologer, and a disciple of LilJJ; and 
that this impostor, for the falsehood of his predictions was ba
tilladoed, sent to 
prison, and compelled to serve as a common soldier. _I' Alhen. Oxun." ii. cui. 1110. 



OF }:N GIoiA N D. 


sa 


Charles met with cruel treatment for bis resolute d
fence of this 
place. He, and his friend Sir George Lisle, were ordered to be 
shot to death, the same day on which the parliament army entered 
the town. He begged a day's respite to prepare for death, but his 
request was sternly refused. He died with the cheerful and decent 
courage of a soldier and a Christian. Executed August 28, 1648. 
His faithful servant, who was a sorrowful spectator of his death, 
with great earnestness begged the executioner of his m
ster to 
dispatch him also, as his life was become" his torment.";t:. 


SIR JOHN CÆSAR,of Hyde Hall, in Herts, knt. 
second son of Julius Cæsar, born Oct. 20th, 1597; 
died May 23d, 1647. R. JVilkillson e..rc. 4to. 


Sir John Cæsar was born at St. Catherine's, near the Tower, on 
tbe 20th of October, 1597, and baptized there on the 7th of the 
next month. Of his education we know nothing; it was probably 
of that confined and private sort which, in his time, was thought 
sufficient to qualify a man for the character of a country gentleman, 
and he seems to have moved in no other. He attended James the 
First, however, in his journey into Scotland, in 1617, and received 
there, in his minority, from that prince, the honour of knighthood. 
The foHowing order from Thomas, earl of Arundel, earl-marsh a], 
dated at Arundel-house, l\lay the 20th, 1623, and addressed " to 
the efficers of arms, at Derby-house," is among the Lansdowne 
1\'ISS. "I have received a sufficient certificate tbat Sir John Cæsar 
was knighted by his Mati
 at Edenborough, in Scotlande, and took 
the oath of knighthoode, with all other ceremonies, accordinge to the 
custom of Scotland, on the 29th day of June, 1617; and therefore 
I require you to enter him accordingly in yor register of knights, 
for which this sbalbe yor warrant." 
In 1625, his father settled him in an independence suiterl to his 
station, by a grant of estates in Hertfordshirc, particularly of the 
manor and lands of Southall, otherwise called Hyde Hall, Olivers, 
or East End, near Buntingford, with its fine mansion-house, which 
had been huilt aLout twenty years before by Sir Leonard Hyde, and 
()f which there is an engraving in Chauncey's " History of Herts." 
That writer informs us, that Sir John Cæsar "was a justice of the 


· u Lives of Sir Charles LUCdS and 
ir George Lisle, 1618, p. 18. 



84 


BI OG RAPIII CA L II IS TOR Y 


peace for that county divers years, being qualified with a strong 
constitution, and ready smart parts." He died at Hyde Hall, on 
the 23d of May, 1647, in the 54th year of his age. Sir John 
Cæsar married Anne, daughter of , Villi am Hungate, of East Bra- 
denham, in Norfolk, esq. by Anne, daug'hter of Sir I-Ienry 'Vode.. 
house. of '\Vaxham, in the same county, knt. which latter lady was 
thus doubly the mother-in-law of Sir John, having become, after the 
death of lVl1". Hungate, the third wife of Sir Julius Cæsar. The 
fruit of this marriage was five sons and two daughters; John, 
Robert, Julius, Edward, and Henry, all of whom married, and left 
issue, except the last, who died a bachelor before 1684. The 
daughters were Anne and Susan, who were also unmarried at that 
date, and probably remained so, as they could then have been little 
less than fifty years old. 


SIR THOl\fAS LEVENTHORPE, the elder, of 
Shingey Hall, in IIerts, bart. 1623. R. Wilkinson 
e.'l'c. 4to. 


Sir Thomas Leventhorpe was the eldest son of Sir John Leven- 
thorpe, knighted by King J ames I. in 1603, and created a baronet 
on the 30th of May, 1622, and father of Joanna Cæsar, wife of 
Charles Cæsar, esq. of Great Gransden, in the county of Hunting- 
don. Sir Thomas did not long survive his daughter's Inarriage in 
1662, and his eldest son John died soon after him without issue; 
and was succeeded by his surviving brother, another Sir Thomas, 
of WhOlll Sir Henry Chauncey gives the following account: "He 
was tall in stature; slender in body; mo dest in aspect; grave in 
deportment; prudent in an his actions; obliging in temper: great 
in courage; and unalterable in his resolutions. He was a justice 
, 
of the peace, a deputy-lieutenant; a colonel of the horse in the 
militia for this county; and voluntarily served the king at sea in 
that great expedition against the Dutch; but was most unfortunately 
killed by the blow of a horse, at Melbourne, in the county of 
Derby. He was a true English gentleman; honest, and valiant; 
much beloved, and most heartily lamented."-He died in the 44th 
year of his age, leaving by his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir 
Capel Bedel, of Camerton, in the county of Huntingdon, bart. an 
only child, l\lary, who was nlarried on the 15th of June, I ()72, 
to John Coke, of Melbourne, in Derbyshire, esq. and was;;uccccded 



OI
 ENGLAN D. 


85 


in the title of baronet by his uncle, Charles, a clergyman, in whom 
it became extinct. 


SIR GILES AL1JNGTON, ancestor of the Lords 
Allington, of Wimondley, in IIerts, and of Killard, 
in Ireland. R. JVilkinson e:re. 4to. 


This gentleman was the second son and heir of Sir Giles Alling- 
ton, by Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Cecil, first earl of Exeter: 
in the early part of life his prospects were clouded, and his revenues 
embarrassed, by an unfortunate marriage, or rather by a most un- 
just prosecution for which it formed a pretext. "April the 14th, 
1631," to use the words of 1\11'. Charles Cæsar's Common-Place 
Book,. " Sir Giles Allington was censured and fined in the Star- 
chamber Court, 32,000l. only for marrying the daughter of his sister 
by the half blood. He paid the fine to Sir Thomas Hatton, a young 
courtier." Of the precise genealogical particulars attending this 
connexion we are ignorant, for having been thus declared illegal, 
it was of course excluded from the official pedigrees of the family in 
the college of Arms. It is however stated there, in one of that 
numerous class of manuscripts which, though not deémeù legal 
eviùence, are unquestionably authentic, that he married "the 
daughter of Mr. Dalton, and sister to Mr. Gibbes, and so his own 
niece, for which incestuous match he was grievously censured, and 
fined in the high commission court, 1631." 
It is remarkable, however, that his issue was not bastardized. 
He had three children, of whom \Villiam, his only son, was, on the 
28th of July, 164
, (a poor compensation for his father's im- 
mense loss)! created baron Allington, of Killard, in Ireland, and 
left two sons, William and Hildebrand, the former of whom was 
advanced to the English peerage, by the title of lord Allington, of 
\Vimonùley, in the county of Hertford: married Diana, daughter 
of \Villiam, first duke of Bedford of the Russels; and was constable 
of the Tower towards the end of the reign of Charles the Second. 
Giles, his only son and successor, died in ] 691, an infant of ten 
years old, whereupon the English barony ceaseù, and the Irish 


· See the II Life of Julius Cæsar, knt. with l\IclIloirs of his J"-'amiJy and Descend- 
dutS." Lond. J U to, 4lo. 



S6 


llIOGRAPHIC.AL IIISTORY 


}lonour devolved on his uncle Hildebrand, in whom, he dying with- 
out issue, the Inale line of the Allingtons, and the tide, became 
extinct together. 


SIR WILLIAl\1 HERICKE; flJlJlO DOJJÛJli 1628. 
J. B. (Basire) sc. In Nichols's" History of Leiccstcl"- 
l' " 
8/llre. 


'Villiam Heyricke, Eyrike, Eyrie, or Erick (as they were ongI- 
nally spelt), fifth son of John and Mary Eyrick, was born at 
Leicester about the year 1557; went to London about 1574, to 
reside with his brotber Nicholas; and afterward purchased a 
spacious house in ,V ood-street, which had been the Lady Allett's. 
He had also a house at Richmond, and another at \Vestrninster; 
and, as appears by one of bis papers, for a considerable time 
"resided constantly at court ;" was a man of great abilities and 
address; remarkably handsome in person, as appears by a small 
picture stiU preserved of him in his younger days; and was high 
in the confidence of Queen Elizabeth, as well as of King James, 
both before and after his coming to the crown; and, by honour- 
able services to both, acquired large property. 
He was sent hy Queen Elizabeth on :.10 embassy to the Ottoman 
Porte; and on his return, was rewarded with a lucrative appoint- 
Jllent in the Exchequer; and enjoyed several other places of 
honour, and trust during the remainder of the queen's reign, and 
also under her successor, King Jarnes. 
In 1594-5, he purchased from the agents of Robert, earl of 
Essex, that nobleman's estate and interest at Beaumanor; and 
soon after, selecting this delightful spot for his residence, bought-in 
an the different out8tanding leases (one of which was then in the 
hands of Sir George Hastings) ; held a court-Ieet and court-baron in 
that year; and in ] 595, purchased the great and small tithes of 
JVlount8orell and Duorndon. 
l\lay 6, 1596, he married Joan, daughter of Richard l\1ay, esq. 
citizen of London (of the ancient family of May, of l\Iayfield-place, 
in Sussex), sister to Sir Humphrey May, knt. chancellor of the 
dutchy of Lancaster; and to Hew May, esq. one of the grooms of 
the privy-cbamber to King James I. and to the lady of Sir Baptist 
I-Iickes, afterward viscount Camden. 
His picture at Be<.t1unanor exhibits him with a peaked beard, 



OF ENGLAND. 


87 


a large ruff, and in a white satin doublet, which he used on 
Christmas-day, attending Queen Elizabeth on that festival. He 
wears a sword; and over his dress hangs loosely a large black 
cloak, his plaited ruffies are closely turned back over his sleeves. 
In one hand are his gloves; and the other, elevated to his breast, 
holds the strings and tassels of his ruff. On one siùe, within a 
wreath, is the rIlotto, "Sola Supereminet Virtus;" on the other, 
"Anno Dom. 1628, Ætatis suæ 66." He died at Beaumanor, 
when he was 98 years of age. 


SIR GEORC}E LISLE. Ve1.tuc se. Fronl a painting; 
in the possession of JIr. l-IollJlaJl. One of the set of 
Loyalists. The head is ill the S{l1ne plate 'lvith ,S'ir Charles 
Lucas. 


SIR GEORGE LISLE; 8'vo. lJI. v. Gucht se. III ['lll- 
Tendon's" Ilistory." 


SIR GEORGE LISLE; preJi.,t'ed to the " Loyal 
'acri- 
/" " 
JlCf; 121110. 
Sir George Lisle, son of a bookseller in London, had his military 
education in the Netherlands. He signalized himself upon many 
occ
sions in the civil war; particularly at the last battle of New- 
bury; when', in the dusk of the evening, he led his men to the 
charge in his shirt, that his person might be more conspicuous. The 
king, who was an eye-witness of his bravery, knighted him in the 
field of battle. In 1648, he rose for his majesty in Essex; and 
was one of the royalists who so obstinately defended Colchester, 
and who died for their defence of it. This brave man, having 
tenderly embraced tbe corpse of Sir Charles Lucas, his departed 
friend, immediately presented hilTIself to the soldiers, who were 
ready for his execution. Thinking that they stood at too great a 
distance, he desired them to come nearer: one of them said, " I 
warrant you, Sir, we shall hit you." He replied with a smile, 
"Friends, I have been nearer you, when you have missed me." 
Executed August 28, 1648. 


SIR JOHN GAGE, bart. fronl tlte orig'inal at 



88 


nI 0 G R..\ PIJ I CAI.. II 1ST 0 R Y 


IIcngrave:l' . cl1g1
aved by R. C'oopel
, 4to. in Gog'e'
 
" Hist01'"!} and Antiquities of IlcJ7grave, in 5'uffolk." 


Sir John Gage, of PirIe, created a baronet on the 26th of March, 
I 622, married Lady Penelope Darcy, third daughter of Thoma
, 
earl of Rivers, and had issue by her, 1. Sir Thomas Gage, second 
baronet of Firle, from whom are descended the viscounts Gage; 
2. John Gage, of Stoneham, in Suffolk, who died witbout issue; 
3. Sir Edward Gage, from whom is descended the present owner 
of Hengrave; 4. Henry Gage, who married Henrietta, daughter of 
Thomah Jermyn
 of Rushbrook, in Suffolk, brother of Henry, earl 
of St. Alban's, and had a son, John Gage, who died without issue; 
5. Frances, wife first of Sir William Tresham, of Liveden, in 
N orthamptonshire, baronet, and afterward of Sir George Gage, of 
Raunds; 6. Elizabeth, wife of Sir Francis Petre, of Cranham HaU, 
in Essex, grandson of WilHam, second lord Petre; 7. renelope, 
wife of Henry, son and heir of Sir Henry l'vJerry, of Barton, in Der- 
byshire, by Elizabeth, sister of Sir Edward Vernon of Sudbury, in 
the same county; 8. Anne, wife of Henry, sixth sou of 'Villiam, 
second lord Petre; 9. Dorothy, who died young, and was buried 
at Hengrave. Sir John Gage died on the 3d of October, 1633, and 
was buried at West Firle. 


SIR ROBERT HARLEY, knight of the Bath, 
of Bramton Bryan Castle, in the county of Here- 
ford. P. Oliver p. in l1ziniatllre; G. Vertue sc. 1737 ; 
h. sh. 


SIR ROBERT HARLEY; 4to. P. Oliver (T. Trotter). 


There is a portrait of him at Welbeck. 
Sir Robert Harley was knight of the shire for the cõunty of 
J-Iereford, and master of the mint, to which office was annexed a 
salary of 4000l. a year. He first introduced that well-known artist, 
Thomas Simon,'" to engrave the dies for the king's coins and 
medals. In 1640, he was commissioned by the commons, to demo- 


· His name is sometimes spelt Symonds. Vertue lias engraved an elegant vo- 
I ume of his coins and medals. 



OF ENGLAND. 


89 


Jish all images, crucifixes, aud other obnoxious relics of popery; 
and his commission was punctually executed. lIe had consider- 
able influence in the House of Commons; and like others of his 
illustrious family, was a great friend and patron of learning. Ob. 
6 Nov. 1656. 


CAPTAIN BURLEIGII; fronz a drawing; ZlZ the 
](iJlg"s "Clarendon." R. Cooper sc. 


This gentleman was of a good family in the Isle of'Vight, and 
had been a captain of O:.1e of the king's ships, but was put out of 
command when the fleet rebelled against their sovereign: he after- 
ward served the king in the army, and was made a general of the 
ordnaace, and at the end of the war he retired to the Isle of Wight, 
where many of his famiJy then lived in good reputation. Captain 
Burleigh was at Newport, the chief town in the island, when Haln- 
mond, the governor of Carisbrook Cast1e, had put some iudignity on 
the king, and turned all his servants out of the castle, and forbid 
any of them to return to their royal master. This so incensed Bur- 
leigh that he caused a drum to be beaten, and put himself at the 
head of the people, who were well affected to the king, in order to 
rescue him from his captivity. The populace were soon quieted, 
and dispersed; but their leader, Burleigh, was seized by Hammond, 
and sent a prisoner to Winchester, where he was shortly after tried 
for high-treason in levying war. He was found guilty, hanged, 
drawn, and quartered. 


NATHANAEL BARNARDISTON, knt. of I(et- 
ton, in Suffolk. F. II. Van Hove sc. 


Sir Nathaniel llarnardiston, knight of the shire for Suffolk, was 
a gentlclnan of exemplary behaviour in every relation of life. He 
was a true fricnd to the liberties of his country, but deeply re- 
I 
gretted the distractions of it. I-lis piety, like the rest of his virtues, 
was extraordinary; and he was a perfect pattern of conjugal fide- 
lity and affcction. A detail of his character may be seen in his 
Life, by the Rev. 1\11'. Samuel Fairclough; or in his Funeral Ser- 
mon, by the same hand. Ob. 1653, Æt. 66. It is remarkable, 
VOL. III. N 



90 


ßJOGRAPHIC.AL JIISTOR Y 


that two baronets of bis family, Sir Samuel, and Sir Thomas 
Barnardiston, sat in the House of Commons, in the reign of Anne.. 


SIR ROBERT A YTON, knight; fronz his 1J10l11t- 
'JJlellt ill JVestntl/lster Abbe!}; 8vo. ll. 1Vilkinsoll e..l'c. 


On the entablature is the following Latin inscription: 
Clariss IDI Omnigenaq Virtute et Eruditione, Præsertiln 
Poesi Ornati ss m1 Equitis Domini Roberti Aitoni 
Ex Antiqua et Illustri Gente Aitona, ad Castrull. 
I{innadinü apud Scotos, Oriundi, qui a Sereniss mo 
R. Jacobo in Cubicula lnteriora admissus, in 
Germaniam ad Imperatorem, Imperiiq. Priúcipes 
Cum Libello Regio, Regiæ Authoritatis Vindice 
Legatus, ac Primum Annæ, Demum l\iariæ, 
Sereniss IDis Britanniarum Reginis ab Epistolis, 
Consiliis et Libellis Supplicibus, nec non Xenodochio 
Stae Catherinæ Præfeetus. Anima Creatori Reddita, Hie 
Depositis Mortalibus Exuviis Secundum Uedemtoris 
Adventuln Expectat. 
Carolum Linquens Repetit Parentem, 
Et Valedicens Mariæ Revisit 
Annam, et Aulai Decus Alto Olympi 
Mutat Honore. 


Obiit Cæ]ebs in Regia Albaula 
NOll sine l\1aximo Bonar: Omnium Hoc Dcvoti Gratiq. Animi 
Luctu et l\'læore. Ætat suæ LXVIII. Testimonium Optima Patruo 
Saint. Humanæ l.\ID.CXXXVIII. 10: Aitonus, );1. L. P. 
.l\Iusarum D
cus Hie, Patriæq. Aulæ, Dominique, 
Et Foris Exemplar, sed non lmitabile, I--lonesli. 


SIR MARTIN LIS'rER" knight, 1626. R. Wllite 
sc. h. sh. scarce. 


.. This family is also remarkable for giving rise to the name of Roundhead, as 
appears from the following note taken from Rapin's "History." II The (Lundon) 
apprentices wore the hair of their head cut round, and the queen ubserving out of 
a window, Samuel Barnardiston alUong them, cried out, See ,,,,-hat a handsome 
roundhead is there! And the name came from thence, and was first publicly used 
by Captain Hide." 



OF ENG LAN 0. 


91 


SIlt MARTIN LISTER, knight, 162G; 8vo. W.lli- 
cltardsoJl. 


The original portrait, which the print nearly resembles, is in tbe 
possession of George Gregory, esg 0 of Harlaxton, near Grantham, 
whose grandfather caused this, and those of Sir LVlatthew, and 
Lady Lister, to be engraved. 
Sir l\lartin Lister was son of Sir Matthew Lister, the king's 
physician, of whom there is some account in the ninth Class, to 
which, and the article of Laùy LEISTER, Class XI. I refer the 
reader. I shall only observe here, that he was an officer of the 
militia, and that at Harlaxton is preserved a very rich and curious 
belt, which he wore in that character. 


"Vera ac viva effigies EDMUND I FORTESCUE 
de Fillapit, (vel Fallo,vpit) in comitatu Devoniæ, 
Equitis Aurati, pro obedientia sua Carolo Magnæ 
Britanniæ regi, nunc in Hollandia exulis; Æt. 38, 
I G4 7." IIeJlry Ðallckers sc. Hagæ Conz. in ar17l0llr; 
It. Sll. 


SilO Edmund Fortescue was descended from Sir Henry Fortescue, 
lord chief-justicE' of the Common Pleas in Ireland, in the reign of 
Hen. VI.. He, on various occasions, distinguished himself by his 
courage and fidelity to Charles I. in the civil war. He was go- 
vernor of Charles Fort, at Salcombe, in Devonshire, which, when 
it was no longer tenable, he surrendered upon honourable terms. 
He afterward fled into Holland, and in his exile compounded for 
his estate, at upwards of 660l. He lies buried at Delft, where a 
monument is erected to his memory. 


SIR PI-IILIP MAYN'V ARING, a gentleman of 
an ancient family, and of eminent abilities, was 
secretary to the Earl of Strafford. His portrait is 
in the same print with that of the earl. 


SIR J.A.MES CAMBELL, knight; some tinle 


,. rhj
 Sir Henry married tu his second wife the heiress of Fallowpit. 



92 


B lOG RAP II I C ALII 1ST 0 It , 


lord mayor and senior alderman of London, &c. 
G. (Glove']") sc. 8vo. scarce. There is a print of !tis 
TOJJzb, by 
 lJIarshall. 
Sir james Cambell, a worthy magistrate, succeeded Sir Richard 
Dane, in the office of lord mayor, 1629. See Browne's" Rare Pat- 
terne of Justice and Mercy," in which is an account of" Il1any 
notable and charitable legacies of Sir James Cambell, knight and 
alderman," 1624. 


JOHANNES WEBSTER US. Cor. Jo. (Johnston) 
p. T. lJfathalll sc. eight Latin verses, by C. Barlælls. 
See the reign of Charles II. Class VIII. 


MR. WILLIA1VI HERVEY. ftf. Vauderg'llclzt sc. 
III tlte best edition of Cozvley's Works, in 8vo.. 
\Villian1 Hervey, second son of Sir 'Villiam Hervey, of Ickworth, 
was a young gentleman of many excellent and amiable qualities. 
lIe was a fellow-collegiate, anù intimate friend of J\tIr. Cowley, 
who has very feelingly lamented his death, in an excellent copy of 
verses. I-Ie died at Cambridge, the '23d of Sept. 1642, in the 23d 
year of his age. His brother was direct ancestor to the present Earl 
of Bristol. 


Chosen ISAAC PENNINGTON, lord mayor of London; 
for 1642. ld 7 . I .. 7 d . . 
g;o -CllaIn,. 8zvorl In IllS Ilan : a s7Jlall portrall, ill a 
large half-sheet prillt, ell titled " The CornnÛttee, or Po- 
pery in .1Jlasque'J"llde." The several sectaries arc sitting' at 
a table, beforc 'lvhich stand the nzare and the quaker, * 


'" Sir John Dcnham has written a ba])ad on this subject, which begins thus: 
Ie All in the land of Essex, 
Near Colchester the ze
lous, 
'Vas play'd such a prank 
On the siùe of a bank, 
As would have made a stonehorse jealous," 
The story of the dog and the elùer's mairl is much of the same kind; of this there 
is also a ballad. 1\lr. Dryden alludes to this story in the second part of " Absa- 
10m and Achitophcl." It is worth the reader"s while to turn to the verses. 



OF ENGLA.ND. 


93 


llnd the dog' and the elder's 'Jll a Ùl, 
'c. 'lCltft lnany verses 
underneath, describing the different sects, and the persons 
'}'e}Jresentcd in the print. 


ISAAC PE:NNINGTO
; cut ill 'lvood; prçfL'l:ed to "A 
true Declaration and jllst C07Jz7Jzendatioll of the g'reat 
and iJlconzparable Care of the Rig.Jzt /lonourable Isaac 
1
cJlllillgt01l, Lord Mayor of the City of London, in ad- 
vancing' and pro,}}loting' tlze Bulwarks and FortijicatioJls 
about the City and Sllburbs, u'ith a Vindication of his 
/IoJlollr fronz all the 1'Jlaliciolls Aspersions of 1I1alig'- 
nants. l
ublished and presented to his !foJlour by TV. 
1." 
1643. 


ISAAC PENNINGTON, with sword in hand,. sJJlall,- 
front the above print. 
ISAAC PE
NINGTO
, lord mayor,&c. UT.Richardson. 


ISAAC PENXI
GTON, lord mayor, &c. with. his 
llutog"raph and seal in "Cau!fiellts Hig"h Court of 
Justice ." 


Isaac Pennington, the f:ictious lord mayor of London, was of a 
very different character from the town-clerk (or mayor) of Ephesus, 
as he was the greatest raiser ojll/mulls in this reign. In 1640, he 
presented a petition for the total alteration of church government, 
which was signed by fifteen thousand persons. The licensing of 
Ovid's" Art of Love," was then heavily complained of, among the 
ecclesiastical abuses; and indeed with much more reason than the 
greater part of theine * In 1643, he presented another petition 


.. John 'Varner, another seditions lord mayor, raised a great tumult in this 
reign about rosemary and bays, at Christmas.t It is observable, that many persons 
at that time of Lhe year, affected to hold minced pies in the utmost detestation; 
though they were well known to have no aversion to them at any other seélson. 


t u IIist. of Independency," i. 83. 



D4 


BIO G RAPII I CAI
 11 1ST OR ,- 


against making peace with the king. He was one of the alder- 
men who, with Thomas Andrews, the lord mayor, personally pro- 
claimed the act for abolishing kingly government. I-Ie was one of 
the king's judges who surrendered themselves at the restoration, 
and who, though attainted and convicted of high-treason, were 
r

pited from execution. He died soon after in the Tower, of which 
he had been lieutenant.* 


SIll PIlI LIP STAPLETON; froln a dra1ving ZIt 
the KiJ1!!,"s "Clarcndon." R. G"'oopcr se. 


Sir Philip Stapleton, a younger son of a good family, inherited 
a moderate estate of about 6001. a year, in Yorkshire, and, accord. 
ing to the custon1 of the country, spent 111uch of his time in those 
pleasures which horses and dogs administer. Being relurned to 
serve in parliament, he concurred with his neighbours, Hotham 
and Cholmondley, in the prosecution of the Earl of Strafford, antI 
supported that measure with all his power. He was a Inuch 
younger man than either of his two friends, and had strengthenecl 
a hond of amity with Sir John Hotham, by a marriage with his 
daughter. He was particularly busy in committees; likewise in pre- 
paring and presenting petitions for redress of grievances, &c. but 
does not appear to have acted in any military capacity during the 
trou bles. 


SIR PAUL PINDAR, with his brother; t'lVO ovals. 
'I , 
rolier se. 


Sir Paul Pindar was early distinguished by that frequent cause 
of promotion, the knowledge of languages. He was put apprentice 
to an Italian master, travelled much, and was appointed ambas- 
saùor to the Grand Seignor by James I.; in which office he gained 
great credit, by extending the English commerce in the Turkish do- 
nlinions. He brought over with him a diamond valued at 30,0001.; 
thc king wished to buy it on credit, but this the sensible merchant 
declined; but favoured his nlajesty with the loan on gala days: 
his unfortunate son became the purchaser. Sir Paul was appointe(l 
fanner of the customs by J,1111CS, and frequently supplied that 


t See Slr.n>c's Sluw. 



OF ENGLAND. 


D5 


n1onarch's wants, as well as those of his successor. lIe was 
esteemed at one time worth 236,000l. exclusive of bad debts, in 
the year 1639. His charities wcre very great, he expended 1fJ,OOOI. 
in the repair of St. Paul's cathedral. He was ruined by his con- 
nexions with his unfortunate lTIonarch, and, if I renlember right, 
underwent imprisonment for debt. It is said that Charles owed 
him, and the rest of the old commissioners of the customs, 300,0001.; 
for the security of which, in 1649, they offered the parliament 
100,000l.; but the proposal was rejected. He died August 22, 
1650, aged 84.- Vide Pennant's" London." 


ARTHUR GOOD\VIN, father of Jane, his sole 
daughter and heiress, * second lady of }'>l1ilip, lord 
Wharton; Vandyck p. P. JZ GUllSt sc. E.t
 1JlllSeO se- 
'reJlislJ'. dOJ7lÏJli de Wharton.. whole ICJl/5,tlt; larg'e h. s/i. 


This portrait, together with the rest of the Wharton family, was 
bought of the duke 1;>y the late Lord Orford, who gave him a 1001. 
for each of the whole lengths, and 50l. for each of the half lengths. 
That of Arthur Goodwin, esteemed one of the best, is in the 
grand collection of the Duke of Devonshire, to whom Lord Orford 
made a present of it. See" Anecdotes of Painting," ii. p. 100, 
2d edit. 
Arthur Goodwin, who was one of the active patriots in this 
reign, was a very intimate friend of the celebrated Harnùen. His 
daughter Jane, was the second of the three wives of }"Jhilip, lord 
'\Vharton, by whom she was mother of the famous marquis, and 
grandmother to the more famous duke; who soon dissipated the 
estate at Upper 'Vinchendon, in Buckinghamshire, which she 
brought into the family.t The nl
rquis laid out an incredible sum 


· There seems to be a mistake here, as in the" Anecdotes of Painting," vol. ii. 
p. 101. 2d edit. note 1, Arthur Goodwin is said to be the father of Mrs. Smith. 
t The manor of 'Vinchelldoll is situated in a very dirty part of the cOllnty of 
Buckingbam, where the soil is a very stijf clay. Cibber, the Jaureat, who sometimes 
visited the duke, was once in his coach with him. when it went very slowly through 
a deep slough. Colley, with his usual vivacity 
nd 
ssurance, said to his grace; 
" It is reported, my lord duke, that JOu run out of your estate; but it is impossible 
for you to run out of this." Communicated by my late honoured friend and patron, 
Henry BOJ'le, csq, who had it from Cibber himself. 



DG 


BIOGRAPIIICAL llISTOR \... 


of money upon the manor-house there, which was puHcd down a 
few years ago, and the materials sold. 


MR. IIENRY IIASTINGS; 1vhole length 4to. Bre- 
tlzertoil fecit, 1782; an etching', front the orÎg-inal in the 
collectioll of the Earl of 5'lzaftesvury. 


Henry Hastings was second son of the Earl of Huntingdon; and 
inherited a good estate in Dorsetshire from his mother. He was 
one of the keepers of the new forest, and resided in his lodge 
there during a part of every hunting season; but his principal 
residence was at ,V oodlands, in Dorsetshire, where he had a 
capital mansion; and one of his nearest neighLours was the Lord- 
chancellor Cooper, first earl of Shaftesbury. Two men could 
not be more opposite in their dispositions and pursuits. They 
had little communication, and their occasional meetings were ren- 
dered disagreeable to both, from their different sentiments on 
politics. Lord Shaftesbury, who was the younger man, was the 
survivor; and the following account of Mr. IIasting8) is said to 
have been the proàuction of his pen. 
" l\lr. Hastings was low of stature, but véry strong and active; 
of a ruddy complexion, with flaxen hair. His clothes were always 
of green cloth; his house was of the old fashion, in the midst of a 
large park, well stocked with deer) rabbits, and fish-ponds. He 
had a long narrow bowling-green in it, and used to play with 
round sand-bowls: here too he had a banquetting-roorn, built like 
a stand in a large tree. He kept all sorts of hounds that ran buck, 
fox, hare, otter, and badger; and had hawks of aU kinds, both 
long and short winged. His great hall was cornn10nly strewed 
with marrow-bones; and full of hawk-perches, hounds, spaniels, 
and terriers; here and there a pole-cat was intermixed; and 
hunter's poles in great abundance. His parlour was a large room, 
completely furnished in the same style. On a broad hearth, paved 
with brick, lay some of the choicest terriers, hounò.s and spaniels; 
one or two of the great chairs had litters of cats in them, which 
were not to be disturbed; of these, three or four always attended 
him at dinner; and a little white wand lay by his trencher to defend 
it, if they were too troublesome. In the windows, which were very 
Jarge, lay his arrows) cross-bows, and other accoutrements. The 
corners of his roOlU were fined with the best hunting and hawking- 



OF ENGI..AND. 


97 


poles; his oyster-table stood at the lower end of the room, which 
was in constant use twice a day, aU the year round; for he never 
failed to eat oysters both at dinner and supper, with which the 
neighbouring town of Poole supplied him. At the upper end of 
the room, stood a small table, with a double desk; one sidp. of 
which held a church Bible; the other, the Book of lVIartyrs. On 
different tables in the room, lay hawk's hoods, bells, old hats, with 
their crowns thrust in, full of pheasant eggs, tables, dice, cards, 
and store of tobacco-pipes. At one end of this rOOln was a door, 
which opened into a closet, w here stood bottles of strong-beer, and 
wine, which never can1e out hut in single glasses, which was the 
rule of the house; for he never exceeded himself, nor permitted 
others to exceed. Answering to this closet, was a door into an old 
chapel, which had been long disused for devotion; but in the 
pulpit, as the safest place, was always to be found a cold chine of 
beef, a venison-pasty, a gammon of bacon, or a great apple-pie, 
with thick crust, well baked. This table cost him not luuch, 
though it was good to eat at: his sports supplied an but beef and 
nlUtton, except on Fridays, when he had the best fish. He never 
wanted a Loudon pudding; and he always sang it in with, 'lVfy 
part lies therein-a.' He drank a glass or two of wine at meals, 
put syrup of gillyflowers into his sack, and had always a tun glass 
of small beer standing by him, which he often stirred round with 
rosemary. lIe lived to be a hundred, and never lost his eye- 
sight, nor used spectacles. II e got on horseback without help; 
and rode to the death of the stag till he was past fourscore." See 
Gilpin's" Forest Scenery," vol. II. He died Oct. 5th, 1650, and 
,vas interred at Horton church, in Dorsetshire. 


GEORGE TOOKE, of Popes, in con). Hartford, 
Arm. " Militia mea multiplex." Ed17zund lIIarJJzlOJl f. 
410. rare. 


George Tooke. This gentleman as we learn from Sir Henry 
Chauncy, was second SOI1 of 'V alter Tooke, of --, in the parish 
of Bishop's Hatfield, in the county of Hertford, esq. His first lady 
was Elizabeth, second daugbter of Richard Sidley, esq. After her 
demise he married Mary, daughter of Thomas Cornish, or Conisby, 
esq. He died without issue by either of his wives. 
There is a small octavo published, but not written, by John 
VOL. III. 0 



98 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


Greaves. It is entitled, "A Description of the Grand Signonr's 
Seraglio," &c. which that great n1an has dedicated "To his 
honoured and truly noble friend, George Took, esq. of Popes, in 
the county of Hartford." See the dedication of this book, which 
was printed in 1650, and again in 1653. 


JOHN lIARRISON, of Leeds, esq. &c. "Te111- 
plllllt pro 110111110;" h. s/i. 1'orc. 


JOHN HARRISON, &c. 4to. W. Richardson. 


JOB:\'" HARRISON, &c. frOJll an orig'inal picture, R. 
TVilkinsol1* C.l'C. 4to. 


. The following biographical memoir of Juhn Harrison, esq. was wrítten by Ed- 
mund Lodge, esq. Norruy king at arms, to accompany this portrait :_U It will, per- 
llaps, be allowed bJ all, excl'pt a few pedants, who submit implicitly to the technical 
5trictness of etJ mology, that there are two sorts of patriotism: the one belongs to 
kings, statesmen, legislators, soldiers, and sailors; it attempts to serve the immense 
aggregate of a community, consisting often of many millions; ànd, as it almost 
always mistakes the true means, generally fails to produce the end: the other is to be 
found among those individuals wbo stand foremost in small societies; whose sphere 
of mental vision is not fancifully enlarged by the heat of a distempered imagination; 
whose capacity of beneficence is more powelful, because it is more circumscribed; 
v.'bose sincerity can never be doubted, and whose endeavours are always successful. 
"Among the many who have so flourished and perished, 
Imost unnoticed, except 
in those confined circles which Providence ordained them to ornament and to bless. 
may be reckoned JOHN HARRISON of Leeds, a mall whose life seems to have been 
almost wbolly dt:voted to the service of his township. 
" He was born in 1579, and baptized on the 1Cth of August in that year; the only 
son of John Harrison of Leeds, by Elizabeth, daughter of Henry :i\Iarton of the same 
town. Of the younger part of his life, or indeed, of his dmuestic character in maturer 
years, we know littre. Thoresby, author of the topography of Leeds, under tbe 
title {)f ' Ducatus Leodit.'nsis,' has communicated much information as to his public 
works; but Thoresby, fur many years before his death, had been preparing materiab 
for a second volume, which he intended to h:ive been purely historical, and for 
which, as he informs us in his publication, he reserved · the memoirs of this noble 
benefactor, 1\lr. Harrison :' that second part, lwwever, he did not live to complete j 
and, after his death, his manuscripts were dispersed into various hands. 
u l\Ir. Harrison derived from his father a very considerable fortune, "hich had been 
acquired in trade in the town of Leeds, most of which he applied to the purchase of 
real estates tbere. The annual rents of these, with additions from his own com- 
mercial profits, he distributed in pri\'ale charities, alienating frum time to time large 



OF :ENG LA.ND. 


99 


John Harrison, esq. alderman of Leeds, deserves to be remem- 
bered to the latest posterity, for his judicious beneilictions and 


portions of the fee-simple, much improved by him, to the various purposes of his 
vast public munificence. 
U The ancient free-school having stood in an inconvenient situation, and being too 
small for the increased population of the town, he removed it, 
ays my author, 
· to a pleasant field of his own, which he surrounded with a substantial wall, and 
then in the midst of the quadrangle built the present fabric.' He erected also the 
Imspital, or almshouse, near his own church (of which we shall presently speak), for 
the residence of forty decayed housekeepers, together with its chapel, and endowed 
it with houses and lands in the new streets, and in a part of the town called the 
Tenters, wbich were then annually let for 521. 5s. together with the moiety of a mill 
called Flaycrow, and the reversion of another estate, of the yearly rent of SOL. in 
Head-row, and Yicar-Iane, on the failure of issue from his sisters. 
" The handsome cross in the middle of the market-place was erected solely at his 
expense; and the New Street, or New Kirk Gt1te, was wholly built by him, and the 
rents appropriated to pions and charitable purposes. This street is terminated by 
St. John's, or the New Church, the prime monument, among the many, of his bound- 
less beneficence; raised entirely by himself, at an immense charge; endowed by him 
with an annual revenue of 80t.; and completed in 1634, on the 21st of September, 
in which year it was consecrated by Archbishop N eile. N ear this stately temple 
be allotted from his estate a portion of land sufficient to afford every rural comfort 
and convenience, and built on it a very good house for the residence of its minister. 
" Here, had he been prompted to these great acts by motives of vain glory and 
ostentation, surely he might have rested, and excJaimed, with the poet, Jam opus 
exegi7 &C. ; but no sooner was his church finished, than we find him purchasing of a 
1\Ir. Falkillgham an andent capital mansion in the town, called llockley-hall, for- 
merly the seat of a family of that name of great antiquity, together with a very 
.considerable property in land. Part of this estate he sold, and the rents of the rc- 
mainder, says. Thoresby, · he gave to pious uses, and particularly towards the eòu- 
.cation and maintenance of the indigent descendants of his two sisters.'-lt should 
seem that the sisters of l\Ir.lIarrison were here intended, but it is not so; the sisters 
alluded to were those of 1\lr. }'alkingham, of whom the conscientious Harrison had 
discovered, or imagined, that he had made the purchase too cheaply, and therefore 
determined to restore to the family the balance which he thougbt was, in equity, 
due to them. He bequeathed them accordingly 1600l. by a codicil to his last will, 
wllich, for its modest and unassuming terms, SO remark3bly indicative of his cha- 
racter, we will transcribe vcrbutim: · Whereas I heretofore bought of Richard 
}'alkingham, ('sq. divers lands and tenements, part of which I endowed the nc\\" 
church withal, and part I since sold to several persons for a good sum of money, 
more than I purchased the same for; I have thought myself bound to bestow upon 
the two ddest sons of John Green, and John Hamerton, who married the coheirs 
of Richard Falkingham, the overplus of all such monies as I 
old the lands for, more 
than the land cost me,' &c. Such wa
 this excellent person in an his dealings. 
.. The town of Leeds was fi rst incorporatcd by King Charles the First, in 1626, 
Gnd the charter then granted, vested the government in a chief magistrate, with the 



100 


BI OGRAPHICA L II ISTOR Y 


charities to that place. As tbe church there was too slllall to 
contain the numerous inhabitants, he built and endowed another, 


title of alderman, nine burgesses, and twenty-four assistants. 1\Ir. Harrison was 
the first who beld the office of alderman, to which he was a second time elected, in 
1634. He was also one of the eight principal persons of the town, who jointly pur- 
chased the man'or of Leeds from the crown in the same reign. 
u It is much to be regretted, as we have before observed, that no memorials havë 
been preserved of the private life of this excellent man. It is not enougl1 to say, 
, By his works shall ye know him.' The mind would dwell on the slightest cir- 
cumstances of his story with a mild complacency, wholly different from those emo- 
tions with which we contemplate the characters of the heroes of hi
tory, but not less 
delightful. AU sources of intelligence on that part of our subject, however, have 
been long closed; and we can add to this sketch little beyond mere matter of ge- 
nealogy. l\Ir. Ha."rison married Elizabeth, daughter of a 1\lr. Foxcroft, who resided 
-near Halifax. She died on the 5th of l\lay, 1631, without issue, and he remained 
a widower till his death, on the 29th of October, 1656, when the remains of his 
<,states, much diminiihed by his meritorious profusion, feU among the descendants 
of his two sisters, Edith, wife of Thomas Gledhill, of Barkisland, esq. and Grace, 
"\\ife of Alexander Robinson, merchant of Leeds; whose eldest son, Henry Ro- 
binson, B. D. and vicar of that town, afterward emulated, to the best of his power, 
his unde's munificence, particularly in erecting a stately entrance, with curious 
columns, to the new church. 
" 1\lr. Harrison lies buried at the east end of that church, under a monument of 
black marble, over which is the portrait at full length, in his municipal robes, from 
"\\ hich the present engraving is taken. On the tomb is the following inscription, 
IlJOre creditable to the fidelity than to the taste of the writer, composed by Dr. Lakc,. 
then vicar of Leeds, and afterward bh,hop of Chichester. 
" Here 
esteth the borly of 1\lr. John Harrison, 
The wonder of his own, and pattern of succeeding ages: 
Eminent for prudence, piety, loyalty, charity; 
'VIm, besides other works of a pious munificence, 
A nd many great instances of an excellent virtue, 
Founded an hospital for relief of indigent persons 
Of good conversation, and formerly industrious; 
Built the free-school of this town for the 
Encouragement of learning, 
Together with a chapel; this church, which most may cnvy, 
For the exercise of religion; 
.And endowed it with eighty pounds per annum. 
Also, that he might do good in all his capacities, 
] Ic erected a stately cross for the convenience of the market j 
And, baving given these pledg
s of a joyful resuIfcclion, 
:FeH asleep, 
October 29th, Auuo nom. 16,:,b, 
Ætatis suæ 77." 



OF ENGLAN D. 


101 


at his own expense. He founded and endowed a comlnodious 
hospital for the poor, who, during their health and strength, had 
ùeen industrious. He also founded a free-school, and built a 
stately market-cross. He left the annual income of his real estate, 
which his munificence had greatly exhausted, to be applied to the 
relief of his poor relations. The males were, at the discretion of 
his executors, to be put out to trades, and the females to have a 
suitable portion given with them in Inarriage. He died the 29th 
of October, 1656, in the 77th year of his age,* and was buried in 
the noble church which himself had founded. His llalne deserves 
ever to be joined with that of The JUan of Ross. His works, some 
of which relate to the antiquities of Leeds, were printed at the re- 
qnest of his friends, in 1647.t 


JACOBUS 
in Conlitatu 
/I. sit. 


CALTHORPE, de East Bashanl, 
N orfolciæ, Armiger; Æt. 3
. 1642, 


. 
II
 was probably of the same family with Sir Henry Calthorpe, 
the recorder, who published" The Customs and Liberties of the 
City of London," in octavo. A person of both his names, was 


" .l\Iarmora quid cælas, sculptor, quid inanc sepulcbrulU ? 
Exegit monulUentum ære perennius. 
Templl1m pro tumulo, sacri præconia verbi, 
Diviniæ(]lle preces sunt cpitaphium. 
Fingere si quid vis, phænicem finge suorum 
Jam prolem cinerum morte supcrstitem." 


1\Ir. Harrison, at the request of his friends, printed, in 1617, some mis<,'ellaneou
 
pieces, a l l10ng which Thoresby enumerates a tract entitled, .. The Govcrnment of 
the Town of Leeds, before it was a corporation;" and "A Letter to Baron Rigby." 
Of the latter book, which probably relatcd to local subjects only, the writer of these 
noticcs has not been able to find a copy. 
'" He was 
eventy-seven, if we may depend 011 the datc on the print; according 
to other accounts, 110 more than scven ty. 
t In the catalogue of .l\Ir. Thoresby's l\iSS. at the end of his Ie Ducatus Leedien- 

is," p. 543. is this article: II The government of the town of Leeds before it was 
m:tde a corporation, drawn up by John lJw"riso71, csq. from "hose autograph (pellcs 
Alderm. Tho. Dixon) I transcribed it. IIis letter to Baron H;/:".'I. His jll'(IYl'r. 
This is not anl(1l1gst those printed at the reque
t of hi
 fricnd
, It3!7 (by ,1\1r. Juhn 
J ack
Oll of Berwick.)" 



102 n JOG R _A P HI C _A L 11 1ST 0 n \T 


knighted by Cromwell, in December 1656. lIe was then sberiff 
of the county of Suffolk. 


JOHN LA l\IOT1'E, esq. citizen of I.london, &c. 
]i'aithorne f. l-Jefore Beller's Life of hÙn, 1656, 4to. 


J 0 II N LA 1\10TT E, esq. &c. 1JZ llichardson. 
John La l\lotte was son of Francis La l\Iot.te, a native of Y pres, . 
in Flanders, whence he fled into England from the persecution of 
the Duke of Alva, and settled at Colchester, where he had a prin- 
cipal hand in setting up and promoting the manufacture of" sayes 
:Iud bayes." John became an eminent and wealthy merchant in 
London, and was chosen alderman of the city. None of his con- 
temporaries Inaintained a fairer character, or had a more extensive 
credit. His piety was exemplary; and his charities, in his life- 
time, almost without example. They extended to the distressed 
Protestants in foreign parts, as well as to multitudes of miserable 
objects in the three kingdoms. lIe died much lamented by all 
that knew him, on the 13th of July, 1655. He was grandfather to 
the facetious Dr. 'Villiam King, author of the" .Art of Cookery," 
and many other pieces of wit and 11umour.. Particulars of his 
life may be seen in the book aoove mentioned, and in Clarke's 
"Lives of eminent Persons," 1683, foJ. 


I-IENRY 'VELBY, gent. J'itting' at a table, u,ith II 
book open before /ÛUl, on UJ/Ûch is Ù1SC1
iúfd, H TTanitas 
vnnitatu1Jz, OJJlJLÏa vanitas." 
Ie has a long' {fnd thick 
heard, ond a staff ill his ri
1ll hand. 1
 llI. (Jlar
'!tall) 
sc. BefoTe his Life, in 4to. IG37, which is vcry rare. 
It has been rejJrinted ill the " Phæni:t, BritaJ/J1iclls,'. 4[0. 
I-IEKRY 'V ELBY, gent. &c. fV. Richardson. 
IIENRY 'V ELBY, gent. &c. ill Ctluijieltl"J' "llc- 
1Jlar!ìable Persolls." 


.. See King's" l\lht:cIJanic:s, 'J 1" 11. 



OF ENGL.AND. 


103 


I-Ienry '\Velby was a native of Lin{'olnshil"e, where he had an 

state of above a 1000l. a year. He po
sessed, in an eminent 
degree, the qualifications of a gentleman. Having been a com- 
petent time at the university and the inns of court, he complcted 
his education by making the tour of Europe. He was happy in 
the love and esteem of his friends, and indeed of all that knew 
l1Ïm, as his heart was warm, and the virtues of it were conspieuou
 
from his many acts of humanity, benevolence, and charity. When 
he was about forty years of age, his brother, an abandoned profli- 
gate, made an attempt upon his life with a pistol, which not going 
off, he wrested it from his hands, and found it charged with a 
double bullet. lIenee he formed a resolution of retiring from the 
world; and taking a house in Grub-street, he reserved three rooms 
for himself; the first for his diet, the second for bis lodging, and 
the third for his study. In tbese he kept himself so closely retired, 
that for forty-four years he was never seen by any human creature, 
except an old maid that attended him, who had only been per- 
mitted to see him in some cases of great necessity. His diet was 
constantly bread, water-gruel, milk, and vegetables, and, when he 
induJged himself most, the yolk of an egg. tIe bought all thp 
new books that were published, most of which, upon a slight exa- 
mination, he rejected. His time was regularly spent in reading
 
meditation, and prayer. No Carthusian monk was ever n10re con- 
stant and rigid in his abstinence. His plain garb, his long and 
silver beard, his mortified and venerable aspect, bespoke him an 
ancient inhabitant of the desert, rather than a gentlelnan of fortune 
in a populous city. lIe expended a great part of his income in 
acts of charity, and was very inquisitive after proper objects. lie 
died the 29th of October, 1636, in the 84th year of his age, alu{ 
lies buried in 81. Giles's church, near CrippJegate. The old maid 
servant died but six days before her master. He had a very ami- 
able daughter, who married Sir Christopher Hilliard, a gentleman 
of Yorkshire; but neither she, nor any of her family, ever saw her 
father afier his retirement. 


Jl\.COBU8 ASI-IEUS, Æt. 56; Zll SiJnon'8 " lIIe- 
daIs;" plate xx. 
.James Ash was luen1ber of parlian1ent for Bath in 1640, and 
afterward in 16.36; also recorder of the said city, and one of the 
committee at Guildhall for compounding estates. 



104 BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOR Y 


Effig. vera GUlL. LEE, Patris hujus Progeniei, 
Ætatis sure 89, 1635. Tile head, u,ith arJJts at bottom, 
is at the 'root of a genealoÆ"ical tree, * 
vlzich covers a large 
sheet. Guli. Porte]" e"l'c. 


Effig. vera GUlL. LEE, &c. oval; 8vo. W. Richa1"d- 
son. 


WiHiam Lee, of Abingdon, in Berkshire, is memorable for the 
blessing of health and long life, and the multiplication of his pro- 
geny. He had, by his first wife, two sons; and by his second, 
four sons and eleven daughters. He married a third wife, with an 
honest and laudable intention of begetting more, but she unfor- 
tunately proved barren: it is probable, that he would otherwise 
have distinguished himself as a prolific patriarch. He lived to see 
seventeen in the first descent, seventy-eight in the second, and one 
hundred and two in the third; in all, one hundred and ninety- 
seven; who were living on the 5th of November, 1637. lIe is 
recorded here as a singular benefactor to the public. Such men 
were greatly wanted by the nation at this period, to repair the de- 
population of the civil war. . 


SIR WIJ-ALIAM DICK, of Braid, kt. is variollslg 
'represented by llobert and TVillianz Vallg"Jzun, perhaps 
father and /1'011, in a folio pamphlet, which contains all 
account of his sufferings.t 1. He is seen proudly rnollllted 
on horseback; 2. arrested, and ill the se1jeallt's hands; 
3. dead in prison. 


SIR \VILLIAM DICK. Thane. 


The strange vicissitudes of human life, and especially those of 
the calamitous kind, were never more frequent than in the eventful 
reign of Charles I. If we except the fate of that monarch, they 


Ingen
 
Exiit ad cælum ramis felicibus arbos, 
l\liraturque nova
 frondes.-VIRG. 
t It i
 entitled H The lamentable State of the deceased Sir 'ViJJiam Dick." 


. 



OF EN G IA AND. 


105 


were, perhaps, in no instance 1110re signally exemplified than in 
that of Sir William Dick, who was lord provost of Edinburgh, and 
a very eminent merchant, with a fortune, as he says himself, of 
up\-\-ards of 50,000/. Having the means, he did not want the incli- 
nation, to assist his countrymen, the covenanters, with large sums 
of money to defray the necessary expenses of the war; but they 
failing in their payments, he so far overstrained his credit, that his 
bills were returned protested, and he was totaHy ruined. He here- 
upon earnestly applied for relief to the parliaments of England and 
Scotland. According to his state of the account, there were due 
to hin1 from England 36,8031. from Scotland 28,1311. in all, 
64,9:34/. for the paYlnent of which he had warrants granted on the 
chamber of London, in 1641; 011 the English customs, in 1643 
and 1644 ; on the cavaliers' estates, in 1646; and on the excise of 
wine, in Scotland, 1651. It appears by Lord Loudon the chan- 
cellor of Scotland's letters to the English House of Commons, and 
to the commissioners in London, 1644, that there was a clear 
balance due to Dick of 34,0001. from that nation. Notwithstanding 
these warrants for repayment, and the application of the Scots to 
their brethren in England, he had only recovered 10001. in 1653, 
after sixteen years' solicitation, during which time he was reduced 
to so great straits, that he was arrested for some small debts 
contracted for his necessary subsistence, and, as it seems, died in 
prison, the 19th of Dec. 1655, aged 75. Hence we may learn, 
that however loudly republicans may talk of liberty, they can be 
guilty of as flagrant violations of common justice as the most des- 
potic princes, when the political necessity of the state calls, or only 
serves as a plausible pretence for it.. . 


An a}lOnY17lOUS pl'int of a '/nan in, his own hair, with 
whiskers and a peaked beard, a plain coat resemúling huff, 
a shoulder-knot of striped l'iband, and ribands ill hows of 
the sa17le kind, which fasten his coat instead of huttons; 


.. Cromwell thought himse]f free from all engagements which tIle Scottish govern- 
ment had contracted. The Scots, by tbeir repeated rebellions, forfeited all claim to 
his favour.-The Earl of Dumferlinc engaged deeper than Sir Williatn Dick; and 
all of his extensive estates were sold or distributed among his creditors.-LoRD 
HAILES. 


VOL. Ill. 


p 



106 BIOGRA PIIICA L B ISTOll Y 


all el71broidcred OrJl{1711cn!, the fore }Jart of which is not 
Zlnlilfe a breast-plate. TV. Hollar f. Londini, 1644, 8vo. 
]'his print, which is not in tile catalog'ue of Hollar 
s 
Works,' is ill AIr. Bulfs collectioll. The Portrait is es- 
tccJ7zed by the best inforJ71td Jl{{(!!,'es, to be that of Colonel 
l\Tathaniel Ficnnes, second SOil (if Lord 
ay. 


ED'V ARD CAL'TER, gent. of Wilbie, in the 
county of Suffolk. 8vo. lïlc be.
.t ÙnprcssioJls are before 
the nal1ZC of Stcnt. 
ED"?ARD CALVEH, &c. rv: Richardson. 


I am informed from a manuscript nott
 under this head, in the 
collection of 
lr. Thoresby,* that he was a relation of Bernard 
Calver, or Calvert, of Andover, who went from Southwark to 
Calais, July 17, 1620, and back again the same day. I-Ie set out 
at three in the morning, and returned about eight in the evening, 
in good health and spirits.t See Granger's " Letters," p. 273. 


The true and lively pourtraiture of that worthy 
Gentleman LAWRENCE RAWDON, late alderman 
of the cittie of Yorke. He died at Yorke, the 25th 
of July, 1626. A. Hertocks sc. One of the scarcest of 
the Rawdon Janzil!J. 


He was the son of Ralph Rawdon, and married Margery, 
daughter of Nicho]as Barton, esq. 


· Now Sir William :l\Iusgrave's. 
t An exploit like that of Calvert's is mentioned in Birch's" Life of Roùert 
Boyle," p. 8.-The most eÀtraordinary instance of this kind În hi!\tory is tliat of 
Cooper Thornhill, an innkeeper, at Stilton in Huntingdon
hire, who rode from that 
place to London, and back again; and also a second time to London, in one day; 
which made in all two hundred and thirteen miles. He undertook to ride - this 
journey with 
everal horses in fifteen hours, but performed it in twelve and a quarter. 
-Some years ago, Lord James Cavendish rode from Hyde Park Corner to 'Vinrlsor 
Lodge, which is upwards of twenty miles, in less than an hour. l\Iany horst's, and 
sOlue men, have since lost their Jives by exploits of the like kind. 



OF EX(
LAND. 


]07 


IIENRY SMITH; a 1JlOJ/1l171ental ç[fì'g'ie kJlceling,\ 
I/olding" a sCllll in both hands. ll. Slzeppalyl. I'll Dale 
s 
" Harwicll and ])ovcr Courts;" 4to. 


Henry Smith, known generally by the name of Dog Smith, was 
born at Wandsworth, of very humble extraction, and became citizen 
and alderman of London. During his life, he gave to the tpwn of 
Croydon, Kingston, Guildford, Dorking, Farnham, each 10001. to 
buy lands for perpetuity, to relieve. and set poor people to work in 
the said towns; and, by his last will, to Riegate and Richmond, each 
1000l. and to Wandsworth, 5001. and 10001. to buy lands for per- 
petuity, to redeem poor captives and prisoners from the Turkish 
tyranny; 10,0001. to buy impropriations for goùly preachers, and 
many other legacies. He died 1627-8, LEt. 79, at his house in 
Silver-street, and was buried at Wandsworth. For a further ac- 
count see Mr. Bray's and Lyson's " Surrey." 


FRANCOIS HA'VKINGS, tirant a rage des dix 
ans. J. P. (Payne) se. 127710. 


FRANCOIS HA'VKINS, a rage d'huit ans; four Eng;- 
/ish verses, "See l1ére th 
 ejJzg"ies of a child;" no ell- 
, 
graver s nanze. 
This young gentleman died in the year 1627, or 1628. 


GENTLEMEN IN CIVIL EIVIPLOY- 
l\IENTS, &c. 
GEORGIUS RODOLPH US \VECKERLIN. 
.lll.!}tcJls p. l/aithorJle se. S171ll11 4to. 


George Rodolph \Veckerlin, a gentleman of German extraction, 
was Latin secretary to Charles I. and also licenser of the press, 
during this reign. His name often occurs in that capacity, with his 
authority for publication prefixed to hooks of the same përiod. He 
was author of "Poernata sacra. simul et prof ana., Germanice," 



108 BIOGRAPHICAL JIISTOR Y 


Arnst. 1641; 8vo. "Poemata profana, sive Odæ et Cantica, Ger- 
manice," 1648; 8vo.. Elizabeth, his only daughter, was first wife 
to William Trumbull, of Easthamstead, in Berkshire, esq. son to 
the agent for James I. and Charles I. in the Low Countries. She 
,vas mother to the noted Sir 'Villiam Trumbull, the friend of Mr. 
Pope. t 


SIR BENJAlVIIN RUDYERD, surveyor of his 
majesty's court of wards and liveries. D. lJIyte1l8 p. 
J. Payne sc. h. she One of Payne's best hèads. Twelve 
Englislz verses underneath, and 'lJzentioned with commen- 
dation by lJIr. Evelyn, ill his" Chalcog;raplzy." 
SIn BENJ.Al\IIN RUDYERD, surveyor, &c. Hollarf. 
a small oval. 


SIR BENJAl\IIN RUDYERD; s17lall oval. "W: Ri- 
chardson. 


His portrait by Hoskins, is in the collection of Col. Sothby, in 
Bloomsbury-square. 
Sir Benjamin Rudyerd, an accomplished gentleman, and an 
elegant scholar, was a very noted speaker in par1iament in this 
reign, where he pleaded strenuously for the bishops. 1Vlany of 
his speeches, and some poems by him, are in print; the latter are 
in the same volume with the poems of William, earl of Pembroke.! 
He was the last surveyor of the court of wards and liveries, which 
was abolished in 1646.
 He was recompensed for the loss of his 
place, with 60001. and a portion of lands out of the l\'1arquis of 
'V orcester's estate, which was assigned him by the parliament. 


· " Bodl. Cat." 
t From one of the monuments of tbe family at Eastbamstead. . 
t London, 1660; 8vo. 

 \Vhen an estate was inherited by a female, the king obliged her to marry 
whom he pleased; and received, for his own use, tbe clear profit of the rents, during 
the minority of the heir, whcther male or female. This was the practice in the op- 
pressive court of wards and liveries, by virtue of the prerogative. See the last 
article in vol. i. of H Vetl1sta l\lonumenta," published by the Antiquarian Society, 
where there is an historical account of tbat court, drawn up by the learned pl'ofcssor 
'Vard of Gresham College. 



OF E
GLAXI). 


IOD 


Db. l\1ay 31, 1658. He lies buried in the church of \Vest \V ood- 
hay, Berks, under a 11l0nUment erected by his servant, John Grant, 
with an epitaph made by Sir Benjamin himself, in his younger 
years. 


SIR WILLIAM BALFOUR, gentlelnan of his 
majesty's privy-chamber in ordinary, and his ma- 
jesty's lieutenant in the Castle Royal, or rrower of 
London; 12J710. 
SIR W ILLIAl\I B.A LFOUR, &c. 1631; 4to. 
SIR W [LLIAl\I BALFOUR, &c. a copy of tILe llc..l't 
above, by Vertue,. 4to. 
SIR 'V ILLIAl\I BALFoRE, &c. TV: Richardson. 
SIR WILLIA:\[ BALFOUR, late lieutenant of the 
rro,ver of London, and now colonel of a regiment 
under the Earl of Essex, on horseback; 4to. 1"are. 
Sir Willialll Balfour, though he had great obligations to the 
court, made no scruple of attaching himself to its most violent 
opponents. He was turned out of his office of lieutenant of the 
Tower, a little before the breaking out of the civil war, and was 
succeeded by Colonel Lunsford. See Class VII. 


ENDYMION PORTER, esq. of his majesty's 
bcd-chamber. Guil. Dobson p. Guil. Faitlzorne sc. 
h. she * 


.. This portrait pretty evidently appears to have been done for the Earl of Essex, 
though it is inscribed with Endymion Porter's name. The grossest impositions are 
sometimes practised by printsellers, as well as by the dealers in coins and medals. 

Iaking of antiques is now a trade in Italy, and the virtuosi and literati impose on 
each othe:'. The reader may see an account of many frauds of this kind, in 
II l\Ienckenius de Charlataneria eruditorum," a very curious book, but little known.t 


t 1\lr. Granger is certainly mistak{,J1 here, the best impressions are those, with 
I'tlrtc)"s name to them: and there could be 110 inùucemcnt for the artist to transfurm 



110 B lOG RAP II I CA. L II IS TOIl Y 


ENDYl\IION PORTER; ill a circle; 171ez::.". 4lo. 
ENDYl\IIOX PORTER; ill an oval. R. Cooper se. 
Endymion Porter, whose excellent natural parts were adorned 
by arts, languages, and travel, was 111uch in favour with James I. 
and his son Charles. I-Ie was a man of great generosity, wit, and 
spirit, and had a general acquaintance among such as were of that 
character. He respected learned men in general; but loved poets, 
and had himself a refined taste for poetry. He attended Charles, 
when prince of 'Vales, into Spain, and was afterward employed by 
him in several negotiations abroad. He was very active in secret 
services for the king, in the civil war, and was no less dexterons 
in conveying his inteBigeoce. He was so obnoxious to the parlia- 
ment, that he was one of those who were always excepted from 
indemnity. lIe died abroad, in the court of Charles II. 


" The true and lively portraiture of that ,vorthy 
citizen ROBERT RA \VDON, one of the governors 
of St. Tholnas's hospital, and master of the right 
"\vorshipful cOlnpany of the Fishmongers. He died 
at l\Iitchan1, in Surrey, and was there buried, the 
15th of Sept. 1644." 
'fJJ1all 4to. (R. White se.) 


See some account of this family in the next reign, Class VIII. &c. 


MR. GEORGE BOURCHIER; a sJJzall head, ill 
the .frontispiece to Winstanley's (( Loyal JJiartyrology," 
1665; Suo. 
l\11L GEORG E Bo U RC H I ER; enlarg'ed frOJJl the above 
print,. 8vo. 
1\1 r. George Bourchier, an independent and loyal gentleman 
r.:
siding at Bri
tol, entered into a conspiracy with Alderman Yeo- 


the popular General Essex, into the ohnoxiou
 and proscribed groom of the bed- 
chamher. Perhaps 1\lr. G. wa
 misled by the military gnrb of the porlr
it, not 
kilo" iug that Endymion was .. captain of the gentlemen of the military or traincd 
band, being fùur hundred all brave Jl)3.rti(f.lists."-Bl
DLE'").. 



OF E
GI
AND. 


III 


mans, and several others, to deliver up that city to Prince Rupert, 
for the service of the king; but tbe scheme being discovered and 
frustrated, he was brought to trial before a council of war, and 
with Yeomans being found guilty was hung at Bristol; lVlay 30, 
16-13. In his speech to the populace, he exhorted all those who 
had set their hands to the plough (nleaning the d
fence of the 
king's cause) not to be terrified by their sufferings, and therefore 
to withdraw their exertions in his service. 


lVIR. CHALONER; a small head, in the frontispiece 
to Winstanley"s " Loyal JJIartyrology," ] 665; 8vo. 
MR. CHALOXER; enlarged fronl the print above; 
8vo. 


l\Jr. ChaloneI', an eminent linen-draper in Cornhill, joining with 
Tomkins, 'V aller, and others, in a plot to seize the Tower of London, 
the person of the lord mayor, some lnembers of par1iamen t, the 
committee of the militia, &c. and to let in the king's army, and 
overturn the then existing government, was arraigned for the same 
before a council of war at Guildhall, found guilty, and sentence 
passed on hilll to be hanged; which was carried into execution, 
before his own door in Cornhill, near the Old Exchange, July 5, 
1643. 


'VILLll\M PLAT'r, esq. J. J. Vandell Be1"ghe 
sculpt. In Adolphus's" British Cabinct;" 4to. 
This gentleman was son of Sir Hugh Platt, and grandson of 
Richard Platt, alderman of London, where he also was born. He 
was a feHow commoner of St. John's College, Cambridge; and the 
chief circumstance of celebrity attaching to his name, arises from a 
bequest which he made of certain lands to maintain f
llows and 
scholars, the former at 30/. the latter at 10Z. per annum. Frolll 
some uncertainty in the wording of this bequest, a litigation arose, 
which was, at length, compromised by John Platt, heir of William, 
who established a maintenance for four scholars at 101. and two 
fellows at .sOL. per annum. 
'Villimn Platt also left 30l. a year for the poor of Rornsey and 
Highgate, and founded a lecture in those parishes. He died in 
1637. 



J 12 B lOG R.1\ P II I C A L II 1ST 0 It Y 


SIR ADRIAN SCROPE" Platt sc. III Adolph liS'S 
" British Cabinet;" 4to. 


Adrian Scrope was the eldest son of Sir Jervais Scrope, of 
Codrington, in Lincolnshire, of which county he was high-sheriff 
in 1634. 
Both father and son, attended Charles I. to the battle of Edge- 
hill, where Sir Jervais having received many wounds (some authors 
-say sixteen, others carry the number to twenty-six), was stripped 
and left among the dead. His son, on the day after the fight, 
having obtained the king's permission, made search among the 
dead bodies, found his parent,. and witnessed, with inexpressible 
joy, his perfect recovery. 
Adrian Scrope always adhered to the royal cause, and received 
llimself many wounds in the service. After the restoration, in 
1660, he was rewarded with the dignity of knight of the Bath. He 
has sometimes been mistaken for the Scroop, that signed the 
death-warrant of Charles I. but was of a different name and family. 


MR. TOl\1PKINS; a slnalllzead, in the frontispiece 
to Winstanley's" Loyal .lJlartY1'"ology," 1665; 8vo. 


MR. TOl\IPKINS; enlarged frorn the al-ooe print,. 8110. 


Mr. Tomkins, who was clerk of the queen's council in conjunction 
with Mr. Chaloner and Edmund YV aller, procured a commission 
from the king, the purport of which was, that they should seize 
into their custody the king-'s children, some members of parliament, 
the lord mayor, and committee of the militia, all the city au i-works 
anù forts, the Tower of London, and all the magazines; then to 
let in the king's army to surprise the city, and to destroy all op- 
posers. This scheme was grounded on the exaction of taxes im- 
posed without authority. - 
The commission was brought to London by the Lady Aubigney 
(wife of the gallant lord, who died of his wounds at Edge-hill), 
afterward married to Lord N ewburgh. On the receipt thereof, seve- 
ral meetings and conferences were held in order to its promotion: 
and such progress was made, that the business was brought into 
some form; but so many being concerned in it, through the trea- 



OF' ENGLAND. 


113 


chery of s<:>me, it came to the ktlowledge of the parliament, where- 
upon Tomkins, Chaloner, and others, were apprehended, and ar- 
raigned before a council of war at Guildhall, and there sentenced 
to be hanged, which was carried into execution; Mr. Tomkins.. 
on a gibbet, erected before his own door in Holborn, July 5, 1643. 


MR. ROBERT YEOMANS; a sl1zall head, in the 
frontispiece to Winstanley's "LoyallJfartyrology," 1665; 
8vo. 


MR. ROBERT YEO
IANS; enlarged front the above 
print; 8vo. 


Mr. Robert Yeomans, a gentleman of plentiful estates, an alder- 
man of Bristol, and who had served the office of sheriff in the 
year 1642, formed a scheme to deliver up that city into the 
hands of Prince Rupert, and thereupon it was resolved, that upon 
Monday, March 7, 1642, the prince with some forces should draw 
towards the city, whilst those within should seize the guard, open 
the gates, and by ringing St. John's and St. Michael's bells, give 
him notice thereof. Accordingly, Prince Rupert came near the walls 
by five o'clock in the morning': expecting the signal; but the plot 
being discovered, Mr. Yeomans, and several others, were appre- 
hended, and after an imprisonment of eleven weeks brought to 
trial before a council of war, where Colonel Fiennes, the governor 
of Bristol, son of Lord Say, sat as president, by whom Mr. Yeo- 
mans was found guilty, and sentenced to death by hanging, which 
was carried into execution May 30, 1643, notwithstanding every 
exertion of the king to save his life. 


CONRADUS RUTEN, ex Scotia, eques. BrQn- 
chorst p. J. Cælmans sc. 4to. 


SIR CONRAD RUTHVEN; in an oval; 8vo. Tiehout; 
] 796. 


. * * * . . 
. 


VOL. III. 


Q 



114 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


JACOBUS PETRUS HUNTER, nobilis * Scoto- 
Suecus, &c. Æt. 51; F. de Nis p. P. Pontius sc: 4to. 


* * * * * * * * * * * 


C LAS SIX. 


MEN OF GENIUS AND LEARNING. 


CHARLES I. whom the peculiarity of his fate made an author, 
appears to have been a much better luaster of his pen than his 
father. If the "Eikon Basilike"t be his, and it carries a strong 
internal evidence with it of its being so, he was as much superior 
to the generality of the writers of his age, in point of excellence, 
as he was in dignity. This book, which according to Milton, had 
the same effect upon the affections of the English, that the famous 
will of Julius Cæsar had on those of the Roman people, is said to 
have gone through fifty editions, at home and abroad, in one' year. 
Whoever reads Mr. Thomas Wagstaft'e's defence of it, can, I 
believe, have but little doubt of the king's being the author. It 
bas been attributed to Bishop Gauden; but if the reader compare 
a few pages of this book, with that prelate's "Sighs, Tears, and 
Complaints of the Church of England;'! he will soon perceive the 
difference. lVlany occasional pieces, written by Charles, are in the 
collection of his works in folio. See Class I. 


.. This epithet means no more than that he was a gentleman. Quærc if properly 
placed. 
t It seems, {rom Wagstaffe's " Vindic
üion of King Charles," that the elllblema- 
tical frontispiece to the II E,x:'AI
 BaO",^,xh," in which he is represented kneeling, was 
designed by himself, and originally engravt'd by l\Iarshall. The Greek line at the 
bottom, which has been vaIiously and absurdly interpreted, is !)ufficiently eXplained 
at p. 220, 221, of the Gentleman's l\lagazine, for 1154 ; but Constantius tihould be 
read instead of ci Constantine." The imposture of Pamela's prayer i.s accounted 
fur by 'Vagstaffe. p.116,&c. and 122, &c. 
* Printed in folio, 1659. 



OF ENGLAND. 


115 


. 


,

 1 


PHYSICIANS. 


WILLIAM IIARVEY, M. D. (physician to 
Charles I.) Bel1l1nel p. Houbralcen sc. 1739; Illltst. 
Head. III the collection oj" Dr. jJfead. 


The picture is now in the possession of Lord Galway. 


,V ILLIAl\I HARVEY, M. D. sitting in an elbouJ-clzair. 
IIollar f. h. sh. scarce. 


GlJLIELl\IUS H1\RVEIUS, M. D. þ'aithorne f. a" bU/!J,t; 
8vo. 


GUL[ELl\IUS HARVEIUS. Cor. Jansen p. [Iall sc. 
larg'e 4to. or lL. slz. fine. Fronz an orig'illal belonging to 
tile College of Physicians. 


'VILLIAl\I HARVEY, by 
1'Ardell, h. slz. 'Jnezz. 
There is a bust of hiJ7z cng'raved froJll that belonging 
to tlze co/leg'e. It was done for an ornanzcnt to the cer- 
tjficates given by Dr. Hunter to his pupils. 


A n original portrait of him is at the College of Physicians, to 
which he was a great benefactor, and where he founded the annual 
oration. 
This great physician, who will be ever menlorable for his dis- 
covery of the circulation of the blood, had the happiness, in his 
lifetime, to find the clam ours of ignorance, envy, and prejudice, 
against his doctrine, totally silenced; and to see it universally 
established. It has, by length of time, been more and more COn- 
firmed; and every man now sees and knows it from his own e.x- 
11erience. It appears to be of the utmost importance in Inedicine, 
as it is perhaps impossible to define health and sickness in fewer 
words, than that the one is a free, and the other an obstructed cir- 
culation. Dr. Harvey was not only an e
cenent physiÓall; he 



116 BIOGRAPHICAL HIS1'OR Y 


was also an excellent man: his modesty, candour, and piety, were 
equal to his knowledge: the farther he penetrated into the won- 
ders of nature, the more was he inclined to venerate the author of 
it. I-lis great work entitled, "Exercitatio A naton1Ïca , de Motu 
Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus," was printed at Frankfort, in 4to. 
1627. Ob. 30 June, 1657, Æt. 80.. According to the" Annal. 
Coll. Med. Lond." (IdS.) lib. 4. page 78, 79, he died on June 3, 
and was buried on June 26. But if the date of his death in his 
epitaph, which is in Hempsted church, in Essex, may be credited, 
he died on the 30th of June. 


THEODOltUs TURQUETUS MAYER
US,eq. 
aurat. Jacobi I. et Caroli I. Magnæ Britanniæ regum, 
archiater, ad tablllarn in pinacotheca R. .ftfead, lJ;I. D. 
asservata171. P. P. Rubens p. I. SÙnon del. et sc. h. sh. 
1ne:::;z. 


Sir Theodore 1\1 ayerne, a native of Ge.neva, is perhaps the only 
instance of a physician who was retained in that character by four 
kings; namely Henry IV. of France,t James I. of England, and 
the two Charleses. His reputation was deservedly great in his 
profession; and he may be justly considered as one of the re- 
formers of the art of physic; as he was among the first that intro- 
duced the chymical practice, which time and experience have fully 
established.! He died of the effects of bad wine; a sluw, which 
the weakness of old age rendered a quick, poison. He foretold the 
time of his death to his friends, with whom he had been moderately 
drinking at a tavern in the Strand; and it happened according to 
his prediction. The library at the College of Physicians was 
partly given to that society by Sir Theodore l\layerne, and partly 
by the Marquis of Dorchester. There is a catalogue of his works, 
in the" Athenæ Oxonienses," among which is a book of receipts 
in cookery. It is to be wished, for the good of Inankind, that 
other skilful physicians would write receipts of this sort; but not 
altogether according to Cheyne's aphorism, which is, "That the 


· Biographia. t General Diet. 
:t The famons Petitot owed the perfection of his colnuring in ('namel to some 
chymical secrets communicated to him by Sir Theodore l\1ayeruc. See II Anecdotes 
of Painting," p. 450. 2d edit. 



OF ENGLAND. 


117 


most insipid things are the most wholesome." Ob. March, 1655, 
Æt. 83. Some valuable papers by Sir Theodore, written in elegant 
Latin, are now in Ashmole.s Museum.. They have been read by 
Dr. Smyth, an eminent physician of Oxford, who says that they 
contain many curious particulars; they especial1y shew the state of 
physic in this reign, and discover the first invention of several medi- 
éines. See the Interregnum. 


SIR MA TTHE\V LISTER, knt. doctor of physic, 
1646. P. Vall 
(nner sc. 


This is a manuscript inscription, under the head. See the article 
of Sir MARTIN LISTER, Class VIII. 
The following short account of Sir l\Iatthew Lister was sent me, 
with other anecdotes of the J...ister family, by Mr. Edward Gregory, 
an ingenious young gentleman, of Harlaxton, near Grantham, 
whose ancestors were nearly related to it. 
"Dr. Matthew Lister was a younger son of a. family of that name, 
which had a large estate at Craven, in Yorkshire; and was bred to 
the science of physic, in which, as I was informed by Sir Edward 
Wilmot, he made great improvements; his recipes being at this time 
prescribed, almost without alteration, in cases to which they are 
applicable. He never published any thing. Sir Hans Sloane had in 
his possession these receipts of his, which are now much esteemed 
by the faculty." Mr. Wood informs us, that he was physician to 
Anne of Denmark, and one of the physicians in ordinary to 
Charles I. that he was president of the college in London, and one 
of the most eminent of his profession in the kingdom. Ob. 1657, 
Æt. 92. See more of him in Kennet's "Complete Hist." ii. 790. 


Tll0MAS BROWNE, (afterward Sir Thomas) 
n1ed. doctor; 
n71all h. sh. 


There is a portrait of him, and of lnany other eminent physicians, 
in the anatomy school, at Oxford; and at Dcvonshire-house are 


.. King James sent him into France in 1618, but being suspected that his visit 
was tn di...turb public affairs, he wa
 commanded to retire out of the kingdom of 
I'rancc by the killS's council.-LoRD ILuLI:s. 



118 ß lOG. RAP II I C A L II 1ST .0 R Y 


the portraits of Sir'Thomas, his wife, his two sons, and as Indny 
daughters, in one piece, by Dobson. 
Dr. Thomas Browne was author of the 
'Religio l\1edici," 
a pat'adoxical piece, written with great spirit, and translated into 
almost every language of Europe. This book has been heavily 
censured by some, as tending to infidelity, and even atheism; 
others, with much Inore reason, have applauded the piety, as well 
as the parts and learning of the author.. In his" Pseudo-doxia 
Epidemica," &c. he has clearly refuted a great number of popular 
errors, taken upon trust, and propagated awl confirmed by tra- 
dition and custom. This book, which is his principal work, was 
first published in folio, 1646. There is an edition of his works 
in fol. Lond. 1686, but this does not contain all his posthumous 
pieces. 


PLILEl\ION HOLLAND, IVI. D. ./Et. 80, 1632. 
H. H. invt. lJfarsha/l se. III the cng;raved title to his 
translation of .LYeJlOphOll
S " Cyrop(cdia;' fol. 
PUILE:\lON IIoLLAxD; in an oval. JV. Richardson. 
Philemon Holland, commonly calJed the "Translator General 
of his ag'e," was educated in the university of Cambridge. He was, 
for many years, a schoolmaster at Coventry, where he practised 
physic. He translated" Livy, Pliny's Natural I-listoI'Y, Plutarch's 
Morals, Suetonius, An:mianus 
1 arcellinus, Xenophon's Cyropædia, 
and Camden's Britannia;' into English; and the geographical part 
of Speed's "Theatre of Great Britain," into Latin. "The Britannia/' 
to which he made many useful additions, was the most valuable of 
his works. It is surprising that a man of two professions, could 
find tÎllle to translate ::;0 much; but it appears from the date of the 


· Among other peculiarities in this book, he spcHks of the ultinlate act of luve, 
as a folly beneath a philosop!,cr; and' says, that he U could he content that we might 
procreate like trees, without conjunction." Bllt after the writing of it, he ùc- 
scended from his philosophic dignity, and married an agreeable woman. t It v. as 
said that his reason for marrying was, "because he could discover no Letter method 
of procreation." 


t The strong. the hravc, the "irtuou..., and the wise, 
Sink in the soft captivity tugcther.-A
DISO
'5 Cato. 



OF ENGLAND. 


119 


" Cyropædia." that he continued to translate till he was 80.years 
.ofagc. Ob. 1636, Æt. 85. He made the following epigram upon 
writing a large folio with a single pen: 


"
ith one sole pen I writ this book, 
:Maùe of a grey goose quilJ, 
A pen it was when it I took, 
And a pen I leave it still. 


Dl
. BAST"\VICK; ill eOUip/ete arlnour, holding a 
shield 'lvitlt his rig'ht hand, and a Bible ill Itis left,. on the 
. .fjlzield is inscribed, " I jìg!l( the g;ood fight of faith;" 
under the print are these verses: 


. 


" Here stanùs one arm'd, who hath truth.s cause maintain'd 
'Gainst error's captains, forces, vaunts, 
igh boasts; 
God's word his weapon, might and strength he gain"d 
To rout them aU, from the great Lord of Hosts." 


Frontispiece to " The utter routing the 'whole ar1Jzy of 
Independents and 5 Y eetaries," 4to. 1-'. Cross se. 


The next print shews, that he had sometimes recourse to carnal 
weapons. 


CAPT. JOII
 BAST'VICK, late captain of a foot 
company; whole length, 4to. 


CAVT. JOH
 B
\ST'rICK, doctor of physic; 8vo. 


JOlI
 BAST"'"ICK, &c. W. I-Iollar f. a sJJlall oval; 
under 'which is an account of his suiferings. 


JOHN BAST\VICK, u.:ith lIll account of Ilis suffering's. 
- .J. Berry sc. 


JOBX B_AST\VICK, &c. four English verses,' frontis- 
pitre to his" 1\"T C1V ])iscoz'cry of l
rclates' Tyranny /' 
1641; 5:J1utll. 



120 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTOR Y 


Dr. Bastwick seems to have been too intent upon the reformation 
of government and religion, to attend much to the business of his 
profession. He was a graduate of the university of Padua, and 
author of "FlageHum Pontificis et Episcoporum Latia1ium," and 
several other pieces, written in a furious strain of Polemics. His 
history is lnuch the same with that of Burton and Prynne, his 
fellow-sufferers. See BURTON, Class IV. 


ABDIAH COLE, a physician of note, flourished 
in this reign. There is a portrait of him in a doctor of 
physic's gou'n, hy T. Cross; in the frontispiece to the 
translation of Riverius's Works, folio. 


"\ 
I have met with nothing written by Dr. Cole; but am very cre- 
dibly informed that he and Culpeper translated several books in 
conjunction. - 


SCOTCH PHYSICIANS. 
DR. (ALEXANDER) READE; a snzall head hy 
Gaywood; in the title to tile " Secrets of Art and Na- 
ture," Jol. 1660. 


Alexander Read, or Rhead, a native of Scotland, was a man of 
great abilities, and no less success in his profession.t In 1620, he 
was, by royal mandate, created doctor of physic at Oxford, and 
afterward elected a fellow of the College of Physicians. He wrote 
a considerable number of anatomical, and chirurgical books, 
which were in great esteem. There is a catalogue of them in the 
.. Athenæ Oxonienses." ... 


GEORGI US SCHARPUS, Pbilosophus et Me- 
dicus, N atione Scotus, Regis Christianissimi Consi- 
liarius, et in Academia Monspelii Professor et Vice- 


· He was author of the" Expert Physician," 1657; 12mo.-BrNDLEv. 
t See II Athen. Oxon." i. col. 461, 462. 



o F' E 
 C; L A X!). 


121 


Cancellarius, nee non in Bononiensi ArehìgYlnnasio 
l\ledicinæ Doctor, Æt. lvii. J. Bapt. (Yorio/anus f. 
4.10. 


In the Bodleian Catalogue, under his name is the following 
hook: cc Insfitlltionfs Aledicf1'," a Clmul;o F. nlitrE Bon. 1638, 4to. 


E 1.\ I P I I
 Ie S . 


l\'ICOLAUS CULPEPER, eques; 8vo. Cross se. 


He had no more right to the title of knight., than he had to that 
of doctor. 


NICHOl,AS Cu LPE:PER, ill a doublet nr 1.cai,-f,.>tcnat; a 
_print and a boolt before hiJJl. 


Nicholas Culpeper, was son of Nieholas CuJveper, a clergyman, 
and grandson of Sir ThOlnas Culpt'per, bart. He was some time a 
student in the university of Cambridge, which he left without 
taking a degree. He was soon after bound apprentice to an apo- 
thecary, and employed all his leisure hours in the study of physic 
and astrology, which he afterward professed.* I-Ie was a writer 
and translator of many books; and was much resorted t.o for his 
advice, which he gave to the poor gratis. He died in 1654, at his 
house in Spitalfields. The most noted of his works is his Her-' 
hal, in 8vo. entitled, "The English Physician," &c. whi<:h l'as been 
often printed. In this book, he tells us under what planets the 
simples grow, and speaks of their good and bad qualities astrolo- 
gically, as if he had calculated their nativities. This part of the 
work appears to be his own; the r
st is chiefly taken from Gerard. 
See the Interregnum, Class IX. 


.. Astrulogical doctors have of late been looked upon as little better than homi- 
cides. ]10t Hippocrates, Galen, A"icell, and other celebrated physicians. in 
forme," ages, regarded those as homíciùes. who were ignorant of asttology. P2Ira- 
celsns goes farther, amI will have a phJ!!ician to be preùcstinated to the cure of his 
patient: and says that his horoscope should be inspected. the plants gathered in a 
critical moment, &c. Sce Burton" Of l\Iclancholy," p. 2'27, 6th edit. 


VOL. III. 


R 



122 ß lOG. RAP II 1 G 
\ 1. II 1ST OIlY 


DR. l\10RTON. llogcrsuJl (hl. Cross sc. whiskers, 
peaked beard, l!:,'c. a urinal standing' b!J hÙn. 


Morton was a noted practitioner in physic, and had a great deal 
of what is called " Chamber- pot practice.."*- 


A SURG-EON. 


JOHN 'VOOD.A.LL, n1aster in chirurgerie. G. 
Glover f. III the cllg'raved title to !tis " 11.lilittH,}1 and 
D0771estiqlle Sfll}
'er!J," 163B, folio. The bouk has been 
'reprinted. 


This person, who was of great eminencE' in his profession, was 
also author of a "Trf'atise of the Cure of the Plague," which is 
subjoined to the book above mentioned; and of the "Surgpon's 
1\1ate/' 1617. 


POETS.. 


JOAN NES MIL TONUS, ./J!.'t. 21. JV: .11JllPSltllll 
sc. l/rontisp. to his" Juvenile l
oelìls," 800. 1645. 


This was the first head of him ever published: Salmasius, in his 
CI Defensio Regia," calls it comptulam ]COIIC1JI, and says it gave him 
a more advantageous idea of his person than he ever had before: 
but it appears from the Greek verses underneath, that l\IiIton 
himself was not pleased with it. 


JOANNES. MILTON us, Æt.21. T'àJlderg'l(cht sc. 
JOANNES IVIILTON, Æt. 21. Ver/uc .'Je. Ell' pictura 
orchetypa, qllæ penes est præ/zoJlorabile1ìl .i.lrthuJ'"u17l On- 
slow, arnz. Vertue sc. 1731; 4to. 


· Alter matulas inspicÍt, et ubi morbum non inrenil, f':-tcit. Garth," Oratio 
Ilnn:eiana." . 



OF EN(}LAX D. 


1
3 


.J 0 A N X ES lVI I LTO N; differing' fr01Jl the lle.l't above 
only in the illscript ion, vi
. " lVascu Ilt ur poet{e," 
c. 


JOAXNES l\IILTox. Æt. 21. Vertlie sc. Svo. 


JOHN l\III,TON. HOllbrakell sc. 1741. In the col- 
lection of Arthur Ollslozv, esq. 
JOHN MILTON; drawn and etched hy J. B. Cipriani, 
a Tuscan, fl"Ol1l a picture in the collection f!f Arthur On- 
sloy}, esq. This is one of the jive heads o.f Ii inz, etched by 
Cipriani, at the e<-
peJlse of l-'!loJ7las Hollis, esq. F. R. S. 
et A. S. S. 


The juvenile proùuctions of :\li1ton, particularly his" Ode on the 
Nativity of Christ," his" L' Allegro," and" Il Penseroso," and his 
"Comus," would alone have perpetuated his fame. In the 
"Ode," we see the first bold flights of a rising genius. The 
" L'Allegro'. and" Il Penseroso n are highly beautiful in themselves, 
and more so in their contrast:'JJ the personification to them is 
striking: 


U Sport that wrinkled care derides, 
And laughter holding both his sides," &c. 


His ":VIasque of Comus" was the best that the world had ever 
seen;t and, as altered for the stage by 1\11'. Dalton,! is one of its 
higl1est entertainments at present. See the Interregnuln, Class 
VIII. and IX. and the next reign. 


ABRAHAMUS CO\VLEY, regius aln11111us scho- 


· " These are set to music by l\Ir. Handel: 
U From notes so 
weet new grace the notes receive, 
.And music borrows help bite us'd to gi\'e."-TlcKEL. 
t The gcneralitl of compositions of this kind are trifling and perplexed allego- 
ries: the personages of which are fantastic to the Iftst rlcgree. Ben Jonson, in his 
.c :ì\Iasque of Christmas," 161(), has introduced" l\Iinçed P,ye, and Babic Cake," 
,,110 act their parts in the drama. nut the most wretchf'ò performances of this kind 
cllllirl pJ('a
c by the help of music, machiut'fY, aud dancing. 

 ðincc ,Ioct-or uf divinity, and p.'cbcndary of \V orc('..tcr. 



12
1 BIOGRAPlilCAL IIlSTOH. Y 


læ '\"-estmonasteriensis, LEt. 13, (15*); 1633. ]fì'vJl- 
tispicce to his" Poetical BtOSSOJJ1S;" 121110. 


ABRAIL\J\lUS CO,rLEY, reg-ius Alumnus, &c. In the 
title to his " Juvcnile Poenls /' fol. In the jòrJ11Cr, there 
are t100 Gng'cls holding' a chaplet of laurel over his head; 
ill this, onlg one. There is a fine picture of IIi)}z at 
Stra2vberry-hill, by Sir P. Lely. Zinc/t:. l
aillted on 
enamel, frolJI 1vhich it is engraved b!J flall, and prçfiLred 
to Bisho}J Hurlts edition of Cowley. 


ABRAIIA)I CO\VLEY, LEt. SUrf 20; froJJl all ori- 
g;inal drazviJlg' ill tlte possession of Richard Clark, eSfj. 
chaJ7zberlain of London,. cng;raved by .Janzes Basire; 
folio; in Bray and J1IaJlJli'Jl!:('s " History of Surrey." 
The "Poetical Blossoms" of Cowley, which are an abundant 
proof of his talent for poetry, were generally regarded as an 
earnest of that fame to which he afterward rose, and which, in the 
opinion of some of his contemporaries, eclipsed tllat of every other 
English poet. 'Ve are even more pleased with some of the earliest 
of his juvenile poems, than with many of his later performances; 
as there is not every where in them that redundancy of wit; and 
where there is, we are more inclined to admire, than be offenùed at 
it in the productions of a boy. His passion for studious retirement, 
which was still increasing with his years, discovered itself at 
thirteen, in an ode which a good judget thinks equal to that of 
Pope on a sÎlniIar subject, and which was written about the same 
era of his life. The tendernes3 of some of his juvenile verses shews, 
that he was no stranger to another passion; and it is not improbable 
but l\1argarita, or one of her succe
sors, might at fifteen, have had 
a full possession of his heart.! See the next reign. 


· Dr. Sprat is mistaken in saying, that the IC Poetical Blossoms" came out in 
the thirteenth year of his age. See the" Biographia," article Cowu:y, Notc (B.) 
t l\Ir. Jos. Warton, in his" Essay on the Genius and 'Vritings of Pope." The 
ode here meant, is in Cowley's" Essay on himself!' 

 " :I\Iargarita first possess't. 
If I remember \\ eJl, my Lreast." 
Ballad uf his l\Iislreb
cs. 



OF ENG LAN D. 


1'),3 


BENJAMIN JONSON was poet-laurèat to Charles 1. who aug- 
mented his salary from a hundred marks, to a hundred pounds; 
and added a tierce of Canary wine. The same salary with the 
appendage to it, has been continued ever since. See the preced- 
Ing reIgn. 


EDMUND "\V ALLER, esq. ..lEt. 23; Olen hair; 
arms. 


EDl\IUND "\tv ALLER, esq. B. Reading sc. 8vo. 
ED)IUXDUS ,V ALLERUS, LEt. 23. P. VandreblLJlC sc. 
8vo. 


There is a portrait of him at Hall Barn, the seat of the family oÎ 
Waller, near Beconsfield, by Cornelius Jansen. It is inscribed, 
" In the 23d year of his age, and the first of his life." 
Edmund "ValleI', sometimes styled '
the English Tibullus," ex- 
celled all his predecessors, in harmonious versification. * His love 
verses have all the tenderness and politeness of the Roman poet; 
and his panegyric on Cromwell has been ever esteemed a n1aster- 
piece in its kind. His vein is never l"edundant, like that of Cowley; 
we frequently wish be had said more, but never that he had said 
less. His personal qualities were as amiable as his poetical, and 
he was equally formed to please the witty and the fair. He not 
only retained all his faculties, but retained In 1 1ch of his youthful 
\'ivacity at eighty years of age. Ob. 21 October, 1687. See the 
next reign. See also" Lord Clarendon's Life;" 8vo. p. 47. 


GEORGE SANDYS. Vertue __''c. a sJ7zalllu:ad ill II 
'I'ollnd. It is in the " O.rford AI17zanack for 1746," 
under the head of EraS1Jlus. 


GEORGE SANDYS, &c. JV: lliclzardson. 


.. fhe verses of Donne, and other poets who flourished before 'Valler, frequently 
run into one another, and proceed, without any considerable pause, to thc end of 
a long period; which has becn, not unaptly, compared to thc rullnillg down of a 
larum. 



126 HI 0 G RA PH I CAI... IllS TO it Y 


GEORG E SANDYS; eng'raved b!J Gcorg'e P01vlc) fliZer 
the portrait of hÏ1n by Cornelius Jansen, at Lord San- 
llys'
;, at OJ7lbersley, jor Dr. Nash's" History of lJIor- 
cestershire." 


George Sandys, youngest son of Edwyn Sanùys, archbishop of 
York, was one of the most accomplished persons of his time. He 
merited much for his travels into the eastern coulítries, of which 
he has published an accurate account: but still more for his para- 
phrases and translations, which were excelled by none of the poets 
of this reign. His principal works are his translation of " Job," 
his paraphrase on the "Psalms," and hi3 translation of Ovid's 
"l\Ietamorphosis." His Psalms were set to music by 'Villiam and 
Henry Lawes, musicians to Charles I. and his" Ovid" was one of 
the first books that gave Mr. Pope a taste for poetry.*" Mr. 
Dryden pronounced him the best versifier of the last age. He was 
also an excellent geographer and critic.t Ob. 1643. 


JOHANNES CLEAVELAND. R. Whitesc.12JJlo. 
Before his Works, 1653. 


JOHX CLEA VELA ND; a bust crowned with lall'rel
' 
" Sepultus College Whittintonii, 1 Maii, 1658." 


JOHANNES CLEAVELAXD, in a clerical habit. Be- 
fore his Works, 1677. 


This is very probably fictitious; he was never in holy orders. 


JOH
 CLEAVELAND, Æt. 32; a medallion. Fuller
' 
J
 Basirc. 


John Cleaveland, received his education at Christ's and St. 
John's Colleges, in the university of Cambridge, in the last of 
which he enjoyed a fellowship; but was, in the civil war, ejected 
from it for his loyalty. He, soon after his ejection, .went to Oxford, 


.. \\Tarton's "Essay on the Genius and Writings of Pope." 
t See l\1r . Pope's note on II iad xJ\.ii. y. 197. 



OF ENGLAND. 


]27 


where he was much caressed for his wit, which he exerted in 
several satirical pieces against the fanatics. Mr. Aubrey informs 
us, that he went from Oxford to the garrison at Newark; where, 
upon drawing up certain articles for the royalists, he would needs 
add this short conclusion, " And we annex our lives as a label to 
our trust." That gentleman adds, that after the king was beaten 
out of the field, he came to London, and entered himself at Gray's 
Inn, where he and Samuel Butler, of the same society, had a club 
every night.* He was justly esteemed a man of wit; but his 
writings abound with strained and far-fetched metaphors, which is 
a fault objected to Butler hilnself.t That great poet has conde- 
scen.ded to imitate, or copy Cleaveland, in more instances than 
occurred to Dr. Grey in his notes upon "Huùibras." There are 
some notices of our author in Thurloe's" Papers," IV. 184. It is 
there remarked, that he was "a person of great abilities, and so 
able to do the greater disservice." Mr. Echard hath observed, that 
" he was the first poetic champion for the king."! Ob, 29 April, 
1658 . 


SIR JOHN SUCKLING. A. Van Dyck p. Vel
tue sc. 
J 741; lz. s/z. 


Sill JOH
 SUCKLTN, (SUCKLING). JJl: 1f"fa'rsllall f. 
Before his fVorks, 1648; 8vo. 


· 1\18. in l\1U!
eo Ashmot. 
t There is in the" Spectator," No. 611, a specimen of this kind of writing in 
prose and verse. The original "er
es, as the author tells us, were written by" an 
Italian poet, who was the CJea,"elalld of his age." They are translated from the 
J
atin, in Strada's" Prolusimls," and are an imitation of the style of Camillo Quemo, 
surnamed the Archpoet. This Querno, whose eharact
r and writings were equally 
singular, was poet and buffoon to Leo X. and the common butt of that facetious 
pontiff, and his courtiers. One of them made this extemporary verse upon him: 
Archipoeta facit versus pro .mille poet is ;
 
To which the pope with his usual quickness added, 
Et pro mille aliis Archipoeta bibit. 
Vide Stradæ "Prolus." edit. Oxon. 17 ,15, p. 2--14, and Bayle's" Diet." artic. LEO X. 

 P. 735. 


9 Quemo is said to have composed this line himself.-I.oRD HAII.ES. 



128 H JOG nAP II reA L II] S TO H \ 


SIR J 0 H N S DC K L I X G ; ill fin oval of hays; eig;/zt Eng'- 
lis It 'Vc rses . 


SIR JOHN SUCKLI
G; a bust; 
it' Eng'lish. verses. 
SIR JOHN SUCKLIKG. Vanderg'urht <-'liC. 8vo. Frolltisp. 
to the last edition of his Worlis. 


There is a portrait of him in the Ashmolean Museum, at Oxford. 
Sir John Suckling, a poet of great vivacity, and some elegance, 
was One of the finest gentlemen of his time. His prose writings, 
particularly his "Discourse of Religion," addressed to Lord Dor- 
set, are thought equal to tbe best of his poetical performances. 
His ballad on a wedding,* and his "Session of the Poets," are 
oftener remembered than any of his works. This bal1ad was occa- 
sioned by the marriage of Roger Boyle, the first Earl of Orrery, 
with Lady Margaret Howard, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk. 
There was a great intimacy betwixt Sir John and the Earl of 
Orrery, then Lord Broghill.t In his" Session of the Poets," he 
has given us SOlne traits of the characters of his poetical brethren, 
and has not forgot Sir \Villimll Davenant's nose; which has been 
the subject of more satirical jokes than any other nose that ever 
existed.! Db. 1641, Æt. 28.
 See Class V II. 


THOMAS RANDOLPII; a 81Jzall hust, in the title 
to his Worl:s, 1640; 121no. W.llI. (llrshall.) 
THOl\fAS RANDOLPH. J. Berry sc. 
Thomas Randolph, a celebrated poet, and one of the gayest of 
Ben Jonson's sons, was educated at Trinity College, in Cambridge. 
The most generally admired of his works, which consists of pOCIllS 
and plays, is his" Muses' tooking-glass," reprinted in 1757, under 


.. Ie I tell thee, Dick, where I have been." &c. 
t See ì\Iorrice's u :Memoirs of Roger, earl of Orrery," p. 49. 
: He almost entirely lost this part of his face by the gaieties of his yontl.. 

 Aubr('y, in a manuscript in the l\Iuseum at Oxford, has this short anecdote 
concerning Sir John Suckling: Ie I have heard 1\Irs. Bond say, that Sir John's 
father' was but a dull fellow; her husband, 
Ir. Thomas Bond, knew him; the wit 
came by the mother.'" 



OF ENGLA
D. 


129 


the title of " The 
lirrour," in which there is a great variety of 
characters of the passions anù vices, drawn with much truth, and 
interspersed with SOlne strokes of natural humour.- The author 
of " Remarks on the Plays of Shakspeare," subjoined to the 
ninth volume of his works; 12mo. Lond. 1714, says, "I would 
advise a comic writer to study Randolph's 'Muses' Looking- 
glass' thoroughly, for there, I anl apt to believe, he will find the 
source of all humours that are in nature." There are, perhaps, but 
very few that will subscribe to this author's opinion. Db. l\larch, 
1634, LEt. 29. 


PHILIPPUS l\IASSINGER, gen. T. Cl"OSS SC. 
8vo. Eifore his " l/lree New Playes, viz. TIle Bashful 
Lover, 17ze Guardian, 17le VeJ3' lVollzan," tj'c. S71lall 8vo. 
London, 1655. 


PIIILIPPUS MASSINGER, &c. W. Richardson. 


Another ellg1'1aved by GrignioJl: before the ne'lV edition 
of his 
vorlls. 


Philip l\lassinger was a poet of great eminence in this reign. 
I-Ie published fourteen plays of his own writing, and had a share 
with Fletcher, Middleton, Rowley, and Decker, in several others. 
He seems by the following verses, which are part of an enco- 
mium on him by a contemporary poet, to have been a very expe- 
ditious writer. 


" His easy Pegasus will ramble o'er 
Some three score miles of fancy in an hour." 


Ob. 
Iar. 1639-40. A correct edition of his works, in four volumes 
8vo. was pubJished in 1761, to which is prefixed" Critical Reflections 
on the old English dramatic \V riters," an anonymous piece, ad- 
dressed to David Garrick, esq. by 1\lr. C01man, who has given a 
just encomium of the author. 


JACOBUS SHIRLEUS. ltlarshall se. 1646. Be- 
fore his " Poe17ls;" 8vo. 
VOL. III. S 



130 B lOG RAP II I C A L If 1ST 0 R Y 


JACOBUS SHIRLEUS. G. PhcniA' (or PheniLV) p. 
Ga:ywood f. a bust. Before his siLr plails" viz. " The 
B,t'others," 
e. 1652, and 1653; 8vo. 


JACOBUS SHIRLÆUS. G. Pltenik pillLr. HZ Ri- 
chardson. 


This nearly resembles his portrait in the Bodleian gallery, at 
Oxford; the former does not. 
James Shirley, an eminent dramatic poet, was patronised by 
Henrietta Maria, and tbe Earl of Newcastle, whom he followed to 
the camp. He was educated at St. John's College, in Oxford, 
where he was taken great notice of by Dr. Laud, then president of 
that house. lIe entered into holy orders; though he was much 
discouraged from it, by his friend the president, on account of a 
large mole on his left cheek;* and was some time a parish priest 
in Hertfordshire. He afterward turned Roman Catholic, and kept 
a school at St. Alban's, but soon grew tired of that employment, 
and going to London commenced poet. He wrote no less than 
thirty dramatic pieces, some of which were acted with great ap- 
plause. In the Interregnum, he was necessitated to return to his 
former profession of schoolmaster; in which he became eminent, 
and wrote several grammatical books for the use of his scholars. 
Oh.29 Oct. 1666, Æt. 72. 


'VILLIAM BOSWORTH, ætatis 30, 1637. G. 
Glover se. 8vo. 


W ILLIAl'vI BOS'VORTH, ætatis 30, 1637, copied frol1l 
the ahove 8vo. 


William Bosworth, gent. was descended from the ancient and 
illustrious familiest of Bokesworth, Boxworth, or Bosworth, of 


· The canon against personal blemishes in the clergy is well known. 
t In bis Poems addressed to Aurora. he says, 
.' 0 scorne me not, I come of noble line: 
For by the Norman duke our browes were crowiled 
With la\Vrell hranches, and our nalllt's H'llowned." 



OF ENGLA N D. 


131 


Hoxworth, by Harrington, in Cambrjdge
hire. He was born in 
1607, and died sometime between the years 1651 and 1653. This 
person was author of a book entitled, "The Chast and Lost Lovers, 
lively shadowed in the persons of Arcadius and Sepha; and illus- 
trated with the severall stories of Hemon and Antigone, Eramio 
and Amissa, Phaon and Sappho, Deliathason and Verista: being 
a description of several Lovers smiling with delight, and with hopes 
fresh as their youth, and fair as their beauties in the beginning of 
their affections, and covered with bloud and horror in the conclu- 
sion: to this is added, the Contestation betwixt Bacchus and 
Diana, and certain sonnets of the Author to Aurora; digested into 
Three Poems, by William Bosworth, gent." 


--- l\Ie quoque 
Impunè volare, et sereno 
Calliope dedit ire cælo. 


London, printed for 'Villiam Sheares, and are to be sold at the 
signe of the Bible, in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1653. 


, 


THOMAS CAREW. Rodd e
J'c. 8vo. 


Thomas Carew was born in Gloucestershire, and educated at 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He was appointed gentleman of 
the privy-chamber, and sewer to King Charles I. and died in 1639. 
His masque, entitled " Cæluln Britannicum," was performed before 
the king at \Vhitehall, in 1633. His poems were printed in 1640, 
12mo. and again in 1772, by Davies. 


RICHARD BROME. T. Cross sc. Before his 
JVorks. Si.x English verses. A. B. 8vo. 


RICHARD BRO
IE; si.r Eng'lish verses. TV: Ri- 
chardson. 


Richard Brome is said to have been put apprentice to Ben 
J on80n, to learn the art of poetry.. He is not, however, to be 
esteemed a mechanical play-wright; as his best performances far 


'" See the Lives of the Dramatic ruets at th<.> end of " bcal1ùerbcg," a tragedy. 



I 
32 B lOG RA P II ICAL II 1ST 0 R Y 


exceed the worst of his n1ast.er. Jonson wrote this encomium on 
him: 


" And you, Dick, do my arts with good applause, 
'Vhich you llave justly gained from the stage, 
By observation of those comic laws, 
\Vhich I, your master, firbt did teach the age." 


THOMAS MIDDLETON; crowned 'witlt laurel, 
8vo. In" lJlarshall's JJfanner," scarce,. prçji
Ted to t
vo 
of his plays, snzall 8vo. 1657. 


TnOl\IAS MIDDLETON, gent. W Richardson. 


Middleton, who was a voluminous dramatic author, and, in his 
day, esteemed a good poet, hac! the honour of writing in con- 
junction with Jonson, Fletcher, and Massinger. The pieces which 
were entirely his own, and those in which he had a share, are, at 
least, six-and-twenty. He was concerned with Jonson and Fletcher 
in writing" The 'Vidow," a comedy; and with Massinger, in writ- 
ing another comedy, called" Old Law." 


RICHARD LOVELACE; a bust 01l an urn, on 
which is insct'ihed, "Lucasta, PostltuJJze POel71S of 
R. L. arl12Ïg." In 'JJzcnzorialn fratris desideratissÏ11li 
detin. Fran. Lovelace. Hollar sc. 1660, s17zall 8vo. 


RICHAHD LOVELACE, as Orpheus. R. Gayu'ood. 


RICHARD LOVELACE; a bust on all urn. JV: Ri- 
chardson. 


The poems, for which the heads were engraved, were first pub- 
lished in 1659: Lucasta, or Lux Casta, is the poeticaJ name of 
his mistress. As the poems are scarce, the heads are rarely to be 
met with. 
Richard, son of Sir William Lovelace, of W oolwich, in Kent, 
was, when a member of the university of Oxford, the delight and 
admiration of all that knew him, for the extreme beauty of his per- 



OF EXG-L...\.N D. 


1:33 


son, and the variety of his acconlPlishments. After having served 
Charles I. in both his expeditions against the Scots, he entered 
into the service of the King of France, and had the commancl of a 
regiment at Dunkirk, where he was dangerously wounded. This 
disaster occasioned a report of his death, and was attended with 
the loss of the beautiful Lucy Sacheverel, his beloved mistress, 
who, concluding he was dead, married another person.. These 
were not all his misfortunes. Upon his return to England, he was 
thrown into prison, and afterward reduced to extreme poverty and 
wretchedness.
A considerable numòer of his poems were com- 
posed during his confinement. Several of his performances were 
much admired, and part of his" Amarantha," a pastoral, was set to 
music by the famous Henry Lawes. I-lis comedy of the" Scholar," 
written at sixteen )
ears of age, was acted with applause. Ob, 1658. 


GABRIEL I-IARVEY; 1Dood-cut, iJll,Tash"s " Have 
'lvitlt YOlt to JSai/'roJl JValdcJl," é$'c. scarce. 


GABRIEL HARVEY; SJJulll oval. Thane. 


Gabriel Harvey, born about 1545, of a good family, and nearly 
related to Sir Thomas Smith, was educated at Christ's College, 
Cambridge, wh.ere he took hoth his degrees of arts. He was after- 
ward proctor of the university. Having applied himself to the 
study of the civil law, in 1585, he took his degree in that faculty, 
and practised as an advocate in the prerogative court of Canterbury, 
at London. Towards the latter part of his life, he began to study 
astrology, and finally turned almanack-maker; in which capacity 
he was severely ridiculed by Thomas Nash and Robert Green, who, 
as Wood says, did inhumanly tralTIple upon him, when he lay full 
low in his grave. ,V ood says, he was esteemed an ing-enious man 
and an excellent scholar, and one of the best poets for Iambics 
in bis age. Spenser, the poet, was his intimate friend; fronl 
whom we learn that he was highly esteemed by the all-accom- 
plished Sir Philip Sidney and 1\11'. Dye. Mr. Upton is of opinion, 
that his poem prefixed to the" Fairy Queen," and signed Hobbinol, 
would, if he had written nothing else, have rendered him immortal. 
Ob. 1630, ...Et. 85. See Sir Egerton Brydges's" Restitutor," for 
several curious works relating to Dr. Harvey. 



134 ß lOG RAP JII C A L II 1ST 0 It Y 


SIR ROBERT STAPYLTON,knt.fronti.\p.tuhis 
translation of the "SLrteen Satires of Juvenal," 1647; 
8vo. 


ROBERTUS STAPYLTONIUS. LOJJzhart se. FronÛs]J. 
to his translation of " Juvenal," in folio, 'loitlt cuts by 
]-Iollar, 1660. 


The head is placed here, because, as Mr. Wood justly observes, 
it represents him too young for the time in which it was pub- 
lished. · 
Sir Robert StapyIton, son of Richard Stapylton of Cadeton, in 
:t\foreland, Yorkshire, esq. was educated in the Roman Catholic 
religion, and was some time a member of the college of English 
Benedictines at Douay, in Flanders. But the solitude of a cloister 
ill suiting the gaiety of his disposition, he quitted it, and coming 
into England, turned Protestant, and was made a gentleman of 
the privy-chamber to Prince Charles. He published, in this reign, 
a translation of Pliny's "Panegyric," of " M usæus," and of the 
" Sixteen Satires of Juvenal." In the time of the Interregnum, he 
translated" Strada de Bello Belgico;" and after the restoration, 
published several plays. His translation of "J uvena}" is thought 
to have the advantage of that of Barten Holyday; but they both 
follow their author too close, and, as Mr. Dryden observes, some- 
times tread upon his heeZs.t Db. 11 July, 1669. See the Inter- 
regnum. 


}1
RANCIS QUARLES, Æt.52. w: M. (William 
.1J;farshall) sc. 8vo. four Latin and four English verses. 


FRANCIS QUARLES; Irontis}]. to his" Boanerges 
llJld Barnabas ;" 12ulo. (Marshall.) 


FRAXCIS QUARLES; fruntispiece to IÛs "Enchiri- 
diO/l /' 1 :2J/lO. 


. !Ii See II Fasti 0 xon." ii. col. 23. 
t Preface to II Dryden's Juvenal," ('dit. 1113, p. 138. It should be observed, 
that Barten JJolyduy's notes upon II Juvena)" make ample amends for his version. 



OF ENGLAND. 


135 


. FRANCISCT QUARLES, Ætatis suæ 52. Cross sc. 
Four Eng'lislt verses, "What heere 'icee see is hut a 
graven face," 
c. AI. Ross. 
FUANCIS QUARLES; to lLis " Enchiridion," 1652; 
12nlo. 


Francis Quarles, who was some time cup-bearer to the Queen of 
Bohemia, secretary to Archbishop Usher, and chronologer to the 
city of London, had, at this time, a very considerable reputation as 
a poet; but he 11lerited much more as an honest and pious man. 
His" Emblems," which have been serviceable to allure children to 
read, have been often printed, and are not yet forgotten. We 
sometimes stumble upon a pretty thought among many trivial 
ones in this book; and now and then meet with poetry in mecha- 
nism in the prints.. He has borrowed a considerable part of this 
work from the" Emblenls of Hermannus Hugo." His" Feast for 
Worms," and many other poems, have been long neglected, and are 
now literally worm-eaten. In the time of the civil war, a petition 
full of unjust accusations was preferred against this worthy man, 
by eight persons, of whom he knew not any two, but by sight. The 
news of this had such an effect upon him, that he declared" it 
would be his death ;" which happened soon after, according to his 
prediction.-t He is said to have had a pension, in consideration of 


· 1\lr. Pope, in one of his letters to Bishop Atterbury, in which he incidentally 
mentions the vanity of the world, speaks thus of our poet: "Tin nit, inane est, wilh 
the picture of one ringing on the globe with his finger, is the best thing tbat I have 
the Juck to remember, in that great poet Quarles (not dlat I forget the Devil at 
Bowls; which I know to be your lordship's favourite cut, as well as favourite diver- 
sion). But the greatest part are of a very different character from these: one of 
them, on '0 wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this Rom. vii. 
death' represents a man silting in a melancholy posture, in a large skeleton. An- 24. 
other on ' 0 that my head were waters and mine eyes a fountain of tears,' &c. Jcrem. 
exhibits a human figure, with several spouts gushing from it, like the spouts of a ix. 1. 
fountain."-This reminds me of an emblem, which I have seen in a German author, 
on l\fatt. vii. 3, in which are two men, one of whom has a beam almost as big as 
himself, with a peaked end sticking in his left eye; and the other has only a small 
mote sticking in his right. Hence it appears, that metaphor and allegory, however 
beautiful in themselves. will not always admit of a sensible representation. 
t See his Life, by Ursula Quarles, his widow, before his " Poetical Paraphrnse 
on Ecclesiastes,"t which is the best of his works. 


t The portrait by Marshall is before this book. The print is scarce. 



13G BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


his writings, from Charles 1. Db. 8 Sept. 1644, Æt. 52. He was 
father of eighteen children by one wife. 


JOHN OGILBY, a dancing-master, first applied himself to 
learning in this reign, and made a wonderful progress. The 
occasion of it was the spraining of his leg in cutting a caper, 
which was much the practice in dancing, in the time of Charles I. 
To this accident we owe many royal folios. See the succeeding 
reIgn. 


ROBERT IIERRICK, esq. a bust; [',DO angels 
hring'ing' chaplets of laurel, Pegaslls on Parnasslls, He- 
licon, L
"C. frontis}Jiece to his Works, a thic/
 octavo, en- 
titled, "Hesperides,
' 
'c. Lond. 1648. lJIarslzalt sc.. 
Eight Latin verses, " TCl71jJOra," t5-.c. 


ROBERT HERRICK; a bust, l-
'c. JV. Richardson. 


R,obert Herrick was author of a great nurobe}" of poems, many of 
which are of the lyric and epigrammatic kinds. His" Christmas 
Carol," and his" New Year's Gift," were set to music by Henry 
Lawes, and performed before the king. Several are addressed to 
Endymion Porter! a great friend and patron of poets, and one to 
" Mrs. Katherine Bradshawe, the lovely, that cro\vned him with 
laurel." But Philips gives us to understand, that he was inspired 
by his maid Prue only.:Ji< It appears from the effects of her inspi_ 
ration, that Prue was but indifferently qualified for a tenth muse. 
He was, perhaps, thE; first of the numerous translators of the 
" Dialogue betwixt Horace and Lydia," which may be seen among 
his works. See more of him in the" Athenæ Oxonienses," where 
his" Divine Poems" are particularJy commended. 


SIR FIlANCIS "rORTLEY, of "Tortley, in the 
county of York, knt. and baronet; deceased prisoner 
in the Tower of London, IG52. A. liel'toclzs f. tro- 
phics, books, 
"c. h. sh. 


- See" Theatrum Poctarum," by EtJwarn Phi;ips. 



OI
 ENGLAND. 


]37 


SIR FRANCIS 'V ORTLEY, &c. In an oval, trophies, 
books, 
"'e. 4to. 1
 Rieha1
dsoJl. 
SIR FRANCIS WORTLEY, &c. C. Hall sc. 
Sir Francis \'Vortley, son of Sir Richard 'Vortley, of Wortley, in 
Yorkshire, exercised his pen and his sword in the cause of Charles I. 
He, at his own expense, raised a troop of horse for the service of 
that unfortunate prince; and being afterward promoted to the rank 
of a colonel, he converted his house into a garrison. He lost a 
great part of his estate by plunder and sequestration, and was 
several years a prisoner in the Tower. He was numbered among 
the poets of this reign. His principal work is his" Characters an(l 
Elegies," Lond. 1646, 4to. The elegies are, for the most part, on 
the royalists who lost their lives in the civil war.-Anne, his 
daughter and heir, married the honourable Sir Sidney l\10ntagu, 
second son of the first Earl of Sandwich, who took the name of 
Wortley. The present Countess of Bute is descended from him. 
See a further account of this author in " Athen. Oxon." 


GEORGIUS WITHER, &c. 12nzo. 


GEORGIUS 'VITHERUS; in a large ltat
'four Eng;l:.s!t. 
verses. 
 Richardson. 


GEORGE WITHER. J. Berry se. 8vo. 
GEORGIUS WITHERUS, poeta. J. P. (Jol1n Payne) 
sc. four English verses. 1ïLis is by l1ZllC!t the best head 
of Wither.' it is ill his boo/c of " EnlblenIS," folio, after 
the pr'eface. There is a curious account of hin}, in 
the " Reliques of ancient English Poetry," vol. iii. 
p. 1 DO, 263, 2d edit. The ingenious song, beginning 
with 


" Shall I wasting in despair, 
Dye, because a woman's faire," &c. 


was, as Dr. Percy inforlTIS us, written by him. See 
the reign of J A:\lES I. 


VOL. Ill. 


-r 



138 


ßI OG RAPIII CA I
 II IS TOR Y 


ROBERT BA
ON, LEt. 17; 'lvithollt his nallze. 


" Vultus Apellinea pictus Barone tabel1a est; 
Totus A pollinea pingitur arte liber. 
John Hobart, Gent." 
nr. Jl;fars/iall sc. This prillt, 'lvhich twas orig'inolly 
prtji
Ted to his " Cyprian Acadenzy," 1648, 8vo. 'lvas 
also, as I have been ÙiforJJzed, placed before his POCIllS, 
I 650, 8vo
 


ROBERT BARON; " Vitltus Apellinea," 
"c. W. lli- 
clzardsoJl. 


Robert Baron, who received part of his education at Cambridge, 
and was a member of Gray's Inn, when he published his" Cyprian 
Academy," was regarded as a genius of great expectation. He de- 
dicated this work to his uncle, James Howe]], esq.* and to all the 
ladies and gentlewomen of England, among whom he had many 
admirers. The first fruits of his studies see
n to have gained hÍln a 
much greater reputation than his latter productions.t Certain it is, 


· Howell, soon after the receipt of his book, wrote biOI a Jetter, of which this is 
a part: 


" To l\Ir. R. Baron, at Paris. 


II Gentle Sir, 
" I recei\'ed mld presently ran over Jour I CJprian Acadelny,' with much 
greediness and no vulgar delight; and, Sir, I hold myself much honoured for the 
dedication you have been pleased to make thereof to me, for it deserved a much 
}}igher patronage. Truly, I must tell you, without any compliment, that I ha\'c 
selùom met with such an ingC'nious mixture of prose and verse, intemo\'en with 
such varieties of fancy and charming strains of amorous passion. which have made 
all the Jadics in the land in love with you." -Howell's" Letters," book iii. No. 17. 
tHis U Pocu)a Castaliæ," poems written by him on several occasions, anù pub- 
lished in 1650, when he was OIlly nineteen years of age, at p. 66, is a ballad upon 
a wedding, much in the style and manner of thc celcbratcd ballad on a similar sub- 
ject, by Sir John Suckling. 
He was the author of" An Apologie for Paris, for rejecting of Juno and Pallas, and 
presenting of Ate's Golden Ball to Y 
llUS, with a discussion of the reásons that Illight 
induce him to favour either of the three, occasioned by a private discourse, wl)(
rein 
the Trojan's judgmcnt was carped at by some, and defcnded by R. B. gent. an no 
ætatis tH." London 1649, duodccimo. 
A high flown dedication to my noble lady, E. R. is subscribed, at length, Hobert 
Daron from Graye's Inne.-BINDLEY. 



OF ENGL.AND. 


139 


that, in his dramatic pieces, both in tragedy and comedy, he never 
rOSe above mediocrity: of these, " l\1irza" is esteemed his best. 


GEORGE 'VHARTON was an adventurer in poetry; but 
appears to have had 110 great talent that way: he is, however, 
mentioned among the poets of this reign, and is styled "a waggish 
poet" by Mr. Anthony \V ood. See the Interregnum. 


NATHANIEL RICHARDS, gent. T. R. se. ellap- 
let of laurel; ill t1l;0 states, the head of one lS larg;eJ", 
l/Jld the laurel 'Jnore distinct. 


NATHANIEL RICHARDS, &c. Jv: Richardson. 


Nathaniel Richards was author of one tragedy, called "Mes- 
salina," acted with general applause, by the company of his ma- 
jesty's revels, and printed in 8vo. 1640. He was also author of 
" Poems, sacred and satirical," 12mo. 


CAPTAIN TIIOl\fAS WEAVER, a rnan in a cloalì, 
with gloves in his hand, within all oval of lalirel and 
palnzs; IV: J1I. ( lIIarshall) se. Under tlte oval are si.v 
Eng'lish verses, tlte t1l;0 last of u;/Zich signify, that as tlie 
print is the i17zag'e of his person, so his 'Jnind is tlte inlage 
of heaven. It is inscribed T. W. gent. copied by TV. lli- 
charrlson. He was author oj a pocln, called" Plalltage- 
net's Tragical Story," 1649, Svo. 


There is a print of HUMPHRY MILL
 under 
whose name, in the Bodleian Catalogue, occurs, a 
poem, called" A Night's Search, concerning Night- 
'Valkers and their Associates," Lond. 1640, 8Yo. This 
has been several times printed.. His Poems, Lond. 
8vo. 1639, are mentioned in the Sion Catalogue. Ilis 



140 BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTORY 


head has been prefixed to, at least, one of the edi- 
tions of the " Night Search." 


H. MILL, &c. TV: RiehaJ"dson. 


SCOTCH POETS. 


ARTURUS JOHNSTONUS. 
f. Rysbraelâus 
lvIarm. se. G. Vertlie æri incidit.' frontiðP' to his 
" Psahni Davidici;" 4to. 1741. 


ARTHUR JOHNSTON. Vanderguellt se.4to. This is 
after the bust by Rysbrack, but better e
l}eeuted than tlie 
forJJzel". Tilere is anot/lel", by Vandergucht, in 8vo. 


The bust, from which Vertue and Vandergucht did the heads, 
belonged to William Benson, esq. auditor of the imprests. 


ARTHUR JOHNSTON, ill the title to his" Paraphrase 
on the Psabns." G. Jamesone pin
'l'. R. Cooper sc. 


ARTHUR JOHNSON, inscribed John Johnston, lJL D. 
front tlie original in the ](ing's Colle
'e, Aberdeen, in 
" Iconagl"aphia Seotiea." 


AltTHUR JOHNSTON; a small head, in the frontispiece 
to his Poems, printed at Middlebur
'. 


There is a fine head of him, by Jameson, in the college at 
Aberdeen. 
Arthur Johnston was physician to Charles I. and one of the most 
celebrated Latin poets among the Inoderns. His capital work is 
bis translation of the "Psalms," of which an elegant edition was 
published by 'VilliaIn Benson, esq. in 4to. 1741, with an interpre- 
tation and notes for the use of his ]ate majesty when prince; 
another edition was printed ftbout the same time, in 8vo. Mr. 



OF ENGL.AND. 


141 


. 
Benson also published a Dissertation on Johnston's Version of the 
" Psalms," in which he, without scruple, gives it the preference to 
Buchanan's.* As the former has used elegiac measure in all the 
Psalms, except the 119th which is ]yric, some of the most sub1ime
 
especially the 104th, appear at a disadvantage in comparison with 
Buchanan's, as the pentameter verse is anti-climacterical.t Mr. 
Pope seems not to have read" Johnston's Psalms;" as he certainly 
n1entions him with much Jess respect than he deserves. Speaking 
of Benson he says: 


" On two unequal crutches propt he came, 
l\Iilton's on this, on that, one Johnston's name." 


Johnston was an early proficient in poetry, and was ]aureated at 
Paris, when he was about twenty years of age. There is a com- 
plete eùition of his works, including his Version, of the " Psalms," 
and the" Book of Job," his "Parerga, Epigrams," &c. 


GULIELl\IUS DRUl\IMOND; de II{t'lvthorndcll; 
C. Johnson p. Finlayson f. l11ezz. h. SII. 


GULIELl\IUS DRUJHl\10ND, &c. GaYîvood f. 1654; 
4to. 


GULIEL1\IUS DRU1\I1\IOND, &c. Gaywood f. 12ulo. 


,V ILLIAl\I DRUl\I1\IOND; folio. 


-.l\fr. Benson. in his dissertation, expresses a particular fondness for allitcration 
in poetry. He is said to have been much pleased with these verses on Cardinal 
\Volsey, when repeated to him by l\Ir. Pitt, the translator of the" Æneid:" 
" Begot by butchers, but by hisbops bred, 
BO"N high his bonour holds his haughty head?" 
t In tbe 23d Prelection, " De Sacra Poesi Hehræorum," the authort has intro- 
duced Johnston's version of the 42d Psalm. in this manner: CI Recitabo emu vobis 
ex. metaphrasi Arthuri Johnstoni, satis elegantis et fidi interpretis, nisi et rcrum et 
verborum pondera mctri genere a sublimitate alienissimo sæpe fregisset: in materia 
autcm elegiaca, ut par est, res ci feliciter plerumque videtur procedcre/' 


; The learned Dr. Lowth, late bishop of London. 



142 ßIO G R...\P III CAL II 1ST 0 R Y 


'Villiam Drummond was a man of a fine natural genius, which 
}le assiduously improved with all the ad vantages of arts, languages, 
and travel. He was universally esteemed one of the best poets of 
his age, and stands in the first rank of modern historians. fIe, for 
his exceHence in teBing a storY1 and interesting his reader in what 
he relates, is thought to be comparable to Livy. His poems 
consist chiefly of love-verses, epigrams, and epitaphs: his history 
is of five kings of Scotland of the name of James. Ben Jonson 
went, on purpose to visit him, to Hawthornden, where he spent 
several months, which he esteemed the happiest part of his life. In 
Drummond's works, the best edition of which was printed at Edin- 
burgh, in 1711, fol. are SOine very curious particulars that passed 
in conversation betwixt him and Jonson. The news of the be- 
heading of Charles I. so shocked him, that it quickly hastened his 
death. Ob, 1649. 


G.ULIELMUS, comes de STERLIN (Sterling), 
Æt. 57. W. JJfars/zall sc. Frontispiece to his" Recreation 
of the lJIuses," Jul. 1637. The print is very scarce, as it 
is 'raT"ely found ill any of the copies: it is one of lYlàr- 
shall's best perfornzances. 
There is another print of hiJ7z, in AIarshall's manner, 
'[oitft this 'Jllotto, "Aut spero, aut sperno," prcji.red to 
his Tragedies, in 8vo. 1616. J-Ie is there called Sir 
Willia17z AleJ:ander. 


. GULIELl\IJ, comitis de STERLING; 4to. TV. Ricll- 
ardson. 
'VILLIAI\I. ALEXANDER, earl of Ster1ing. Boc- 
quet sc. Ill" Noble Authors," by AIr. Par/to. 


'Villiam Alexander, earl of Sterling, was a very eminent poet 
and statesman, in the reigns of Jat'nes and Charles I. His poetry, 
which for purity and elegance, is far beyond the generality of the 
productions of the age in which he lived, recommended him to 
James, who gave him the grant of Nova-Scotia, where he had pro- 
jected a plan of luaking a settlement. He seems to have been no 



OF ENGLAND. 


143 


Jess a favouritp with Charles, who instituted an order of baronets 
for the encouragement of this new colony.. His works consist 
chiefly of sonnets, and of four tragedies in alternate rhyme. Db. 
12 Feb. 1640, Æt. 60. See Class III. 


l\lISCELLANEOUS AUTHORS IN DI'7INITY, 
HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, N_
TURAL PIIILO- 
SOPHY, &c. 
JOANNES PRICEUS,Anglo-Britannus. Hollarf. 
1644 ; 8vo. 


John Price was deserveùly famous for his great knowledge in 
ðivinity and philosophy. See the Interregnum, Class IX. 


LUCIUS CAR Y, viscount Falkland, was author of "A Dis- 
course of the Infallibility of the Church of Rome," which is the 
most considerable of his works. It is written in an easy and fami- 
liar style, without the least affectation of learning. Weare told 
by Dr. Swift, that, in some of his writings, "when he doubted 
whether a word were perfectly intelligible or no, he used to consult 
one of his lady's chamber-maids (not the waiting-woman, because 
it was possible she might be conversant in romances), and by her 
judgment, was g
1Ìded whether to receive, or to reject it."t Ob, 
20 September, 1643; Æt. circ. 33. See Class III. 


WILLIAM AUSTIN, esq. of Lincoln's Inn; a 
very sJnall head; Glover sc. 


WILLIAl\1 AUSTIN, &c. holding; a lute; arnlS, sepul- 
chral lal1lps, and skeletons,. Glover se. slnall ovate 


This gentleman was author of " Hæc Homo, or, tbe Excellency 
of Women," 12mo. He appears to have borrowed some hints in 


· There is a list of the Nova-Scotia baronets at the end of the" Baronetage," &c. 
by Arthur Collins, esq. I 
t Swift's H Letter to a Young GcntIeman, lately entered into Holy Orders." 



144 BIOGRAPIIICAI., HISTOR,\ 


this book) from Cornelius Agrippa "De N obilitate et Præcellentia 
Fæminei Sexûs," usual1y printed at the end of his treatise " Dc 
Incer:titudine et Vanitate omnium Scientiarum, &c." He was also 
author of a book of Meditations on the principal Fasts and Festi.. 
vals of the Church, published after his decease in folio, 1637. 
This work gives us a high idea of the piety of the author. The 
two heads above mentioned are in the engraved titles to these books; 
that in the latter, is the best.* 
William Austin wrote his own sermon from Isaiah, chap. xxxviii, 
verse 12, " Mine age is departed," &c. Speaking of his first wife 
and children, he says, " The fellow of my bed, the play-fellow of 
my house, the joy of my heart, and comfort of my life, are either 
clean gone, or much impaired," &c. He died Jan. 16, 1633, and 
lies buried in St. Mary Overie's church. 


WILLIAM HODSON, esq. without his name; 
lJfarslzall sc. neat. 


The print which is prefixed to his "Tractate on the eleventh 
Article of the Apostle's Creed," in 8vo. 2d edit. 1636, is known by 
this distich: . 


CI l\Iateria peccat, non peccat imago figura, 
V ultum aliquis, mentem fil1gere llemo potest." 


William Hodson, who wag educated at Peterhouse, in Cam- 
bridge, was also author of " The Divine Cosmographer, or a brief 
Survey of the whole world, delineated in a Tractate on the 80th 
Psalm." To this is subjoined, "Sancta Peccatrix,'1 at the end of 
which are several copies of verses from his friends. The print, 
which represents him with an open and ingenious countenance, was 
probably engraved from a painting of V and yck. 


WALTER MOUNT AGUE; whole leJl
,th in a title, 
4to. ilIarslzall. 


· There is also by him a translation of" CATO :MAJOR, or the book of Old Age, 
first written by 1\1. T. Cicero, and now excellently ]
nglished by W ILLIA!\I AUSTIN 
of Lincoln's Inn, esquire, with annotatjons upon the names of men and places; 

d edition, I
ond. 1671." -The above inscription is also contained in an engraved 
title, wih emblems of mortality, &c. by J. Goddard, a Dame that occurs more rarely 
than almost any other, ill thj
 class of Arti
ts.- BIN DLEY. 



OF ENGI..AND. 


145 


\Valter Montague, a younger son to Henry, earl of Manchester, 
was born in the parish of 81. Botolph, without Aldersgate; was 
eùucated in Sidney College, Cambridge; travelled. and returning 
with an unsettled mind after he had been into France about public 
concerns, gave a farewell to his country, and religion; and settling 
himself in a monastery, wrote a letter in justification of his change. 
The queen-mother of France made him abbot of N antveil, &c. 
and he was one of her cabinet council and a promoter of Mazarine. 
He is said to be of a Inost generous and noble spirit, and of great 
piety. He wrote " The Sheppard's Paradise." Lond. 1629. "l\lis- 
cellanea Spiritualia," 1648. 1654. He died about 1669. See Ant. 
Wood. 


D. GERTRUDE MORE, a nun; "]ýIag;'JlllS Anlo'ris 
Anlor." R. Lochon SC. ] 21720. 


GERTRUDE MORE; anno Dom i . 1633, Æt. 28. Jac. 
]'leeffs se. Standing before a C'l'llcffi.'l': large 8vo. 


Gertrude More was author of C( Spiritual Exercises, and the 
Confessions of a loving Soul to Almighty God." They were pub- 
lished at Paris, in 1658, with an approbation by "Fr. Walgravius, 
Doct. Theo!. Monachus et Prior Benedictinus," in which he styles 
her, "the late deceased Da.me Gertrude More, religious of the 
English convent at Cambray, of the holy order of St. Bennet, 
pious offspring of that noble and glorious martyr Sir Thomas 
More, chanceJIor of England. She died in August, 1733." 


EDWARD, lord Herbert, of Cherbury. His por- 
trait is described in Class III. 


Lord IIerbert was author of "The l.ife and Rcign of Henry 
VIII." which has been ever esteemed one of the best histories in 
the English language: but there is not in it that perfect candour 
which one would wish, or expect to see, in so celebrated an 
historian. He has given us a much juster portrait of himself, than 
he has of Henry. He appears to have laid open every foiLle or 
VOL. III. U 



146 


B lOG RAP II I C A L II 1ST 0 R Y. 


defect in his own character,* but has cast the monstrous vices of 
that rnerciles tyrant into shade, and has displayed to great ad- 
vantage, his gallantry, rnag'l1ificence, and generosity.-His books 
" De V eritate," t and " De Reli.gione Gentilium," are wen known. 
I-Ie was also author of a book of poems, published after his de- 
cease by his son. Ob. Aug. 164:8. See Class III. 


JOI-IANNES SPEED, &c. sitting", and drazlJing' a 
1Jlap. Savery se. h. slz. 
JOHN SPEED ;frornhis mOJlll'Jnent iuSt.Giles's churc", 
Cripplcg'atc. J. 1: 
JJlitl1, 1791. 


The print, which represents him old, was done in this reign. It 
was takea from a painting in the possession of his immediate 
descendant, the Reverenù Mr. Samuel Speed, formerly of New 


. In his" Life," written by himself, a smaIl quarto of one hundred and seventy 
pages. Strawherry-hill, 17 G-1. There were only two hundred copies of the first 
edition of this book printed, which were equally divided betwixt the Earl of Powis, 
and l\lr. 'V alpule, W110 distriuuted them among their friends. I am very crediLI y 
informed, that it s{,ld at an auction for tluee pounds twelve shillings, and bave par- 
ticular rcason to believe that I could have had more for a copy in my own pos- 
session. 
t Being in great dcbate wiLlI himself whether he should publish his book "De 
V eritate," or not, he tells us, tbat he adùressed the following prayer to God, to 
know his will in relation to the publi{;ation of it. His words arc these: " :Being 
thus doubtful in my chamber, one fair day in the summer, my casement being 
opened towards the south, the sun shining clear, and no wind stirring, I took my 
book I De \T eritate' in my hand; and kneeling on my knees, devoutly said thes
 
words: 
II 0 thou eternal God, author of the light which now shines upon me, and giver 
of all inward il!uminations: I do beseech thee of thy infinite goodness, to pardon a 
greater request than a sinner ought to make; I am not satisfied enough whether I 
shall publish this book' De Vcritate;' if it be for thy glory, I beseech thee give 
me some sign from heaven; if not, I shall snppress it. 
" I had no sooner spoken these words, but a loud, though Jet gentle noisc, came 
from heaven (fur it was like nothing on earth), which did SO comfort and dIe('f me, 
that I took my !)etition as granted, find that I had the sign I demanded; wherenpon 
also I resol ved to print my book: this (how strange soever it may seclll), I protest 
before the eternal God is true, neither am I any way superstitiously deceived 
herein, since I did not only clearly hear the noise, but in the serenest sky that ever 
I saw, being without aU cloud, did to my thinking see the place from whence it 
came. And now I sent my book to be printed at Paris, at my own cost and 
charges," &c.-" Life of Lord Hcrbert," p. 170, 171. 



OF ENGL.I.\ND. 


147 


Colleg
, and usher of \Vinchester schooL It is observable, tl1iÜ 
the historian ùoes not appear to be so large a man in the picture, 
as he does in the print. 
John Speed, who was bred a tailor, was, by the generosity of Sir 
Fulk Grevil, his patron, set free froln a manual employment, and 
enablcd to pursue his studies, to which he was strongly inclined 
by the bent of his genius. The fruits of them were his" Theatre 
of Great Britain," containing an entire set of the maps drawn by 
himself; his" History of Great Britain," richly adorned with seals, 
coins, and medals, from the Cotton collection; and his "Gene- 
alogies of Scripture," first bound up with the "Bible," in 1611, 
which was the first edition of the present English translation. His 
maps were very justly esteemed; and his "History of Great 
Britain," was, in its kind, incomparably more complete, than all 
the histories of his predeceôsors put together. lIe died the 28th of 
July, 1629, having had twelve S0I13, and six daughters, by one wife.. 


SIR RICI-IARD BAKER, knt. Sherwin se. s7 1 lall. 
In the engraved title to his" G"Jllronicle ;" fol. 
Sir Richard Baker was the noted author of " A Chronicle of 
the Kings of England;" a book formerly in great vogue; but 
which was ever more esteemed by readers of a lower class, than 
by such as had a critical knowledge of history. The language of 
it was, in this reign, called polite; and it long n1aintained its re... 
putation, especially among country gentleman. t The author seems 


· The Countess de Viri, wife of the late Sardinian ambassador, is lineally de- 
scended from him. Such was the friendship betwixt the late Lord Viscount Cobham, 
and Colonel Speed, her father, that upon his decease, he esteemed her as his own 
child, brought her up in his family, and treated her with a paternal care and tender- 
ness. Her extraordinary merit recommended her to the Yisconntess Cobham, 
ho 
kfl her the bulk of her fortune. This lady, who is eminent for her wit and accom- 
plishments, is celebrated by the ingenious :Mr. Gray, in his" Long Story."t \Ve 
are, indeed, in some measure indebted to her for that elegant performance; as it 
was written chiefly on her account. 
t Sir Richard's own encomium of his" Chronicle," in bis preface to that work, is 
supposed to have recommended it to many of his readers. He says, that it is 
H collected with so great care and diligence, that if all other of OUf chronicles wcre 
lost, this only would be sufficient t8 inform posterity of all pasSé1gcs memorable, or 
worthy tu l.>e known." 


t S
e the Jjr
t cditiol1 of his :rOCllJs. 



148 B I QGItAI:JIII C.Al. II 1ST 0 It Y 


to have been sometimes more studious to please than to inform; 
and with that view, to have sacrificed even chronology to method. 
In 1558, Eùward Philips, nephew to Milton,'" published a thinl 
edition of this work, with the addition of the reign of Charles I. 
It has been several times reprinted since, and is noW carried as 
low as the reign of George I. t Sir Richard was also author of 
Hlany books of divinity, and translated Malvezzi's "Discourses on 
Tacitus;' and Balzac's "Letters." 1\lost of his books were com- 
posed in the Fleet prison, into which he threw himself to avoid 
his creditors. He died in his confinement the 18th of February, 
1644-5. 


SIR EDWARD 'V ALKER; in the print with 
Charles I. B. Reading' se. sJ1zall folio. 


Sir Edward Walker was some time domestic servant to Thomas, 
earl of Arundel, who made hiln his secretary at war, in the expe- 
dition to Scotland, 1639. He was successively rouge croix pur- 
suivant, Chester herald, norroy, and garter king at arms; in which 
]ast office, he was succeeded by Sir \Villiam Dugdale. He was 

uthor of the " Historical Discourses," &c. fo!' which contain many 
curious and useful particulars relative to the civil war, to a great 
part of which he was an eye-witness. Lord Clarendon had the 
greatest helps from his papers, in writing the military part of his 
admirable history. t See more of him in the" Athenæ Oxonienses." 
lIe died, the 19th of Feb. 1676, being then one of the clerks of 
the privy council to Charles II. His portrait, which is in the book 
above mentioned, is with that of Charles I. 


THO:\IAS, lord F.AIRFAX, has written memorials of him- 
self: and it is much to be wished that every great general had 


· Author of the .c Thcutrum Poetarum," in 12mo. 1675. l\lilton had tIle care of 
11is education. 
t Mr. Daines Darrington, speaking of this history observes, that Ie Baker is by 
no means so contemptible a writer as he is generally supposed to be; it is believed,''' 
says that author, cc that dle ridicule on this Chronicle arises from its being part of 
the furniture of Sir Roger de Coverley's haIl."-" Observat. on the Statutc!," p. 97J. 
edit. 3. 

 Echard, p. 923. 



OF ENGLAND. 


149 


done the same; though he had not, like Cæsar, been equally 
dexterous at using the pen and the sword. He ver
ified the Psalms 
of David, and other parts of the Scripture, but it is probable that 
they were never thought worth printing. Ob, 12 Nov. 1671, Æt. 
60. See Class VII. 


JOSIAH RICRAFT, Londinensis mercator,IG46; 
Faitlzorne f. 8vo. Before his" Alphabets, or Charac- 
.. tcrs;" it is also before his " Survey," Ef,'c. and is very 
scarce. 


JOSIAH RICRAFT; twelve English verses. lV. Rich- 
ardson. 


Mr. ,v ood, who styles him " a bigoted Presbyterian," informs 
liS, that he was author of " a canting book," entitled, " A Survey 
of England's Champions, and Truth's faithful Patriots" &c. 1647, 
Bvo. 
This book, which has been mentioned before, has in it an ac- 
count of twenty-one persons, who distinguished themselves in the 
civil war, with short cncomiums in verse prefixed, and a head of 
each person. He also published a book of alphabets, entitled 
f' The peculiar Characters of the Oriental Languages, and sundry 
others, exactly delineated, for the benefit of all such as are studious 
in the Languages and the choice Rarities thereof, and for the 
Advancement of Language Learning in these latter Days. Pub- 
lished by Josiah Ricraft, of London, n1crchant, and approved by 
the most learned of the kingdom of England and other foreign 
Nations." 
In the "Irish Compendium," (by Francis Nichols) we are Ìn- 
fonned, that the grandfather of Richard Child, viscount Castle- 
main, married the daughter of - Roycroft of vVestonwick, in 
the county of Salop, esq. (which family came from Abbeville, in 
Normandy), and that by her he had a son named Josiah, who was 
a great East-India merchant. It is possible that Josiah Ricraft 
luight be grandfather, qr otherwise near! y related to the famous 
Josiah Child. Quære. 


CAPTAIN THOlVIAS JAl\IES, .IEt
 40, IG32; (f, 
slnall oval. 



150 ß lOG. R.APII ICA L III ST OR Y 


fIe made, in 1631, a very perilous voyage to discover a North 
'Vest passage; an account of which was soon after published, 
and it has been reprinted among the collections of voyages and 
travels. 


IIENRICUS SPELMA.NNUS, eques auratus. 
Gllil. Fait!zorne sc.lz. sit. A fine ÙJ7prcssioJl is scarce,. it 
'lvas used in Stlll..eley's " ItinerarllJJZ," 1724, and 15 en- 
g'raved at the top TiÆ'lzt hand corner; it has lately been 
cOllied by H. (}ook, for AIr. Sotlzeby, in a 'JJlanncr to 
deceive the best judges. 
HE
RICUS SPELl\IA
NUS, &c. R. White sc. copied 
.fronl Faith orne. Before his Postlll17nOUS Works,. fol. 
1698. 


There is a whole length portrait of hin1 in the hall of Trinity 
CoHege, in Cambridge. It was copied from some other portrait, by 
Isaac \Vhood, a disciple of Richardson. 
This learned and industrious antiquary, to whom every writer of 
English history, since his time, is indebted, was one of the Anti- 
quarian Society in the reign of James I. and the intimate friend 
of Camden and Sir Robert Cotton. I-Ie was not only well skilled 
in the learned languages, but was also a great master of the Saxon 
tongue; -of which he is justly esteemed a chief restorer, and for 
which he settled a lecture in the university of Cambridge. His 
principal works, which are in Latin, will last as long as the lan- 
guage in which they are written: of these his" English Councils," 
and his " Glossary," hold the first place. A complete edition of 
the" Councils of Great Britain and Ireland," was published in 
four vols. folio, by Dr. David \Vilkins, in 1737; and his" Glossary" 
was completed by Sir \Villiam Dugdale, and printed also in folio. 
Dr. Gibson, who merited so much for his edition of Camden's 
"Britannia," merited also the thanks of the learned world for his 
edition of the English works of Sir Henry Spelman, which was 
published in folio, 1695. This great antiquary died full of years, 
and of literary and virtuous fame, in 16-:1 1. 


GVLIELl\lUS SOMNERlTS. JìI. Burgllcrs sc. 



OF ENGLAND. 


. 


151 


" MQriblts ...4ntiqllis ;" 8vo. This prillt, 'lvllich is before 
his" Portus IccillS," 'lcas probably done fr01Jl an ori,gi- 
nal, painted in this Tcig'n, as the hair hangs very 101Ð Oil 
tIle forehead. 
'Villianl SOlllner was one of the greatest masters of the Saxon 
language in his own time, and was careful to convey the know- 
ledge of it to posterity, by compiling, with i
finite labour, his 
valuable "Saxon Dictionary."* He was also very inquisitive 
into all the other ancient, as well as lTIodern languages of Europe; 
especially such as were most useful to him in his researches 
into the antiquities of his own country. In 1640, being then in the 
thirty-third year of his age, he published his" Antiquities of Can- 
terbury;"t which gained him a great, and deserved reputation. 
He had actually planned and collected materials for a history of, 
Kent; but was, by several avocations, prevented from finishing it. 
His treatise of the Roman ports and forts, in that county, is sup- 
posed to have been drawn up for his intended work. He com- 
posed, in this reign, his excellent treatise of " Gavelkind," which 
was printed in 4to. in 1660. lVIr. Edmund Gibson, afterward 
bishop of London, translated his "Portus J ccius" into Latin, and 
published it in 8vo. 1694. He died the 30th of March, 1660. 
His books and manuscripts were purchased by the dean and chap- 
ter of Canterbury.: 


· \V ood says that the Ie V ocabularium Saxonicum," compiled by Lawrence 
NoweIl, was of use to him in this work. See" Athen Ox on." i. col. 186. "'hite 
Kennet, in his Life of Somner, where he speaks of his Saxon Dictionary, says, 
u For this, indeed, is a farther honour to the work and the author of it, that it was 
òone in tIIe days of anarchy and confusion, of ignorance and tyranny, "hen all the 
professors of true religion and good literature were silenced and oppressed. And 
yet Providence so ordered, that the loyal suffering party did aU that was done for 
the improvement of letters, and the honour of the nation. Those that intruded into 
the places of power and profit, did nothing but defile the press with lying news and 
fast sermons, while the poor ejected ehurchm('n did works of which the world ,vas 
not worthy. I appeal to the l\Ion:lsticon, the Decem Scriplores, the Polyglot Bible, 
the London Critics, the Council of -Florence, and the Saxon Dictionary." 
t It was first published in quarto, but was reprinted in folio, with cuts. The 
folio edition was revised and enlarged by the editor, Nicholas Battely; to which he 
added, of his own composition, the second part. 
t Every reader of English history must have observed, that nothing was more 
common, than for old historians and antiquaries to bury their subject uDller a heap 
of quotations, transcripts, instruments, and records: Somner first introduced the 
practice of throwing things of this I"ind into an appendix at the end of the book. 



152 RIOGIlAPIIICAL IIISTOR\- 


JOHANNES WE EVER, Æt. 55, Ao. 163]. T. 
Ceeill .se. four Eng'lislt verses. Frontispiece to the book 
1Jlentioned in Ilis article. This print has úeen copied for 
a '}lCU) edition of the sonze book. 
John Weever, a native of Lancashire, received 11is education 
in the university of Cambridge. He was author of the "Funeral 
Monuments," a book of great utility to antiquarians and histo- 
rians, but which would have been of much n10re, if it had not 
been egregiously deficient in point of accuracy, especially in the 
numeral letters and figures. He died in, or about the year, 1632, 
aged 56, and lies buried in the church of St. James, Clerkenwell, 
London. 


RICHARD BUTCHER, antiquary. Cla1Jzp se.4to. 
This antiquary published in 4to. " The Survey and Antiqnitie of 
the Towne of Stamford, in the County of Lincolne, with an A{;count 
of its ancient Foundations, Grants, Privileges, and several Donations 
thereunto belonging. Also a List of the Aldermen's Names, and 
the time when they were chosen; with the Names of the ten Lord 
Mayors (of the Hon. City of London) borne in the forsaid county of 
Lincolne: written by Richard Butcher, gent. sometime Towne-clarke 
of the same Towne." Printed at London by T. Forcet, 1646. 
In the dedication, which is dated Stamford the 1st of January, 
1646, Butcher calls that pJace his native town.-A republication 
of this piece was expected, with numerous additions, by Mr. 
Foster, rector of St. Clement Danes, a native of Stamford, and 
sometime warden of Brown's IIospitaJ, in that town; who had 
long promised it, though it does not appear that he left any 
thing of consequence behind him preparatory to such a work. 
He began to revise in 1706; and afterward formed a design 
of a new work; but an inveterate palsy in his head prevented 
him from digesting his extensive reading. 
In 1717, Butcher's " Survey," &c. was reprinted in 8vo. with- 
out so much as the continuation of the list of aldermen. To t
is 
eùition were appended, "A Brief Description of the Towne of 
Tottenham Highcrosse in Middlesex," and " The Turnament of 
Tottenham," both reprinted from the 4to. 163l. 
Two folio volumes, 1\1S8. in St. John's College, Cambridge, 
marked H. 3. 4. are entitled "Antiquity revived, in three parts, 


.
 



OF ENGI.JAND. 


153 


setting forth the ancient and primary Habitations, Originals, and 
Descents, of the Nobility. Barony, and Gentry of Great Britain, 
and the Islands which lay within the British Ocean, according to 
the several Compilers, with other Notes and Observations of Anti- 
quity, by Richard Butcher." 'Vith a drawing of him, Ætatis suæ 
61, ano. Don1. 1648. . 


JAMES YORKE, of Lincoln, blacksmith; a slllall 
Ilead. III the eng;raved title to !tis book, folio, 1641. 
T. R. ({('iDly ns ) fecit. 
James Yorke was author of the "Uniqn of Honour," a trea- 
tise of English heraldry, which is inscribed to the king, and 
dedicated to Henry Howard, baron l\1oubray, and Maltravers. 
The writer, who was unfortunately under a necessity of beating 
the anvil, employed his leisure hours to good purpose. He was 
eighteen years in making his collections for this laborious and 
ingenious work. In his dedication, he says, "Long was I in 
forging and halnmering it to this perfection, and now present 
it to your lordship, not yet matched by any of my trade." The 
book contains the achievements of the kings and nobility of 
England, from the Conqueror to James I. to each of which is sub- 
joined a concise genealogical history; next follow the arms of 
the gentry of Lincoln, collected by Yorke; and lastly an account 
of all the battles "fought or maintained by the English, in Eng- 
land, Scotland, France, Ireland, and VI ales," from the Norman 
conquest, to the reign of J anles L The work is spoken of in high 
terms, by several persons of considerable note, whose commenda- 
tory verses are prefixed to it. Among others, are the. names of 
Richard Brathwait, George Buck, and Thomas Heywood.*' 


'VILLIAM FOSTER; his left hand on a sphere; 
8vo. 
This portrait is not genuine. See that of WEE VER. 


II': Thomas Knight, a late shoemaker at Oxford, was noted for his extensive know. 
ledg'
 ill heraldry, in which branch of science he made considerable collections. 
He, on sight of an achievement, rarely failed of telling immediately to what noble- 
man's or gentleman's family it belonged. He also blazoned, drew, and added ele- 
gant ornaments to arms. This man by the force of an heraldical genius, which, if 
duly cultivated, would have qualified him for a king at arms, sUf"\k, ill a few years, 
from a shoemaker, to a cobler. He died ill Novemùer, 1767. 
"OL. III. X 



154 BIOGRAPHICAL HIS70R\
 


'Villiam Foster was instructed in the mathematics by the cele- 
brated Oughtred, under whom he made a very considerable pro- 
ficiency. He translated frOln a Latin manuscript, into English, 
his Master's " Horizontal Instrument," together with his "Circles 
of Proportion;" 4to. 1630, which he dedicated to Sir Kenelm 
Digby. An improved edition of this book was published in 
1660, by Arthur Haughton another disciple of Oughtred. 


KENELl\rIUS DIGBY, &c. Vandy
k p. Voerst sc. 
}l. sh. 


KENELIHUS DIGBY, &c. Slent; a copyfro'/7z tlzeabove. 


I(E
ELl\IUS DIGBr. Vandyck p. Larnzessinsc.4to. 


SIR KENEL1\f DIGBY. Vandyck p. Houbraken sc. 
1748; fronz a fine original ill the palace of Kensington. 


In Lor
 Oxford's collection was a family-piece of Sir Kenelm, 
his lady, and two children, by Vandyck. 


KEXELl\lUS DIGBY. Burghers sc. In the frontisp. 
to tile" Catalog'ue of the Bodleian Libral:J.'" 


SIR KENELl\I DIGBY, in a cloak
. 121720. Tllere is 
a small fo'reig'll print, inscribed "Kenelmo Georgio 
Digby, Caval. Inglese, 1621," 81)0. Qu. if g'enuÙze. 


SIR KENELl\IUS DIGBY. R. GaY'loood se. 4to. pre- 
}i.red to the" InUJlOl"talit.y of the Soul," 1645. 


SIR KENELl\I DIGBY. R. (,"to(jper sc. fronz the ori{!;i- 
nal of Va Jld!Jke, in the Bodleill Gallcry, O..lford. In 
lYfr. Lodg'
's " Illustrious PortJ''>aits.'' 


This e:niuent person, was, for the early pregnancy of his parts, 
and his great ploficiency in learning, compared to the cele- 



OF ENGLAN D. 


155 


brated Picus de l\1irandola, who was one of the wonders of 
human nature. His knowledge, tl}ough various and extensive, 
appeared to be greater than it really was; as he had all the 
powers of elocution and address to recommend it. He knew 
how to shine in a circle of ladies, or philosophers; and was 
as much attended to when he spoke on the m03t trivial subjects, 
as when he spoke on the most important. lIe was remarkably 
robust, and of a very uncomlnon size, but 1l10ved with peculiar 
grace and dignity.- Though he applied himself to experiment, 
he was sometimes hypothetjcal in his philosophy; and there are 
instances of his being very bold and paradoxical in his con- 
jectures: hence he was called the "Pliny of his age for lying'."* 
It is said that one of the princes of Italy, who had no child, 
was desirous that his princess 
hould bring him a son by Sir 
Kenelm, whom he esteemed a just model of perfection. tHis 
book of "Bodies," and that of "The Nature of lUau's Soul," are 
reckoned among the best of his works. He sometimes de- 
scended to much humbler subjects, and wrote "Directions for 
Cookery/' &c. Ob, 11 June, I665.-The curious reader may see 
a paper concerning him puhlished by Hearne at the end of 
" Walt. Hemingford," p. 581: it is worth remarking, as it dis- 
agrees with Wood's account: but the facts mentioned by the 
latter are sufficiently proved in the article of Sir Kenelm Dig- 
by in the "Biographia Britannica," p. 1709, note (L). See 
Class VII. 


JOHANNIS P ARKINSONI, pharn1acopæi Lon.. 
dinensis effigies, LXII. ætatis annUll1 agentis, a nato 
Christo, 1629;- before his" Paradisus 1crreslris." 


This print was cut in wood by Christopher Switzer. 


.. There are traditional and hypothetical errors to be found ill the works of all 
the philosophers, who wrote before natural science was ascertained Ly npelimcnt ; 
from the age of Aristotle to that of Charles I. The great Lord llill:OIl himself \\ as 
not e-xcmpt from them. But there is a 1\-ide difference betwixt errol
 of this surt, 
anù falsehood; evidently imposed upon mankind.-The above reflection upun Sir 
Kendm, was made by Henry Stubbe, who is not always to be rdi
ù 011 fm his 
characters. 
t Lloyd's" l\1emoirs," p. 580. 



156 ß lOG It A P II I C A L II [ S T 0 11, Y 


JOHN PARKINSON; a s'ìnall oval: in the title of his 
u TheatT'e of Plants." W. jlIa1
shall. 


.JOHX P
\RKIKSO
; oval. 
 llic/zardson. 


John Parkinson, apothecary to the king, was author of the 
"Paradisus Terrestris, or Garden of Flowers," 16'29; and the 
"Theatre of Plants," 1640; both in folio. The latter, which is a 
work of merit, was intended as a universal history of plants. It 
contains a great variety of articles, not to be found in any of the 
botanical writers who went before him. He, for the most part, 
follows the celebrated Caspar Bauhinus. He has omitted many 
species which were well known in his time, and has given us 
repeated descriptions of others. See more of him in the Bodleian 
Catalogue, under the article of Lobel.-In this reign, flourished 
another botanist of considerable note, namely, Wil1iam Cole, author 
of "Adam in Eden, or the Paradise of Plants," folio. His" Art 
of Simpling," a small duodecimo, may be of use to direct the un- 
experienced botanist to the places where some plants are naturally 
produced. See a Summary of the History of Botany and Botanical 
'Vriters, in Tournefort's " Isagoge in Rem Herbariam," prefixed to 
his" lnstitutiones," &c. 


SIR HENRY WOTTON, kllt. fY: Dolle f. Be- 
fore his " Remains," 8vo. · 


SIR HENRY WOTTO
. L01Jlba1
t 
'C. Before his 
" Re17laiJls," 12JJIO. 


SIR HENRY 'V OTTON, sItting' in a chair, Æt. 72; 
ft
ontispieee to llis " State of Christendo1Jz," 1657 ; fol. 


SIR HENRY 'VOTTON. T. CheesJ7zan se. 1816;ji
o7Jl 
the o1
ig'iJlal of Cornelius Janssen, in the Bodlein Gallel:lJ, 
O.tford
' in Jllr. Lodge's" Illustriolls Portraits." 


Dolle's and Lombart's prints are after the original picture in the 
Provost's Lodge, at Eton College. 



OF ENGLAND. 


157 


Sir Henry Wotton, a gentleman of many natural and acquired 
accomplishments, was employed in several embassies by King 
James 1. Towards the latter end of that king's reign, he was 
made provost of Eton College; a station well suited to his studious 
and philosphic turn of mind. I-Ie enjoyed his privacy tbe more 
for having been much in public life; and was more a philosopher 
for having been a statesnlan. Books in the ancient and modern 
languages;t were his constant employment, and angling- was his 
usual diversion. His writings, some of which are in verse, are on 
variety of subjects; but his capital work is his" Treatise of Archi- 
tecture," which has been translated into Latin, and bound with 
"Vitruvius," and Freart's "Parallel," translated by Evely
.t In 
this book, he has treated of the principles of the art, and its useful 
and ornamental branches. Though he was justly esteemed an 
elegant scholar, and an. able critic, his works abound with exotic 
idioms; nor has he escaped censure for his pedantry. But it 
should be considered that he wrote in an age, when, to write like a 
pedant, was to write like a gentleman; or, to speak more properly, 
like a king.! He was a good judge of the arts, and collected 
abroad several pictures, and other curiosjties, for Prince Charles, 
the Duke of Buckingham, and the Earl of Arundel. 1\1r. Boylc, 
who was personally acquainted with him, says, that" he was not 
only a fine gentleman himself, but was very well skilled in the art 
of making others so."
 Ob. Dec. 1639, lEt. 72. 


RICH.A.RD BRATHW AIT, esq. Frontispiece to 
Ilis " English Gentle1Jzall, 4to. 1630. R. Vaughan se. 


RICHARD BRATH'V AIT; a Ilead in an oval, úy j}far- 
shall. In the engraved title to Ilis " Survey of History, 
or a }{urscl'!J for Gentry," 1638, 4to. 


RICHARD BRATH'V AIT, esq. Evans e
l'e. 


.. See Isaac \Valton's "Complete Angler." 
t This book is entitled II A Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with the l\Iodelli. 
in a Collection of ten principal Authors who have written upon the five Orders, hy 
Uolalld Freart," fol. The cuts were engraved by IIertochs, but they are without his 


name. 
; James I. 



 Dirch's" Life of Do
 Ie," p. 23, 8vo. edit. 



158 ß r 0 G RA P II I CA L III ST 0 R Y 


Richard Brathwait, (or Brathwayte) was a man of polite learuing, 
and genteel education. He wrote many thing's in prose and verse, 
of which the 11108t considerable was his "English Gentleman," 
which was thrice printed in this reign. He has lately, through the 
researches of lVIr. Haslewood, been discovered as the author of 
"Drunken Barnaby's Journey." See the 7th edition, puhlished by 
J. I-Iarding, 1818. He died lVlay 4, 1673, and was buried at Ca- 
therick, in Yorkshire; leaving behind hÏ1n the character of a well- 
bred gentleman, and a good neighbour. See his article in the 
" Athenæ Oxonienses." 


JOHN I-IALL, Æt. 19, 1646; " OIÙn .ilIqjora." 
W. lJIaJ'shall se. 12JJ10. ill an offal of bays. 


JOHN IIALL; ill flll oval of bays, Æt. }O, 1646. 
1TZ Rie/za1"dsoJl. 


John Hall, a native of Durham, was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge; where he was esteemed the brightest genius in 
that university. In 1646, being then but nineteen years of age, he 
published his "Horæ V acivæ, or Essayes," a sufficient proof of 
his abilities: his Poems came out the same year. I-Ie transJated 
from the Greek, "Hierocles upon the Golden Y erses of Pytha. 
goras;" before which is an account of the ingenious translator and 
his works, by John Davis of Kidwelly. Ob. 1656, .lEt. 29. 


There is a print of t1/)0 l1zen sitting' and 'writing:, 'witlt 
801ne prohability 811pposed to represent SIR CIIAIlLES 
and SIR WILLIAM CORNWALLIS, his .'J'OJl. Before 
H Essaycs, úy 
5fir Wlll. Corn'lvallyes the YOllnger, Knt." 
I 632. Cecil! se. s'Jnall octavo. 


Sir Charles Cornwallis, second son of Sir'Villialll CornwaJIis, 
was a man of distinguished abilities. He was by Jmnes I. sent 
ambassador into Spain, where he resided several years in that cha- 
racter. It is wortby of remark, that li'rancis, Lord Cottington, was 
trained to business in his service. I-Ie was afterward treasurer of 
the household to P1Ïncc Henry, whose life he hath written with elc- 



OF ENG LAND. 


]50 


gance. He had two sons, \Villiam and ThoD1as, the former of 
whom is the subject of the next article. 
Sir William Cornwallis was the author of the Essays just men- 
tioned, of which the completest edition was published in 1632, 
after his decease. He, like lYlontaigne, who was one of his fa- 
vourite authors, writes frequently in a desultory manner, and takes 
every occasion to speak of himself; and is, indeed, never more apt 
to fix the attention, than when he is, without reserve, engaged in 
this delicate subject. It is probable, that everyone of his readers 
will think the egotism his choicest flower of rhetoric. Though he 
understood the learned, and some of the modern languages, he read 
but few authors with any relish, and those he thoroughly digested. 
Plato and Tacitus were his selectest favourites; and he seems to 
have had an eye on the latter in his short essays, in which his style 
is rather too concise and figurative to be perspicuous. Though he 
appeared to great advantage in the society of gentlemen, his mind 
was always open, and on the watch to receive new ideas, however 
coarsely conveyed by the meanest of the people; as he well knew, 
that a ploughman"as such, frequently reasons much better than a 
philosopher. He was attracted by every t.rivial book or pamphlet 
that came in his way: of these he carried numbers with him to the 
privy, and tore them to pieces before he rose from his seat. 
Though he esteemed a life of learned leisure by far the happiest, 
he endeavoured, by speculation, to qualify himself for action, and 
sometimes, in his melancholy moments, anxiously desired to display 
his talents in public; and so far regretted his being lost in the shade 
of retirement as to wish himself out of the world. 


LUDOVICUS ROBERTS, civis et mercator 
l.ondi s . natus in Bellon1arisco, in insulâ Monâ, 1596. 
G. Glover f. 1637; 4to. 
Lewis Roberts was author of " The l\1erchant's Map of COlU- 
merce," which has been several times printed in folio. The best 
edition was published in 1700: he was also author of" The Trea.- 
surer of Traffick," 1641; 4to. IIis principal work gained him a 
gre
t reputation, as he was the first systematic writer upon trade 
in the English language. A few years since was published" A Dic- 
tionary of Trade and Commerce by Postlethwayt," and another by 
Rolt; the former was translated from the French of 1\1:on8. Savary. 



100 13 lOG R. A P II I C A J
 II J S TOR Y 


JACOBUS STANIER, l\Iercator Londinensis, 
Anno 1643. II. Garret delin. TV. IIollal' f. 


James Stanier was a merchant of London, and translator of 
Ovid's Epistles. 


CAPTAIN CHARLES SALTONSTALL,.IEt.29, 

c. lIIarsllall sc. 


Charles Saltonstall was author of" The Navigator, or the theoric 
and practic Principles, of the Art of Navigation," LOi1d. 1642; 
4to. His head is prefixed to this book. 


SIR THOMAS UTQUIfART, (or Urchard) knt. 
Glover del. ad vivurJl, 1 G45; 'lvltole lengtlt, J'mall 4to. 
scarce. 


SIR TH031AS U RCHARD, knignt; 'lvhole lell{!;th. 
 
Richardson. 


There was one of the same name and title, a Scotsman,*" who, 
about the year 1645, published a Treatise of Trigonometry in 4to. 
dedicated to his lady mother. There is before the book, a por- 
trait of the author, at full length, in armour. His Translation of 
part of Rabelais is much esteemed, as almost equalling the spirit 
of the original. 
There is a book of Epigrams by him, in 4to. 1641. He is said 
to have been a laureated poet at Paris, before he was three-and- 
twenty years of age. The most singularly curious of all his per- 
formances is, "The Discovery of a most exquisite J ewe!, found in 
the Kennel of 'V orcester Streets, the Day after the fight," &c. Bvo. 
1652. It contains chiefly the praises of such Scotsmen as have 
been famous in arms and arts, since the year 1600. This, as I 
learn from IVIr. Horace 'Valpole, who has read the book, is one of 
the stt'angest rhapsodies, that ever was tacked together. 


tit H Biog. Brit." artic. ALE}"'A
lJFR, note (C.) 



OF ENGJ
AND. 


161 


Vera Effigies THOMÆ NIGELLI,Armigeri,Warn- 
fordiensis. TV.lJlarshall sc. 1211lo. ]lro11l John lJ:fai'i"e's 
" Life of EraSJ71US," ill Latin, printed in Holland, 1642. 
I t is dedicated to Thomas Neale, or N ele, esq. whose 
Latin nan1e is Nigellus, as Nelson is Nigelli filius. 
There is a b'ook, entitled " Directions to Travel," 
1643, by Sir THOl\rIAS NEALE, with his print, hy 
lJlarshall. 


THOl\IÆ N IGELLr, Armigeri, &c. W. Richardson. 


MR. (GERVASE) 1\IARKHAM; a snzall oval; lit 
the title to his " PeJfect H01'1Se'J7Zan/' 8vo. 


- 
MR. (GERvASE) MARKHA1\f; enlarged frolll the 
aúove. B. Reading se. 8vo. T. Rodd eL
'C. 


Gervase Markham was son of Robert Markham, of Cotham, in 
the county of Nottingham, esq. He'bore a captain's commission 
in the civil war, and was justly reputed a man of courage.* He 
was a practitioner in horsemanship and husbandry, for at least fifty 
years, and composed several treatises on both these subjects. His 
books of Farriery have given place to those of Gibson, Soleysell, 
Bourdon, and Bracken; but they are still in the hands of farriers 
in the country. We see Markham's, Aristotle's, and several other 
" Master Pieces," in almost every list of chapmen's books. He 
was author of a tragedy, entitIed, "Herod and Antipater," 162], 
of a book of angling.t The" Art of Archerie," and the" Soldier's 
Exercise." 


· In the" Biographia Britannica," article Holies, note (C.) is a remarkable story 
of a duel betwixt a person of both his names, and John Holies, csq. afterward carl 
of Clare. It is there said, that u Gervase l\-Iarkham was a great Confidant, or as 
tl1e phrase now is, The Gallant of the Countess of Shrewsbury, and was usnally in 
those days termed her Champion." It appears in the conclusion .of the story, that 
be was, by an event of the duel, totally disqualified for gallantry. This may very 
probably be another Gervase :Markham; but we are told that U he lived after to be, . 
an old man; but never after eat any supper nor received the sacranient, which two 
things he rashly vowed not to do, until he were revengpd." , 
t Entitled," The whole Art of Angling," in 4to, 1656. The author "ler:r gravely 
VOl... III. Y 



162 llIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOR.Y 


JOl-IANNES BATE. G. Giffard fecit; s1JlaIl4to. 


John Bate was author of "The l\iysteries of Nature," in four 
parts. 1. Of water-works. 2. Of fire-works. 3. Of drawing, 
washing, limning-, and engraving. 4. Of sundry experiments. 2d 
edition, 4to. 1635. The head is before his book. 


JOHANNES Bl\.BINGTON, Æt. 31. J. Droe- 
ShOlit 
.c. a SJJZll!l oval, scarce. 
John Babington was author of "Pyrotechnia, or a Discourse of 
artificial Fire-works for Pleasure," &c. He was a great improver of 
this art, and was also a considerable proficient in practical mathe- 
matics. There is subjoined to his" Pyrotechnia," a short Treatise 
of Geometry, with the Extraction of the square and cubic Roots. 
His portrait is in the engraved title to his book, fol. 1635. 


NATHANAEL NYE, mathematician, Æt. 20. 
Hollar f. ] 644 ; 12nlo. ill an oval. 
In the catalogue of the library at Sion College occurs "The 
Art of Gunnery; shewing how to make Gunpowder, Match, to 
shoot," &c. by Nat. Nye,8vo.1647. There is an edition of this 
book, printed in 1670, in the title to which he is styled" 1\1aster 
Gunner of the city of Worcester." To this is subjoined a "Trea- 
tise of artificial 1,'ire- 'V orks." The print is prefixed to his " Art of 
Gunnery." 


JOI-IN LILBURNE, .lEt. 23, 1641. G. Gloverf. 
Svo. several EJl
'lish verses. 
17le Sfl17ze head, 'ivithin a prison-1vindo1v:/' altered wILen 
he 11'as in COJ!fÙ1CJJZent. 


tells m. in 'this 5ingular book, that an angler should II be a general scholar, and seen 
in aU the liberal sciences; as a grammarian to know how to write, or disconrse of 
his art. in true and fitting tC1.'mg. He should have sweetness in speech to entice 
others to delight in an exercise so much laudable. He should bave 
trength of 
argument to defend and maintain his profession against envy and 
lander." He 
also ennmerates several virtues as essential to this amusement, and gi\'es us to under- 
5tand that a complete angler mu
t be a complete scholar and philosopher. 



OF - ENGLAND. 


163 


JOHN LI LBrR
E, &C. I-Iollarf. Under t!ie print is 
an account of Ilis sllffering;s (for printing libels), ill 
]JllrSllanee of a sentence of the Star-chal12bcr,. a ð'lnall 
oval. 


JOHN LILBURNE'I Vanderguclzt sc. 8-vo. 


JOH
 LILBOURNE, with his arnzs. Bul!fÙzclz del. R. 
Cooper sc. frollz the original ill the collection of Earl 
Spencer. 


JOHN LILBURXE, with an account of llis sufferings. 
J. Berry se. 


John Lilburne, commonly caned" Freeborn John," was the most 
hardened and refractory of all the seditious 1ibellers of his time. 
Dungeons, pillories, and sc<;>urges, seem to have had no effect 
upon him. He was still contumacious, and continued to be the 
same turbulent incendiary that he was at first. He dared to oppose 
every government undèr which he lived; and thou'ght he had as 
good a right to liberty, in its utmost extent, as he had to the ele- 
ment that he breathed. I-Ie looked upon all ordinances in religion 
as tbe worst kind of bonds and shackles, and the effects only of 
ecclesiastical tyranny. Being determined to enjoy the utmost 
"Christian Liberty," he turned Quaker) and died in that communion. 
See the Interregnum, and Granger'& " Letters," p. 274. 


It is probable, that most, or all of the following persons were 
authors; but I cannot find any mention of their works in the Bod. 
leian, and other Catalogues, which I have examined. 


SIR JOHN KEDERMINSTER, of Langley. T. 
Cceill sc. 1638. 


JOHANNES TI-IOMPSON, LEt. 27. GOlD!} del. 
IIúllarf. 1644; 121no. in an orna77zental oval; scarce. 



164 BIOGRAPIIICAL HISTORY 


JOHANNES 'rHOl\IPSON, SVO. JV. (J1Iarshall) anOll. 
l
 Ingenio, non ætate sapientia acquiritllr;" in an oval. 


"JOHN DETRICK, of West Newton, in the 
county of Norfolk, esq. was born the 23d of Octob. 
1567, and deceased the 31st of Octob. 1651." P. 
L01nbart sc. 4to. 
JOHN DETHICK, of West Newton, in the county of 
Norfolk, esq. copied front the above for a new edition 
of Blo1Jzejield's " Norfolk;" 4to. 
I find that John Dethick, lord mayor of London, was knighted 
by Cromwell the 15th of Sept. 16.56. He was probably a son of 
the former, who is conjectured to have been a herald, as were se- 
veral of his family. 


HUMPH. CURSON, de Stanhow, in Norfolc. 
falling band; 1211l0. 


This may, perhaps, belong to the next reign; as may also the 
following. 


THOl\IAS MANLEY. .An anonYlllous portrait, 
Æt. 21 ; black cap, hair, sash, llnd shoulder-knot; four 
verses, " Tile pencil can no 'Jllore," 
'c. T. (}ross sc. 
8vo. 


AN l\.UTHORESS. 


SARAH GILLY. (Lely),. W. Faithorne,' prifiL'l'ed 
to his "Receipts," 1662, 8vo. Slie died 1659, Æt. cir. 48. 


The name of Hannah ,V oolley appears on the later impressions: 
5ec Woolley. 



OF ENGLA_N D
 


165 


AN ASTROl.OGER. 


JOHN EVANS, the ill-favoured astrologer of 
Wales; fro17l tlie original dra1ving in tlze collection of 
tile Right Honourable Lord Cardiff. Godfrey sc. 
JOllY EVANS; in Caulfield's "Relnarkable Persons;" 
8vo. 


. John Evans was one of those professors of astrology and magic, 
vulgarly styled fortune-tellers, or cunning men, who gulled the 
credulous and ignorant, by pretending to resolve questions, recover 
stolen goods, and predict future events, from certain positions of 
the planets; a study n1uch in vogue, as late as the time in which 
he Jived, and in the pursuit of which many well-meaning persons 
so besotted their understandings as to become dupes to their own 
visionary absurdities. 
Very little is known of this man except what is related by Wil- 
liam Lilly, his pupil, who tel1s several very extraordinary stories 
concerning him, but on the whole, from the character given of him, 
he appears to have been more knave than fool. Hi5 countenance 
which was scarcely human, seems to have been admirab]y calcu- 
lated to strike an awe into his superstitious consulters. "It hap- 
pened on one Sunday, 1632 (says Lilly), as myself and a justice 
of peace's clerk were, before service, discoursing of many things, 
lIe chañced to say, that such a person was a great scholar, nay so 
learned, that he could make an almanack, which to me then was 
strange. One speech begot another, till, at last he said, he could 
bring me acquainted with one Evans in Gunpowder-alley, who had 
formerly lived in Staffordshire, that was an excellent wise man, 
and studied the b]ack art. The same week after we went to see 
Mr. Evans; when we came to his house, he having been drunk the 
night before, was upon his bed, if it be lawful to call that a bed 
whereon he then lay; he roused up himself, and after some com- 
pliments, he was content to instruct Ine in astrology: I attended 
his best opportunities for seven or eight weeks, in which time I 
could set a figure perfectly: books he had not any, except Haly 
de J udiciis Astrorum, and Orriganus's Ephemerides; so that as 
often as I entered his house, I thought I was in the wilderness.- 



]66 llIOGRAPIIICAL RISTOR Y 


Now something of the man. He was by birth a 'Velshman, a 
master of arts, and in sacred orders; he had formerly had a cure 
of souls in Staffordshire, but now was come to try his fortune at 
London, being in a manner enforced, to fly for some offences very 
scandalous, cOlnmitted by him in those parts where he had lately 
lived; for he gave judgment upon things lost, the only shame of 
astrology: he was the most saturnine person my eyes ever beheld, 
either before I practised or since; of a middle stature, broad fore- 
bead, beetle-browed, thick shoulders, flat-nosed, full lips, down- 
looked, black curling stiff hair, splay-footed; to give him his right, 
lIe had the most piercing judgment, naturally upon a figure of 
theft, and many other questions, that I ever met withal; yet for 
money he would willingly give contrary judgments, was much 
addicted to debauchery, and then very abusive and quarrelsome, 
seldom withou t a black eye, or one mischief or other. This is the 
same Evans who made so many antimonial cups, upon the sale 
\",,-hereof he principaHy subsisted: he understood Latin very well, 
the Greek tongue not at all; he had some arts above, and beyond 
astrology, for he was well versed in the nature of spirits, and had 
111any times used the circular way of invocating, as in the time of 
our fan1iliarìty he told me. Two of his actions I \\till relate, as to 
me delivered. 
" There was, in Staffordshire, a young gentlewoman that had for 
bel' preferment married an aged rich person, who being desirous to 
purchase some lands for his wife's maintenance; but this young 
gentlewoman, his wife, was desired to buy the land in the name of 
a gentleman her very dear friend, but for her use; after the aged 
DUUl was dead, the widow could by no means procure the deed of 
purchase from her friend; whereupon she applies herself to Evans, 
who, for a sum of money, promises to have her deed safply delivered 
into her own llands; the sum was 401. Evans applies himself to 
the invocation of the angel Salmon, of the nature of l\Iars, reads 
his Litany in the Common-Prayer Book every ùay, at selEct hours, 
wears his surplice, lives orderly all that time; at the fortnight's end 
Salmon appeared, and having received his commands what to do, 
in a smaIl time returns with the very deeù desired, lays it down 
gently upon the table, where a white cloth was spread, and then 
being dismissed, vanished. The deed was, by the gentleman who 
formerly kept it, placed among many other of his evidences, in a 
large wooden chest, and in a chamber at one end of the house; 
but upon Salmon's removing and bringing away the deed, all that 



OF ENGI.AAND. 


167 


bay of building was quite blown down, and all his own proper evi.. 
dences torn all to pieces. The second story followeth. Somc time 
before I became acquaiuted witl
 him", be then living in the l\1ino- 
ries, was desired by the Lord Bothwell and Sir Kenelm Digby, to 
sllew them a spirit. He promised so to do: the time came, and 
they were all in the body of the circle, when ]0, upon a sudden, 
after some time of invocation, Evans was taken from Ol!t of the 
room, and carried into the field near Battersea Causeway, close to 
the Thames. Next morning a countryman going by to his labour, - 
and spying a man in black cJothes, came unto him, and awaked 
him, and asked him how he came there; Evans, by this, understood 
his condition, inquired wllere he was, how far frOlTI London, and in 
what parish he was, which when he understood, he told the 
labourer he had been late at Battersea the night before, and by 
chance was left there by his friends. Sir Kenelm Digby and the 
Lord Bothwell, went home without any harm, and came next day 
to hear what was become of him; just as they in the afternoon 
came into the house, a messenger came from Evans to his wife to 
come to him at Battersea. I inquired upon what account the 
spirit carried him away; who said, he had not, at the time of invo- 
cation, made any fumigation, at which the spirits were vexed. 
" It happened, that after I discerned what astrology was, I went 
weekly into Little Britain, and bought many books of astrology, 
not acquainting Evans therewith. 1\1"r. A. Bedwell, minister, of 
Tottenham High-cross, near London, who had been many years 
chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton, whilst he was ambassador. at 
Venice, and assisted I'>ietro Soave Polano in compm
ing and writ- 
ing the council of Trent, wa.s lately dead, and his library being sold 
in Little Britain, I bought amongst them my choicest books of 
astrology. The occasion of our faning out wa!? thus: a woman 
demanded the resolution of a question, which when he had done, 
she went her way; I standing by all the while, and observing the 
fig
re, asked him why he gave the judgment he did, since the 
signification shewed quite the contrary, and gave him many rea- 
sons; which when lIe had pondered, he called me boy, and must 
he be contradicted by such a novice? but when his heat was over, 
he said, had he not judged to please the woman, she would have 
gave him nothing, and he had a wife and family to provide for; 
upon tbis we never came together after." 



168 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTORY 


CLASS X. 


ARTISTS, &c. 


" MARCUS GARRARDUS pictor, illustrissimis 
et serenissimis principibus, beatæ memoriæ, Eliza- 
bethæ, et Annre, &c. Magnæ Britanniæ, Franciæ, et 
Hiberniæ, reginis, servus; et præstantissimo artifici 
Marco Garrardo Brugensis Flandriæ filius, ubi natus 
erat. Ob, Londini, Jan. 19, 1635, Æt. 74." Hic ipse 
1J;Iarcus depin..rit, Ao. 1627. Hollar f. 1644; 4to. 


See a further account of him in the reign of Elizabeth, Class X. 


DANIEL MYTENS. Vandyck p. Paul du Pont 
(or Pontius) sc. lz. she 


DANIEL MVTENS. Bannerlnun sc. copied fro17l tILe 
for7Jzer. In the" Anecdotes of Painting." 
DANIEL MYTENS. A. v: Dyck; P. de Joe/e. 


Daniel My tens painted many portraits in England, in this, and 
tbe former reign, which were very deservedly admired. Several of 
them are at Hampton-court: and, at St. James's, is that of Jeffrey 
Hudson, the king's dwarf, on whom Sir 'Villiam Davenant wrote a 
poem, entitled, "Jeffreidos," which describes a battle betwixt him 
and a turkey-cock. This artist grew out of vogue upon the arrival 
of Vandyck. He studied the works of Rubens, and his land- 
scapes on the back grounds of his pictures are in the excellent 
st
Ie of that painter. He was living in Holland, in 1656. Ob. 
1688, Æt. 52. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS, eques, &c. VUll- 
ilyclt, p. P. Pontius sc. h. she 



OF ENGLAND. 


. 


169 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS, &c. a copy of thefor'Jner, 
by Ga!J7vood; h. she 


PETER PAUL RUBENS. Vandyck p. Wool/ett sc. larg'c 
4to. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS, 1630. Pontius sc. larg'c 
h. 
'lz. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS. Hollarf. It. slz. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS. Pelhal1z f. h. slz. 'JllC::Z. 


SIR PETER PAUL RUBENS. Worlidgef. 5k inches, 
by 3!. 


SIR PETER P Å UL RUBENS. Chamhars sc. 4to. In 
the" Anecdotes of Painting." 
RUBENS'S family by himself,. engraved by Mac 
A'j"dell, after the original at Blenlzeinz,. sh. mezz.* 
PETRUS PAULUS RUBENIUS, &c. Guil. Panneels, 
1630. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS. V. Dyck; Boulonois. 
PETRUS PAUL RUBENS,. 'Jnezz. Rubens,. W Dick- 
enson. 


PETRUS PAUL RUBENS, with Van Dyck. P. Pon- 
tius. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS; 4to. S. Savorye.l'c. 


· The engraver told me that this print, which sold for six shillings in England. 
sold for three guineas at Paris. The French are grent admirers 'of our best mezzo- 
tinlo9. 


VOL. Ill. 


z 



170 BIOGRAPIIICAL HISTOR\"'" 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBEKS. JZ Dyck; J. Visscher. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS. Wallresch sc. In San- 
drart. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS. 
 Dyck; A. Lut'l71a; 
scarce. 


PETRUS PAULUS RUBENS. Van Dyck; Ficquet sc. 


RUBEN'S FA1\IILY, by J1ï: Dickenson; rnezz. 


RUBEN'S F Al\IILY, after Jordains. Watson sc. 'JJlezz. 
In the Houg'htoJl Collection. 


Peter Paul Rubens carne into England in the reign of Charles J. 
wllO employed him to paint the ceiling of the Banqueting-house at 
'Vhitehall, for which he was paid 30001. He, like Titian, excelled 
ill almost every branch of his art; but his greategt excellence was 
in history and landscape. There is more grandeur than simplicity 
in his works;* but his meanest performances are generally pleasing, 
from the strength and beauty of his colouring.t He painted beasts 
of the savage kind better than any other painter, and his landscapes 
are not inferior to those of Titian. It appears from the paintings 
of this artist, and many others, that the ideas of feluinine beauty in 
the Low Countries and in Greece, were as different as the climates.t 


.. Ric1mrdson, speaking of his manner of painting, says, that H he lived and died 
a Fleming, though be would fain bave been an Italian." See Richardson's Works, 
p. 292. 
t The ingenious l\1"r. Webbe is of opinion. that Rcbens did not understand t!1e 
clare obscure as a principle in the art of painting. If he did not, it must be allowed 
that he had tbe luckiest pencil that ever artist was blessed with.9 De Piles has, in 
his u Balance of Painters," placed bim two degrees higher, as a colourist, than 
Correggio. 
t This will appear by comparing the women in the prints after Rubens, and the 
fat Venus by Diepellbeke. in the u Tt:mple of the l\luses," with the \' euus of 
l\iedicis. 


9 See the If Enquiry into the Beauties of Painting," p. 94. 



OF ENGLAND. 


171 


His greatest work was the history of Mary of Medicis, in the Lux.. 
emburg gallery, at Paris; and his best easel piece, the Assumption 
of the Virgin, in the collection of the elector palatine, at Dussel.. 
dorp; there are prints of both. The Duke of l\larlborough has no 
less than sixteen pictures by his hand. Ob. 1640. See the Ap.. 
pendix to this reign. 


ANT. VANDYCK; a bust on a pedestal; ipse f. 
aqua forti. 


ANTH. VANDYCK, eques, &c. se ipse delin. Hollar f. 
4to. 


ANT . VANDYCK, &c. looking' over his shoulder; 
chain about his neck. L. Vorsternzan sc. h. she 


ANTOINE chevalier VANDYCK. P. Pontius sc. h sit. 


ANTONIO VANDYCK. Feretti delin. X G. e A. 
Pazzi sc. h. sh. One of the set of Heads of Painters, 
done hy themselves, in the Grand Duke of Tuscany's 
gallery at Florence. 


The set is in the " Museum Florentinum." 


ANTONIUS VANDYCK, &c. Gaywoodf. h. she 


AXT. VANDYCK, eques, pictor. Vandyck p. J. 
Vander Brugg'en f. 1682; h. sh. 'Jnezz. 


ANT. VANDYCK, &c. his arnz held up, the hand 
declined; 4to. 


The Duke of Grafton has a whole length of him, from which this 
print was probably done. It was painted by Vandyck, and repre- 
sents him yo:,nger than any of the prints above described. 



172 llIOGRAPHICAL IIISTORY 


SIR AXTHONY VANDYCK. Vandyck p. Bannernzan 
sc. Frq1Jl an orig'inal in the collectio'll of the Hon. Horace 
JValpole, fronz which the DulLe of Grafton's picture was 
painted. In the" Anecdotes of Painting;" 4tQ. 


SIR ANT. VANDYCK. Worlidg'ef. 5! inches, hy 3!. 


SIR ANTHO
Y VANDYCK; in the l1zanner of a dpa'lo- 
ing. J. le Blon. 


SIR ANTHONY VANDYCK. Bolsloel't. 


SIR ANTHO
Y VANDYCK; mez'z. p.. P. Rubens; 
W. Dickenson. 


SIR ..A.NTHONY V ANDYCK
; a bust. fol. Neeffs-. 


SIR A:\TTHONY VANDYCK; 1nez.Z. W. Vaillant. 


SIR AXTHONY V 
NDYCK; in Sandra,..t. 


SIR ANTHONY VANDYCK. Van Dyck pln

'.. 
Dolg'org;ue sc. in .1J:l'llsée Napoleon. 


SIR ANTHONY VANDYCK, with Rubens. P. Pontius.. 


This illustrious disciple of Rubens did not only excel his master 
in portrait, but every other painter of his age; and tbere is no artist, 
of any age, that stands in competition with him but Titian. There 
is a truth and delicacy, in his best works, that surpass those of all 
his contemporaries as much as he surpassed himself. It is recorded 
of him, that he frankly confessed to one of his friends, that in the 
former part of his life he painted for fame, and in the latter for his 
kitchen.* His price was 401. for a half, and 60l. for a whole length. 
His best portrait in England is the Earl of Strafford, with his secre- 


· See De Piles's U Principles of Painting," p. 176, 177. 



OF ENGLAND. 


173 


tary, at the Marquis of Rockingham's, at 'Ventworth-house: and 
the best abroad, is that of Cardinal Bentivoglio, in the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany's collection, at Florence. Mr. Richardson tells us, that 
"he never saw any thing like it; that he looked upon it two hours, 
and came back twenty times, to look upon it again."* There is a 
good etching of it by Morin, but it is not common. Db. 1641. 


GERARD SEGHERS, of whom there are several 
prints, is said, by the French author of the" Abregé," 
to have been here after the decease of Rubens and 
Vandyck, and to have softened his manner, which 
was originally harsh, like that of Manfrede, whom 
he imitated. Though he studied in Italy, there is 
too much of the Dutch style in his works. Bolswert 
has engraved some of his historical pieces. 


GERARD US HONTHORST, (vel HONDTHORST) 
Hagæ Comitis, pic tor humanarunl figurarum ma- 
jorum. Vandyck p. Paul lilt Pont se. h. slz. 


GERARD HONTHOHST, &c. BannernZGl'l sc. 4to. 
Copied froln the above. In thc "Anccdotes of Paiutin!!;." 
GERARDUS HONTHORST; 4to. G. Honthorst,. P. 
de Jode. 


Gerard Honthorst, who was esteemed one of the best painters of 
his time, was invited into England by Charles I. He had before 
been employed by the Queen of Bohemia, whose family he taught 
to design: of these the Princess Louisa, afterward abbess of Mau- 
buisson, and the Princess Sophia, were his most distinguished dis- 
cipJes. He painted history anù portraits, but excelled most in his 
night pieces, of which Rubens was a great admirer. Though he 
stayed he_re but six months, the king presented him with three thou- 
sand florins, a service of plate for twelve persons, and a horse, 
Ob. 1660. 


.. Richardson's U Açcount of Statues, &c. ill Italy," p. 72, 2d edit. 



174 BIOGRAPIIICAl
 }fISTORY 


PALAMEDES PALAMEDESSEN, præliorum 
pictor, in IIollandia. Vandyck p. P. POldius sc. h. she 


This ingenious painter, whose surname was Staevarts, or Stevers, 
was son of a Flemish jeweller and goldsmith, who, for his excel- 
lence in his art, was invited into England by James I. Palamede 
was born in London, in 1607. He studied in Holland, and paid 
particular attention, to the works of Esaias Vandervelde, to whom 
he was much superior. He painted battles and encampments with 
great truth, nature, and spirit; and with unusual harmony and de- 
licacy of colouring. His pictures are very scarce, as he was cut 
off in the prime of life. Sir William Musgrave has a painting of 
this artist, who seems never to have been employed in England; 
but is numbered with the eminent painters of the city of Delft.. Ob, 
1638, .lEt. 31. .. 


HORATIUS GENTILESCIUS, pictor humana- 
runl figl1rarum in Anglia. Vandyck i). L. Vorsterl1lan 
sc. h. s h. 


HORATIO GENTILESCHI. T. Chal1zbars sc. copied 
froJJl the above. In the" Anecdates of Painting." 


Horatio Gentileschi, a native of Pisa, having distinguished him- 
self in Italy and France, carne into England by invitation of 
Charles I. who assigned him a considerable salary, and employed 
bim in painting ceilings. He made some attempts at portrait paint- 
ing, but with little success. Nine pieces of his hand, which were 
formerly in the royal palace at Greenwich, are now in the hall at 
Marlborough-house. He also did the history of Joseph and Poti- 
phar's wife, at Hampton-court. He died in England in the 84th 
year of his age. His daughter Artimesa, was perhaps the most 
celebrated paintress of her time. She was equal to her father in 
Þ.istory and excelled hinl in portrait. 


GULIELMUS DOBSON,pictor; ipse fecit in aqua 
forti; sold hy RO'lvlet; small It . she 


· See" Pilkington's Dictionary." 



OF ENGLAN D. 


175 


GULIELMUS DOBSON. Stent; 4to. 


WILLIA
I DOB,ßON; ipse p. G. White f. h. she 
'Jnezz. 


DOBSON. BaJllle1"lJlan sc. 4to. III the" Anecdotes of 
P . . " 
{tlntlng. 
His head, by himself, is at Earl Paulet's. 



i:)", 
J 
WILI,IAl\I DOBSON; Yl spirited etching'. Jos
 Eng'- 
lishfecit.4to. 


'Villiam Dobson, caI1ed by Charles I. " The English Tintoret," 
was an excellent painter of history and portraits. He was brought 
out of his obscurity by Vandyck who found him working in a garret. 
The patronage of that great artist instantly raised his reputation, 
and he was, upon his decease, appointed serjeant-painter to the 
king,. and groom of the privy-chamber. He seems to have been 
intoxicated with his good fortune: 'he grew idle and dissolute, was 
involved in debt, and thrown into prison; and died, soon after 
his enlargement, at the age of thirty-six. His works, which have 
much of the character and merit of Vandyck, are to be seen at 
Oxford, Wilton, and many other places; but his best performance 
is at BJenheim. Some will have this to be a family-piece of Lilly 
the astrologer, and others of Francis Carter an architect, disciple 
of Inigo Jones. See" Anecdotes of Painting." 


ADRIAN HANNEMAN. A. Bannerman sc. 4to. 
In the" Anecdotes of Painting'." 
ADRIAN HANNEl\IAN. TaJlg'e se. 
ADRIAN HANNEl\IAN. V. Dyc/i. 


Adrian Hanneman, a native of the Hague, was sixteen years in 
England. He studied the works of Vandyck, and was, by Vertue, 
thought the best imitator of the airs of his heads. He was the 
favourite painter of IVlary, princess of Orange, daughter to Charles I. 
A considerable number of bis works are to be seen in Engh\nd; 


Oct. 
1646, 



]76 BIOGR.t\PHICAL IIISTORY 


but his principle performances are abroad: he painted in the cham- 
ber of the States, at the Hague. Db. circa 1680. 


FRANCESCO CLEYN. T. Chanzbars sc. 4to. .bz 
the" Anecdotes of PaintiJl/5'." 


There was a picture of Cleyn, his wife, aJ?d several children, in the 
possession of Mr. Crawley, of Hemsted, in Hertfordshire. 
Francis Cleyn, a native of Rostock, in Germany, studied in Italy, 
and was some time in the service of (. "
ristian IV. king of Denmark. 
He came into England in the latter,eend of the reign of James J. 
and was employed in the tapestry works at Mortlake. A fine suit 
of tapestry in grotesque, after his designs, is at Petworth, in Sus- 
sex; and at Honand-house is a most beautiful ceiling by him, 
which 1\lr. Walpole says "is not unworthy of Parmegiano." He 
designed many of the plates for Ogilby's "Virgil," and "Æsop ;" 
the former of which were so much approved of by the king of 
France, that he ordered them to be copied for the fine edition of 
"Virgil," printed at the Louvre. He is said to have received fifty 
shillings a-piece for these drawings. He painted little or nothing 
in oil. Db. circ. 1658. 


JOANNES LIVENS, Pictor humanarum Figura- 
rum majorun1. Vandycli p. VOl"sternla1l sc. h. 
'h. He 
is represented in II very characteristic attitude, as if 
listening to s017letltill
'. * 
John Livens, a celebrated painter, of Leyden, came into England, 
in 1630,t where he drew the portraits of most of the royal family, 
and several of the nobility. He stayed here but three years. A 
Dutch painter, of both his names, and, I believe, the same person, 
was deservedly famous for his etchings in imitation of Rembrandt, 
of whom he was a scholar. His principal pieces are specified to- 
wards the end of the catalogue of the works of that artist, printed 
for T . Jefferys, 1752, 12mo. They are sometinles added to the 
works of Relnbrandt. 


· This circumstance is an improvement of the portrait, as it relates to a remark- 
able event in his life. See Richardson's "Theory of Painting," p. 99. 
t See the Appendi
 to the third volume of tbe II Anecdotes of Painting." 



OF ENGI..4AND. 


177 


DAVIT (David) BECK, peintrc, &c. i}Jse 1). Cog'ct 
sc. ffileysscns Ctrc. 4/0. 


DAVID BECK. P. Cl01vct. 


David Beck, a native of Arnheim, was a disciple of Vandyck, 
and in favour with Charles I. whose SOTJS, the prince, and the dukes 
of York and Gloucester, he taught to draw. His rapidity of exe- 
cution was so great, tbat the king said he could paint riding post. 
He afterward passed successively into the service of the kings of 
France and Denmark, and was at last appointed painter to Chris- 
tina, queen of Sweden, for whom he painted most of the illus- 
trious persons in Europe. 
Once, as he was travelling through Germany, he was suddenly 
taken ill; and appearing t6 be dead, was treated as such. His 
servants, who watched the corpse after it was laid out, endeavoured 
to console themselves for the loss of their master with the bottle. 
When they grew intoxicated, one of them proposed to give him Ð. 
glass, though he were dead, as he was far froln having a dislike to 
it when he was alive. This was accordingly. do
e; and the - con- 
sequence was, that he recovered and lived many years. 


HENRY VANDER BORCHT, peintre. Hol- 
lar f. 1648. .lJfeyssclls C.l'C. 4to. 
Henry Vanderborcht was son of a Flemish painter of the san1e 
Christian name, who collected pictures and other curiosities, espe- 
ciall y medals, for the Earl of Arundel. The son, who was also 
employed in collecting for him in Italy, and was retained in his 
service as long as he lived, was both a painter and engraver; and 
drew and etched many things in the royal and Arundelian coIlec- 
tions. He was afterward retained by Prince Charles. It is pro- 
bable, that the civil war occasioned his return into his o\vn country) 
as be is known to have died at Antwerp. 


IIENRY STONE. Lely p. BOJll1C1'"rnan sc. In tlte 
" Anccdotes of PaiJlting;" 4to. 
IIE
RY STONE; holdiug; a carved head. 1 T ll/ldyck }i. 
J. Vall Soulcr f. 1JlCZ"Z'. 
VOL. III. 2 A 



178 BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOIl Y 


Henry Stone, son of Nicholas, travelled into HolIand, France, 
and Italy. He carried on the business of a statut"lry, after his 
father's death; but was best known as a painter, and particu- 
larly excelled in copying Vandyck. lIe is called "Old Ston('," 
to distingui
h him from his younger brother John. At Burghley- 
house, is a good copy by him of the celebrated portrait of 
Charles 1. painted by Vandyck, which was burnt at Whitehall, in 
1697, and which was esteemed the best ]ikeness of him.. Db. 
24 Aug. 1653. 


HENRICUS STEEN'VY.CK, &c. TTan Dycli p. 
Paul dll Pont sc.lL.slz. 


HENRY STEEX"TYCK; ill the "Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing," copied frOJJl the above,. 4to. 


IIenry Steenwyck was a good painter of architecture, portraits, 
and history; but he was not equal, in the first of these branches, 
to his father, who had scarce a rival. He was employed in 
]
ngland by Charles I. and we are infurmed, that in France are 
the portraits of that king, and his queen, "with a front of a 
royal palace on the back ground," by his hand. Descamps 
says, "that this picture is more carefully laboured than any 
work of Vandyck, and equal to tbe most valuable of l'Iciris."t 


ABRAHAlVi VAN DIEPENBEKE, (vel Diepen- 
beck). Pontius se. lJIeysscns e.

c. 4tn. 


Abraham Diepenbeke, who is esteemed one of the best disciples 
of Rubens, was employed both in Flanders and England, by 'Vil- 
liam Cavendish, duke of Newcastle, for whOln he drew portraits, 
managed horses, and views from nature. l\Iany of these works are 
still remaining at \Velbeck. He was also employed by the abbé 
de i\Iarolles, for whom he did the mythological histories, which 
have been engraved in the elegant book, entitled "The Temple of 
the l\Iuses," which were executed by C. Blocmart and l\1:attham, 
and re-engraved by, and under the direction of Picart. lIe de- 


· 1\15. catalogue of the pictures at Burghley. 
t "Anecdotes of Painting," ii. 113, 2d edit. Notes. 



OF ENGLAND. 


179 


. 


signed several of the prints in Ogilby's "Homer." In the early 
part of his life, before be entered the school of Rubens, he was 
employed in painting on glass. 


f'RANCIS WOUrrERS. F. lJi'""Olllc1"S p. BanJlerJJla/l 
ljC. 4to. In the" Anecdotes of Painting'." 


FRANCIS 'V OCTERS; 4to. P. de Jade. 


Francis Wouters, a disciple of Rubens, came into England. with 
the emperor's ambassador, in 1637, and was retained as painter 
to the Prince of 'Vales. lie chiefly practised in landscape, with 
small naked figures, such as Cupids, &c. and did a ceiling in one 
of the palaces. His works were esteemed by the Emperor Fer- 
dinand II. and Charles 1. Ob. 1659. 


ADRIANUS ST.A.LBENT, pictor ruralium pro- 
spectuuln Antverpiæ. Vandyck p. Paul dll PaÙt 
'C. 
h. sh. 


Aùrian Stalbent was regarded as a capital artist among the 
Flemish painters of landscape, who were never excelled by those 
of any age or country. He was, for his superior merit, in,'ited 
into England by Charles I. He painted various rural scenes, but 
his view uf Greenwich was the most distinguished, if not the most 
excellent of his works. Db. 1660, Æt. 80. 


CORNELIUS POLEMBURG; ipse p. T. CltrlJn- 
bars se. 4to. III the "Anecdotes of Painting'." 


COR
ELIUS POLEl\IBURG. 
 Dyclc,. P. de Jode. 


Cornelius Polemburg, disciple of Abraham Bloemart, was de- 
servedly celebrated for his very beautiful and high-finished land- 
scapel3, adorned with no less beautiful figures. He frequently 
cmbellished his pieces with buildings and ruins; and sometimes 
finished them to so high a degree, that they had all the lustre and 
tt::nderness of enamel. He, for some time, painted in the style 



ISO BI OG Rl\ 1)11 I CAL HISTORY 


of Eisheimer, which he abandoned for another of his own. He 
painted at Rome, and at Florence, where his works were highly 
esteemed. He was strongly solicited to enter into the service of 
the Grand Duke, which he declined; but accepted of an invita- 
tion from Charles I. to come over to England. lIe sOinctimes 
painted the figures in Steenwycks's perspectives. The scarcity of 
his works; addéd to their intrinsic merit, occasions their being 
v,!:lued as so many jewels.-He died at Utrecht, 1660. 


EDWARD PIERCE, sen f . Ballnernzan sc. 4to. III 
tlle "Anecdotes of Painting." 


Edward Pierce, sen. was noted for history, lanùscape, and 
architecture; and did a great nUlnber of ceilings and altar-pieces 
in churches, which were burnt in the fire of London. He was 
employed under Vandyck; and bred his son Jol}n a painter, and 
Edward a statuary, both of whom became eminent in their profes- 
sions. The most considerable of the father's works, now remain- 
ing, are at Belvoir Castle) in Lincolnshire. He died a few years 
after the restoration. 


JOlIN TORRENTIUS. Banueruzon se. oval
. fvitlt 
several other heads in the second edition of tlie "Ance- 
ltotes of Painting." 


JOHN TORRENTIUS; LEt. 39. 1628. Ilo/stein. 


John Torrcntius, a native of Amsterdam, was an admirable 
artist, but a detestable character. lIe was not only a profligate, 
but impious; and avowedly prostituted bis pencil, which he em- 
ployed on small figures, to the purposes of lewdness and de- 
bauchery. He came into England in this reign; but his talents 
and his morals were better suited to the seraglio of a Tiberius, or 
the court of the second Charles, than that of Charles the First. 
He died in 1640, in the fifty-first year of his -age.* See more of 
him in the" Anecdotes of Painting." 


· By the bands of the executioncr, fOI" writing heretical buoks. 



OF ENGLAND. 


181 


ABRAHAM V ANDERDORT. Dobson p. Chal1l- 
hars sc. fro1Jz the original at HOll
'lzton,. in the "Anec- 
dotes qf Painting,." 4to. 


AßJtAHAl\I V ANDERDORT. Dobson pill.:r. 
 Grccn; 
ill the .floughtoll collection, hy nÛð'take inscribed Dob- 
ð'on's Fatlter. 


Abraham Vanderdort, a Dutchman, who had been for some time 
in the service of the Emperor Rodolph II. came into England in 
the reign of James I. where he met with great encouragement 
from Prince Henry, who had a good taste for the arts. He was, 
in this reign, made keeper of the royal cabinet of medals, with a 
salary of forty pounds a year; and had the same salary appointed 
bim for furnishing drawings for the king's coins, and superintend- 
ing the making of puncheons and dies: he had also an allowance 
of five 
hillings and sixpence a day. board-wages. He was re- 
markably excellent at modelling in wax. He hanged himself in 
despair, because he could 110t find a drawing by Gibson, which he 
'had laid up for the king.* 


JOHN VAN BELCAMP. Bannerlllan sc. 4/0. IJl, 
tlte " Anecdotes of Painting." 


John Van Belcamp, a Dutchman, was employed under Vander- 
dort, in copying pictures in the royal collection. The whole 
lengths of Edward III. and the Black Prince, over the doors, ill 
one of the anti-chambers at St. J ames's, are said to have been 
copied by him.t These portraits more nearly resenlble each other, 
than any of the prints I have seen of them. The whole length of 
Edward IV. over the chimney, in another anti-chamber, was also 
painted by him; the face is supposed to have been done from 
some ancient original. His copies are thought to be well ex.- 
ecuted. Ob, 1653. 


· The original catalogue of Charles the First's collection of pictures, and othcr 
curiosities, drawn up by Vamlerdort, is ill the Ashmolean l\Iuscum. 
t I, under the articles of EDWARD and his son, in the first volume, have frum 
mi:,inCormation. mentioued tQC5C portraits, by Delcamp. as ancicnt paiutings. 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL I-IISTORY 


JACOPO Bi\CI(ER. J. Backer; Baillell sc. 


A Dutch painter born at Har1ington in 1609. His chief resi- 
dence was at Amsterdam, where he wag encouraged as a painter 
of history and portraits. Such was his facility that I-Ioubrakcn 
aS3erts that he finished the half length portrait of a lady, dressed 
in troublesome drapery and loaded with jewels, in one day. IIis 
last judgment said to be a grand composition, correctly drawn, 
and finely coloured, is in the cathedral of Antwerp. Db. 1651, 
aged 42. 


HENRY V ANDERBORCHT. lIo//ar f. 1648; 
4to. 


Henry, son of IIenry Vanderborcht, a painter at Frankendale in 
the Palatinate was employed by the Earl of Arundel to conect cu- 
riosities for him in Italy. He continued in the ead's service as 
long as he lived, and drew and etched n1any things in his anù 
the royal collection. A fter the death of his patron, he was 
preferred to the service of the Prince of \Vales, afterward Charles 
II. He died at Antwerp. . 


BALTHASAR GERBIER. Vandyck p. lJIeysscJls 
e.'l'c. 4to. one of the set of lIeads of Artists, published by 
lJIeyssens. 


SIR BALTHASAR GEnDlER. Vandyck 1)' T. Chanzbars 
sc. In the "Anecdotes of Painting' ;" 4to. 


BALT. GERBIEItUS, Æt. 42, 1634. Vandyck }). 
P. S. CLl'cud. 


There is a neat print of him before "Les flffcts perllicicux de 
'J7lcsclwnts F avoris," A fa Ilaye, 1653, 12mo. 
His portrait, by Dobson, in the same piece with that painter and 
Sir Charles Cottcrel, is at Northumberland-house. 
Sir Balthasar Gerbier was a retainer to the Duke of Buckingham, 
aud nluch in his favour. fIe studied painting and architecture, 



OF ENGLAND. 


183 


. 


and had a superficial knowledge of other arts anrl sciences. lIe 
painted small figure!o; in distemper; and did a picture of the in- 
fanta, which was sent from Spain to J ames I. fIe owed his 
fortune more to his favour with the Duke of Buckinghanl than to 
his merit as an artist. ,V e ar
 informed that he, at his own 
house, entertained the king and qneen with a supper, which is 
supposed to have cost him 1 OOOl. * See Class V. and the next 
reign, Class IX. 


NICHOLAS LANIERE, an Italian, was, for his various talents, 
greatly esteemed by Charles I. lIe practised music, painting, 
and engraving; but his greatest excellence was music. His own 
portr
it, painted by hirnself, is in the music school at Oxford. He 
etched a consid-erable number of plates for a drawing-book. lIe 
was a connoisseur in pictures, and had the art of giving n10dern 
paintings an air of antiquity, and putting off copies for originals.t 
See the division of l\lusicians. 


GELDORI:>. Bannernzan se. a s7Jzali oval, in tllc 
saJ7ZC plate u)ith Van BelcaJJzp. 


Though we see the name of Geldrop to the portraits of several 
persons in this reign, it is certain that he seldonl drew a picture 
himself, but painted upon sketches made by others. This painter, 
whose christian name was George, was a countryman and friend of 
Vandyck, who lodged at his house, upon his first coming to Eng- 
land. 


SIR TOBIE 1'rI A TTHE'V, who was in Spain with Charles I. 
when prince, and the Duke of Buckingham, did a portrait of the 


· "Anecdotes of Painting," ii. p. 61, notes, 2d edit. 
t It is well known that this art is much improved since L:micre's time. 1\Ir. 
Knapton, the painter, observed at an auction in Italy, that one Paris, a Frenchman, 
gctvc very good prices for ball copies; upon which he is said to have accosted him 
in this manner: "Sir, as I have had some experience in f>icturcs, I t3ke tbe friendly 
liberty to inform you, that I think you gi,re too milch fo!:"such as you bIlJ." Paris 
thanked him íor his kind arlmonition, and s
lid that he was not altogether without 
experience himself; but as he fn>quently met with such as had none at all, and Jct 
had a good opinion of their judgment, he was sure of getting considerahly by his 
purchases. The honourable person, who tolù TIle this, informed me, that a nc-ar 
relation of his, who was long resident in Francl>, bid out 6000l. in pictures at Paris, 
which after his death, sold only fur what the frames cost him. 



J84 BI 0 G RAPIIICAL IIISTOR Y 


infanta, and sent it to England. There is no doubt but he at- 
tempted, at least, to paint the beautiful Countess of Carlisle, who, 
ns IVI... 'Voml tclls us, was "the goddess that he adorcd."-Sre 
Class I V . See also the U Anecdotes of Painting." 


JOlIN PETITOT; oval; BaJlller'J71an 8C. III the 
s{nne plate 'lvitll Sir 1òby ltfattlzews and Torrell/ius, 
ill the second editioll of tile " Anecdotes of Painting';" 
4to. 


John Petitot, a native of Geneva, who was never equalled in 
enamel, not even by Zincke, was patroniesd by Charles I. and 
Lewis XIV. His most celebrated performance is the whole length 
of Rachel de Rouvigny, countess of Southampton, copied from a 
painting in oil by Vandyck. This, which is in the collection of 
the Duke of Devonsllire, is styled by Mr. Walpole "the most 
capital work in enamel in the world." Several of his Eng)jsh 
works in this collection, have much greater merit than those which 
he did in France. Db. 1691, Æt. 84. 


P AINTRESSES. 


ARTEMISIA GENTILES CHI, Romana, famo- 
sissÏ1na Pittrice, &c. Adcln p. H. David sc. 
"En P.icturæ Miraculum invidendum facilius quam 
imitandum ;" 8vo. 


Artemisia Gentileschi is said, by Graham: to have "drawn 
portraits of some of the royal family, and many of the nobility 
of England." He does not infornl us how long she lived in this 
country, where her father, a native of Pisa in Italy, spent the 
latter part of his life. Though she is styled Romfllla, in the 
inscription of the print, it is certain that she may rather be called 
a NeapoIitian, as she resided chiefly at Naples, where she lived in 


· See his" Essay towards an I
ngli
h 8cI1001." 



OF ENGLAND. 


185 


such splendour as could never be maintained by the profits of 
her pencil. Her talents in history and portrait, and the gaiety of 
her character, were equally known throughout Europe. She seeins 
to have been the most celebrated paintress of her time. 


The Princess LOUIS...t\, daughter of the King of Bohen1ia, and 
niece to Charles 1. was justly celebrated a'S an artist. I shall 
only observe here, that in Lovelace's "Lucasta," is a poem 
" On the Princess Louisa drawing." See Class I. 


A .rvIEDALIST. 


JEAN VARIN. N. Edelinck. 


J ohn Varin, or Warin, was an eminent medalist in France, but 
appears by son1e works to have been in Eng'land, or at least to 
have been employed by English agents. In the collection of the 
late 1\lr. West were, 1. Guil. fit Rob. Ducy, mil. et baronet, æt. 
suæ 21, 1626. 2. Philip Howard, * S. R. E. Card. Norfolk. 3. En- 
dymion Porter, æt.48, 1635. 4. And Marjareta, uxor, æt.25, 1633. 
,,-'Varin was exceedingly fond of money; and having forced his 
daughter, who was beautiful, to marry a rich and deforlued officer 
of the revenue, she poisoned herself a few days after the wedding, 
saying" I must perish, since Iny father's avarice would have it 
so." See Lord Orford's "Painters," &c.-Warin died 1675. 


STATUARIES. 
IIUBERT LE SOEUR. Vandyck i). VallS01llerf. 
4to. 'Ilzezz. t 
(IIuBERT) LE SOEUR. BaJlJlernlan se. 4to. In the 
" Auccdutcs of Painting." 
This admirable artist, who was a disciple of the famous John 
Doulogne, came into England about the year 1630, and was em- 


.. Purchased Ly the Duke of 1\ orfolk fur 10L. 15s. 
t This seems to be the same print as H
NItY STOXE. 
VOL. I II. 2 u 



1 86 
 I 0 (
 RAP I-I I C 1\ L II 1ST 0 It Y 


ployed by the king and the nobility. All that now remain of his 
works, bllt they alone are sufficient to transmit his name with ho- 
nour to posterity, are the brazen statue of \Villiam, earl of Pem- 
broke, at Oxford, and the equestrian figure of Charles I. at 
Charing-cross. The pedestal of the latter, was executed by the 
famous Grinlin Gibbons. 


NICHOLAS SrrONE, jun r . a 8111all oval. T. Challl- 
bars sc. III the SCllne plate 'with Nicholas ðYtolle, sen r . See 
the forlner reign, Class X. 


Nicholas, son of Nicholas Stone the statuary, was bred up under 
his father, and afterward went to Italy to improve himself in his art, 
in whic 1 ) he promised to make a very considerable figure. Several 
of his models, done abroad after the antique, have been mistaken 
for the works of Italian masters. Mr. Bird, the statuary, had the 
"L:loeoon" and Bernini's" Apollo" by him. He died in 1647. 


ED'V ARD PIERCE,jun r . sJJlall; in the sallIe plat
 
'ivitll Edward Pierce, scn r . 


Edward, son of Edward Pierce the painter, was a very noted 
statuary and architect. The statues of Sir Thomas Gresham and 
Eùward III. in the Royal Exchange, and several busts, particularly 
those of lVlilton anù Sir Christopher \V ren, were done by him. 
The former was in the possession of Vertue the engraver; the 
latter is, or was, in the picture gallery at Oxford. He assisted Sir 
Christopher in several of his works, and built the church of St. 
Clement under his direction. The four dragons on the monument, 
were carved by him. Db. 1698.-See" Anecdotes of Painting." 


ARCHITECTS. 


IGN1\.TIUS JONES, Mag. Brit. architectus 
generalis. Vandyck p. Hollar f. Before his " Most 
notable Antiquity of Great Britain, vlll
'arly called 
Stoneherlge," 
'c. a pot folio, 1655. 



O}
 ENG LAND. 


187 


INIGO JONES. Vandyclc p. ðpiISbU},!1 f. h. sit. ïJlCZ',Z. 
Tllis is unlike all tIle other prints of h iUI. Qllæl'e iJ'" 
genuine. 


INIGO JOXES. Van Vorst (oJ" Voerst)sc. large 4to. 


INIGO JONES. Gaywood f. 24to. 
INIGO JONES. Banner1Jlan sc. In the" .r1Jlccdotes of 
Painting ,-" 4to. 
INIGO JO
ES, "architector" Magnæ Britanniæ. 
F. Villauzoena f. It. slz. 


INIGO J O
ES; 4to. P. Rothwell se. In .illalcolin's 
" Lives of Topog'l'"aplzers;" 4to. 
His head, by Vandyck, is at Houghton. 
Inigo Jones, who, as an architect, would have done honour to any 
age or nation, had a true taste for whatever was great or beautiful 
in his art. His talent for design began to display itself early, and 
recommended bim to the notice of the Earl of Arundel, 'H< who sent 
him to Italy to study landscape. In that ample theatre of the 
arts, his genius, with which himself had been unacqnainted, was 
soon awakened by architecture. His progress in his beloved study 
was suitable to the strength of his parts, and the vehemence of 
his inclination; and he, in a few years, saw himself at the hEad 
of his profession, and in possession of its highest honours.-The 
Banqueting-house at 'VhitehaB, which is his capital work, was 
erected in the late reign. This has been pronounced, by judicious 
foreigners, the most finished of the modern buildings on this side 
the Alps;t and is itself a study of architecture. Of private 
houses, the Grange, in Hampshire, is one of his completest struc- 
tures. I-Ie has written a book to prove that Stone-Henge was a 


.. Some say that William, eall of Pembroke, was his patron. 
t This was the opinion of l\Tons. d'Azout, a famous French architect, \\bo was 
seventeen years in Italy, at different times, to improve himself in the knowledge of 
architecture. He was in England about the year 168.'). See Lister's" Journey to 
l'ari...," p. 
'!). 



188 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTOR Y 


Roman temple, as Dr. Stukely has done to prove it a temple of 
the Druids; future writers will, probably, start new hypotheses, 
founded upon as n1uch, or as little probability, as the arguments 
of either. Db. 21 July, 1651. 


A CHASER AND MODELLER. 


THEODORE ROGIERS. Vandyck p. P. Clollet 
se. One of tile set of Heads after Vandyck; h. sit. 
Theodore Rogiers chased some fine pieces of plate with poetic 
stories, for the king. There is a print by James Neeffs, of a 
Inagnificent ewer which he modelled for him, after a design of 
Rubens; it represents the judgment of Paris. 


ENGRA VERSo 
LUCAS VORSTERMANS (vel VORSTER!vIAN), 
chalcographus, in Geldria natus. Ant. Vandyclc f. 
aqua forti. This is one of tile valuable etching's dune by 
Vandyck's own hand. I think tllere are, at least, si..rteen 
of tlzc1n. 


LUCAS V ORSTERl\IANS. Valldyclì p. L. Vorstcl' o malls, 
j llllio'lo, se. Iz. sll. 
Luke V orsterman, '* an admirable Dutch engraver of history and 
portrait, was about eight years in England. He engraved a con- 
siderable number of historical pieces after Rubens and Vandyck, 
and much in the style of these great masters. One of his best 
performances, which was done after a painting of the latter, is 
the Virgin supporting the dead body of Christ. The original, 
which was lately purchased by the Earl of Exeter, is at Burghley- 
house: it is about the same size with the print. The finest Eng- 
lish portrait that I have seen of V orsterman's engraving, and 
which I believe is exceeded by none of his numerous works" is that 


· lIe 
om('tillles sp('Jt his uallle Yosterman, as it was pronounced. 



OF ENGLAND. 


189 


of Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, with. the staves of earl- 
marshal and lord-treasurer, after a painting of Hans Holbein. 
He had a son of both his names, who was an engraver; but he 
was inferior to his father. 


ROBERTUS VAN VOERST (vel VORST), chal- 
cographus. Vandyck p. R. Van Voerst sc. h. she 


ROBERT VAN VOERST. Vandyck p. T. Chanzbars sc. 
In Jÿ[r. Walpole's "Catalogue of Eng'ravers." 
ROBERT VAN VOERST. G. Barratt sc. 


Robert Van V oerst was an excellent engraver of portraits; and, 
in this branch of his art, the rival of V orstermau, but somewhat 
inferior to him. His large head of the Queen of Bohemia, en- 
grayed from a painting of Gerard Honthorst, by command of 
Charles I. was esteemed his best work. His own portrait, above 
described, which is among those of the artists by Vandyck, is 
finely executed. 


WINCESLAUS HOLLAR, Æt.40, 1647; ipsef. 
slnall 4to. J-lis coat of arnzs underneath. 
,\TINCESLAUS HOLLAR. .kleyssens p. J-Iollar f. 
4to. Anlong the Heads of the Artists published by 
JJIeyssens. 
'V I
CESLA us HOLLAR; ipsc f. s17zall. 


'VJ NCESLAUS HOLLAR; a sJ7lalloval, cug'raved úy 
Vcrtlie, in the title to the Catalog'uc of his TVorks, co'J71- 
piled by the scone hand. Lond. 1745; 4to. 
To this catalogue is subjoined an account of his life. 
This excellent engraver has perpetuated the resemblance of a 
thousand curio
ities of art and nature, which greatly merit our at- 
tention. V\T e, in his works, seem to see buildings rising from their 
ruins; êlnd many things now in a state of decay, or dissolution, 



190 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


appearing in all their original beauty. He has enriched the" Mo- 
nasticon" with a great variety of eleg-ant engravings of our an- 
cient cathedrals and ruins of abbeys. 'Ve have the inside and 
outside of the old church of St. Paul by his hand; Wé seem to 
walk in that venerable structure; and, with a pleasing melancholy J 
survey its tombs, and dwell on their inscriptions, and are led to 
the thoughts of our own mortality.-His perspective views and 
bis portraits are the most numerous, his muffs and insects the 
most remarkable for the beauty of the engraving, and his shells 
the scarcest of his estimable works. The merit of this ingeni- 
ous and industrious artist was never sufficiently valued in Jhe reign 
of Charles II. He died as poor as if he had lived in a country of 
Barbarians, in the year 1677. But it should here be remembered 
that, though Hollar was a good engraver when he took pains, a 
great number of his performances are but very slightly executed. 
The Dutchess-dowager of Portland has a complete collection of his 
etchings in twelve volumes folio. There is also a very valuable 
collection of them in the King's Library, which belonged to William 
III. The author of a late "Essay upon Prints" has, by no 
Ineans, done justice to Hollar in the first edition of his book: 
see what he says of him in the preface to the second edition. 


SIR EDMUND MARl\tlION. Gifford se. 


Sir Edmund J\Iarmion was a gentleman of fortune, who some- 
times engraved for his amusement. The author of the essay, 
mentioned in the foregoing article, informs us, that "he etched 
a few portraits in the manner of Vandyck, and probably from him, 
in which there is great ease and freedom, and that he has put 
his name only to one of them." This appears to be that of 
George Tooke, esq. of Popes, in Hertfordshire. See TOOKE, Class 
VIII. 


lVIUSICIANS.* 


HENR Y LA'VES; [zeo angels /zolding' a chaplet 
over his head,. 8vo. 


· I have placed musicians, who belong to one of the liberal arts, after engravers, 
as method requircs that the arts which drpcnd upon dChign 
hould go together. 



OF ENGLAND. 


191 


H.ENRY LAWES. Faitho1'nef. 8vo. 


HENRY LA'VES; in a circle,. c. Grig
'llion; zn Sir 
John Hawkins's" History of 1JIusic." 


HENRY LA\VES. ß7: Richardson. 


Henry Lawes, who was the Purcell of his time, was servant to 
Charles I. in his public and private music. He get sonle of the 
works of almost every poet of eminence, in this reign, to such 
music as pleased the most judicious ears. Several of the Lyrics 
of 'VaIler and the "Comus" of Milton were set by him; and 
both these poets have paid him due honour in their verses. In 
the time of the rebellion, he taught ladies to sing,* and, upon 
the restoration, was restored to his places. He compose d a 
considerable number of psalm tunes in "Cantica sacra," for 
three voices and an organ. IVlany more of his compositions are 
to be seen in " Select Aires and Dialogues," in "The Treasury 
of lVlusic," and the "Musical Companion." Ob. Oct. 1662.- 
'Villialn Lawes, his brother, was, by some, thought even his superior. 
He was a scholar of Giovanni Coperario, a famous Italian musician; 
and, as Dr. Fuller tells us, made above thirty several sorts of 
music for voices and instruments; neither was there any instru- 
ment, then in use, but he composed to it so aptly, as if he had 
studied that only.t He was a commissary under General Gerard 
in the civil war; and, to the great regret of the king, was 
killed at the siege of Chester, the 26th of Sept. 1645.- In the 
music school, at Oxford, are two large manuscript volumes of 
his works in score, for various instruments. In one of then1 are 
his original compositions for masques, performed before the king, 
and at the inns of court. In the same school is an original por- 
trait of his brother Henrv. 
oi 


NICHOLAS LANIERE. J. Lyvyus p. Vorster- 
rnan sc. It. she 


· l.\Iannscript Account of 'l\Iusicians, by A. \Vood, in Ashmule's Museum. 
t U V'lorthies," in Wilts, p. 157. 



192 BI 0 G RA P II I CA L II 1ST 0 Il Y 


N ICIIOLAS LANI ERE. J. Lyvyus p. 
In the "Anecdotes of Painting',." 4to. 
the above. 


Cliambat's sc. 
Copicd fronl 


At the Grange, in Hampshire, the seat of tbe Henleys was a 
fine portrait of him by Vandyck. It was the sight of this picture 
that determined the king to elnploy that excellent painter. 
Nicholas Laniere, who has been n1entioned under a former divi- 
sion of this Class, was one of the private music to Charles 1.* 
I-Ie, together with Ferabosco, another Italian, cOlllposed the sym- 
phonies to several of the masques performed at court, which were 
written by Ben Jonson, the laureate He also set to n1usic 
several songs and hymns by the poets of this time; particularly 
a vocal cOInposition for a Funeral I-Iymn on the King, his much- 
lamented master, written by Thomas Pierce. Several of his 
works are in the" Select ...\ires and Dialogues," Lond. 1653.+ 


JAMES GOUTER; holding' a double lute in his 
left hand.-The print is thus inscribed: "Jacobo 
Goutero, inter regios l\lagnæ Britanniæ Orpheos et 
Amphiones, Lydiæ, Doriæ, Phrygiæ testudinis Fidi- 


.. In the reign of James 1. he was employed, both as a composer and a performer, 
in the grand masque e:xhibited in the Banqueting-house at 'Yhitchall, at the Earl of 
Somerset's wedding. The masquers were of high rank; namely, the Duke of Lenox, 
the Earls of Pembroke, Dorset, Salisbury, and l\Iontgomery; the Lords \Valden, 
Scroope, N ortb, and HaJcs; Sir Thomas, Sir Henry, and Sir Charles Howard: the 
queen herself bore a part in tile performance, under her state, being 
iùdrcssed by 
the name of " J3el Anna." There is a particular description of this masque in print.t 
He painted the sc
ncs, and composed the music, for a masque performed at the house 
of the Lord Hay, for the entertainment of the Yrench ambassador, 1617. 
t UpOll the death of llobert, the second earl of Northington, who died in 1772 
unmarried, the family house and estate were sold, as was the collcction of pictures, 
bJ public auction; when Laniere's portrait, and Yalldyck's sketch of the procession 
of the knights of the Garter, mentioned under Lis article in the" Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing," were both disposed of; the latter had been pi eviously engra\'ed by subscrip- 
tion, by l\1r. Richard Cooper, drawing-master to the quecn.-BINDLEY. 


t The curious reader may see "Passages at the l\Iarriagc of the Earl of Somer- 
set," p. 12, &c. of " Finetti Philoxenis; some choice Observations of Sir John 
FineU (Finet) Knight, and (Assistant) l\Iaster of the Ccremonies to the t\\O last 
Kings, touching the Reception, &c. of foreign .Ambassadors in England," 16.:J6, 8"0. 
This Loo),.. was published by J ames Howell. ' 



OF EN(i LAND. 


103 


CIUl, et' Modulatorum Prineipi: hane e penicilli sui 
tabula, in æs transeriptanl effigienl, J oannes Lævini* 
fidæ amicitiæ monumentum conseeravit." Joanues 
Livius f. et e.rc. 11. slz. 


The excellence of Gouter's hand on the lute appears from the 
above inscription. But he was, perhaps, not superior to Dr. John 
'Vilson, a gentleman of the king's chapel, and one of his mu- 
sicians in ordinary; who, on that instrument, excelled all the 
Englishmen of his time. He frequently played before Charles I. 
who usually "leaned, or laid his hand on his shoulder," and 
listened to him with great attention. t See Wood's "Fasti," II. 
Col. 41. See also the reign of CHARLE.S II. 


WILLIAl\i HEYTfIER. l\lus. Doc. J. Cald1vall se. 
a circle,. ill HalDldJls's " History." 


\Villiam Heyther was a member of the choir of \Vestminster, 
and a gentleman of the chapel royal. He was the intimate 
friend of the celebrated Camden, who some tillle previous to his 
death, determined to found a history Jecture on the university of 
Oxford. 1'11'. Heyther was commissioned to wait on the vice- 
chancellor with the deed of endowment. This gentleman, having 
been very assiduous in the study of music, expressed a desire 
to be honoured with a musical degree, and accordingly that of 
doctor was conferred upon him in lVlay, 1622. He was executor 
in Camden's will, and upon his death came in for a considerable 
life estate. Db. 1627, and was interred in the broad or south 
aisle adjoining to the choir of \Vestminster Abbey. 


· Sic Orig. 
t l\Iusic was looked upon at tbis time, as almost an indispensable qUdlification of 
a gentleman. Sir John Hawkins, editor of Is. Walton's u Complete Angler," teUs 
us, that U formerly a lute was consillered as a necessary part of the furniture of a 
barber's shop, and answered the end of a newspaper, the now common amusement 
of waiting customers; which it could never have done, if music had nol been ge- 
nerally known and practised." The editor applies this observation to the illustra- 
tion of a passage in Ben Jonson's u Silent 'Voman." Morose, in Act iii. Scene 5.. 
of that play, after he bad discovered tlmt his supposcò wife could talk, and that to 
the purpose too, cries out on Cutbeard j u That cursed barber! I have Inarried 
his cittern, that's common to aU men." 
VOL. III. 2 C 



194 n r 0 G RAP II I C A L II 1ST 0 H Y 


JOlIN HILTOK. J. Caldwall sc. 
Ha1.vkillS'S "History." 


. , 
a Cl1"

 e; lli 


John I-lilton, bachelor of nlusic
 of the university of Cambridge, 
was organist of the church of Se. l.\largaret, \Vestrninster. He was 
the author of a JJiadrigal in five parts, and in 1652, published a 
valuable collection of catches, rounds, and canons for three 
and four voices, under the quaint title of "Catch tnat catch 
l'an," containing some of the best compositions of the kind. He 
died during the usurpation, and was buried in the cloisters of 
'Vestminstcr Abbey. 


'VRITING-1VIASTERS. 


RICHARD GETHINGE, writing-master; Sl.r 
English verses. J. Chantry se. 


RrCHARDUS GETHINGE; ill a sheet ofpen'l1zanslÛp; 
si.l
 Ellg'lish verses,. scarce. 


Gethinge, a native of Herefordshire, and a scholar of John Da- 
vies, the famous writing-master of Hereford, was thought to sur- 
pass his master in every branch of his art. Dr. Fuller speaks thus 
of these dexterous artists: "Sure I am, that when two such tran- 
scendant pen-masters shall again come to be born in the same shire, 
they may even serve fairJy to engross the will and testament of 
the expiring universe.t7;
 See DAVIES in the former reign. 


THEOPHILUS 1\1ETCALF, n1aster in the art of 
short writing; 12JJlo. 


His essay on this art, which is said to have passed thirty-five 
editions, had never, in reality, more than one. The editions, as 
they are called, are only small numbers taken fronl the same plates 
at different times, and the dates as often altered in the title. The 


.. H W ortl1ies." in HercioHbhirc, p. 40. 



OF ENG LAND. 


195 


first book of short-hand published ill England was by Dr. Timo- 
thy Bright, of Cambridge: it was entitled " Characterie, an Art of 
short, swift, and secret 'Vriting, by Character ;" printed by J. 'Vin- 
det, &c. 12mo 1588, and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. Bales 
was a great adept in the art of secret writing by dashes. John 
\Villis, a clergyman, who flourished in the reigns of James and 
Charles I. originally struck out the method of short-hand, which 
has been followed, more or less, by our writers, ever since. Ed- 
mund Willis, in his" Abbreviation of Writing by Character," 1618, 
is said to have improved greatly upon John. Bishop \Vilkins, in 
the epistle dedicatory to his" Real Character," printed in 1668, 
says, that short writing was invented about sixty years since; he 
might have said eighty. This art is, in a manner, our own; it was 
very little known or practised, at this time, in any other country. 
IVlr. Ashby, president of St. John's College, in Cambridge, has, I 
believe, the completest list of short-hand writers extant. 


THOlVIAS SHELTON, Æt.46; 1211l0. T.C/
oss sc. 


Thomas Shelton was thought to have improved upon l\Ietcalf, 
in the art of short writing. His" Tachygraphy," and" Zeiglo- 
graphy," were several times printed; the former was translated into 
Latin, for the use of foreigners; it is entitled, " Tachygraphia ; 
sive exactissima et compendiosissima breviter scribendi Methodus," 
&c. Lond. 8vo. 1671. See the Interregnum. 


"ELIAS ALLEN, apud Anglos, Cantianus, juxta 
Tunbridge natus, mathen1aticis instrun1entis ære in- 
cidendis sui temporis artifex ingeniosissin1us. Ob. 
Londini, mense Nlartii, 1653." H. Vallderbo1'"cht p. 
JJ1: Hollar f. h. she 


E1ias Allen, who was sworn servant to Charles I. about the year 
1627, was employed by the most eminent mathematicians of his 
time. 'Ve are informed that he made a horizontal dial, under the 
direction of the famous Oughtred, to present to the king.*' 


· If Diographia," netic. OUGIHRED. 



196 BIOGRAPIIIC,AL IIISTORY 


"JOHANNES TRADESCANTUS, pater, rertUll 
selectaruln insignem supellectilem, in reconditorio 
Lambethiano prope Londinum, etian1nU111 visendam, 
primus institutit ac locupletavit." Hollar f. 127720. 


JOHN TRADESCANT, with his Son, and their 1\10- 
nument. J. T. SlJzith, 1793. 


" JOHANNES TRADESCAXTUS, filius, genn lnge- 
niique paterni verus Hæres, relictum sibi rerun1 
undique congestarun1 'rhesaurun1, ipse plurimulll 
adauxit, et in 111useo Lambethiano, an1icis visendum 
exhibet." Hollar f. 121710.* 


JOHN TRADESC.ANT, ,vith his Father, &c. J. T. 
/Snzith. 


In the Ashmolean l\1useum are the original paIntmgs of the 
father and son, who were both physic gardeners at Lambeth. The 
portrait of the former wag done in his lifetime, and also after his 
decease. I saw a picture, at a gentleman's house in Wiltshire, 
which was not unlike tbat of the deceased Tradescant, and the in- 
scription, which was strictly applicable to it. 
1\Iortuus haud aHo quam quo pater ore quiésti, 
Quam faciH frueris nunc quoque nocte doccs. 
Both these heads are prefixed to the" I\Juseum Tradescantianum," 
1656, 12mo. which is digested under the following heads: 1. Birds 
with their eggs, &c. 2. Four.footed beasts. 3. Fish. 4. Shells. 
5. Insects. 6. l\Iinerals. 7. Fruits, drugs, &c. 8. Artificial cu- 
riosities. 9. IVliscellaneous Curiosities. 10. \Varlike instruments. 
11. Habits. 12. Utensils, and household stuff. 13. Coins. 14. Me- 
dals. To this is subjoined a catalogue of his plants, and a list of 
his benefactors. . 
John Tradescant, who was either a Fleming or a Dutchman, 
and gardener to Charles I. travelled over a great part of Europe, 
and into the eastern countries; chiefly with a view of improving 


· This head may be placed in the Interregnum. 



OF ENGLAND. 


]97 


bimself in natural science. He was the first man, in this kingdom, 
that distinguished himself as a 
olIector of natural and artificial 
curiosities, and was followed by his son in the same pursuit. He, 
as Parkinson informs us. introduced a considerable number of 
exotic plants into England, and made it appear that, with due care 
and. cultivation, almost any vegetable of the known world may be 
taught to thrive in this climate.* 
John Tradescant the son and his wife joined in a deed of gift, 
by which their friend Mr. Ashlnole was entitled to this collection, 
after the decease of the forrner.t It was accordingly c1aimed by 
him; but the widow Tradescant refusing to deliver it, was com- 
pelled by a decree of the court of Chancery. She was soon after 
found drowned in a pond, in her own garden.! 
The late Mr. James 'Vest told Mr. Bull, that one of tIle family 
of Roelans, of which there are four or five prints by Hollar, lived a 
long while at Lambeth, in the house that afterward belonged to 
John Tradescant, to whom he sold it. Under the head of JAMES 
ROELANS, arc ornaments of fruils andjlowers denoting his love of 
gardelling. Granting Mr. 'Vest's assertion to be a fact, I should 
conclude that this is the person. His head was done at Antwerp, 
in 1648. 


WILLIL-\M STOKES. G. Glovet"f. a sJnall oval, 
'Under which are eigllt Latin 'Vcrses. Copied by TV: 
Richardson. 
This man was a rope-dancer, and author of "The Vaulting 
Master, or the Art of Vaulting reduced to a Method, comprised 
under certain Rules," &c. to which is prefixed his portrait, with 
many curious prints, representing his different feats on horseback, 
which appear very extraordinary. 


THOMAS CECILL; fl'Oln a drawing in tlte posses- 
sion of JYIr. Jlobcrt Grave, fOrJllCrlg Afr. WilliaJJz 
Oldys..
 R. Grave,jull. sc. Svo. 


· See this, and more, in Dr. Ducarel's curious lctter to Dr. \Yatson, in vol. lxiii. 
()f II Philos. Transact." where, in ti\b. iv. and v. p. 88, arc views of his tomb. 
t See Ashmole's U Diary," p. 36. 
: See Sir John Hawkins's edition of Walton's U Complete Angler." 

 This very interesting and curious drawing, contains twelve Ilcat'y cxecuted 



198 


BIOGRAPHIC.A.L lIIST OR Y 


Mr. Evelyn, speaking of the English engravers, says of CecilI, 
that he engraved heads, from the life, and was little inferior, for 
the excellence of his "burin," or graver, and happy design, to 
any of the greatest Italian, French, or Flemish artists. In the pre- 
sent instance, AIr. Evelyn, after having spoken of the most cele- 
Lrated engravers of the age in which he lived, and of Nanteuil, in 
particular, must be said to have decided too hastily at least; when 
he added, that in " excellency of the burin" Cecill was little inferior 
to him, or any of those masters he had mentioned before. The art 
of engraving was certainly at this period very Jow in England; 
whilst, on the continent, it flourished in its meridian splendour. 
Cecill's plates in general are very neatly executed, tbe best of 
which are his portraits, some of which possess great Inerit, parti- 
cularly 
Thomas Curle, bishop of \Vinc11ester; a small upright plate. 
Thomas Kederminster, of Langley; small 8vo. dated 1628. 
John 'Veaver; prefixed to his FunerallVlonuments, 1634. 
Sir John Burgh, who was ,killed at the Isle of H.hee; small 
quarto, the scarcest of his performances. 


SIl\10N DE PASSE; frO}}l a drawing ill the pos- 
scssion of AIr. llobert Grave, fornzerly ....lIr. Willianl 
Old!Js". R. Grave,jull. se. Octavo. 


Simon de Passe was the third son of Crisl-'in ùe Passe a cele- 
brated engraver, a native of Utrecht, and learned the art of engrav- 
ing from his father, and imitated his style with great success. He 
was employed by Nicholas Hilliard to engrave counters of the royal 
family. His portraits constitute the best and largest part of his 
engravings; but we have also some devotional subjects, frontis- 
piece;;
 and other book plates by him, which are very neatly ex- 
ecuted. According to Vertue, he resided in England about ten 


miniature portraits of early engravers, with the following inicription in the centre: 
u In memory of the most consiJerable Gravers, and Gravers of English heads, from 
the most early practice of that art in this nation to the Rt>volut;on, this 
abJe of 
their lively Portraitures, frolll private Paintings, Public Prints, and traditional De- 
scriptions, is humbly contributed to the celebrated Collection of 1\lr. \VjJliam 
Old,ys, by Lcw s,delincator, 1721:." 



OF ENGLAND. 


199 


years, and afterward went into the service of the King" of Denmark, 
and probably died abroad. His earliest works executed in Eng- 
land are dated 1603; the following ar
 recko:led among his most 
estimable prints, chiefly from his own drawings. 
James the First seated in a chair; whole length, a half-sheet 
print. 
Anne, queen to James t11e First, on horseback, with a view of 
'Vindsor in the back ground; a small half-sheet print. 
Prince Henry, with a lance; a whole length, a small half-sheet 
print. 
Robert Carr, earl of Somerset; in an oval, a small folio print. 
Frances, countess of Somerset; the same. 
George Villiers, duke of Buckingham; the same. 
Count Gondamor; the same. 
Sir "\tValter Raleigh; the same. 
Sir Thomas Smith; the same. 
Also a variety of othel. portraits relative to England, and several 
fine foreign portraits, particularly that of Fred. Henry, prince of 
Orange, with emblems; a whole sheet print, entitled, Liberum 
Belgium. 


MAGDALEX DE PASSE; quarto,. very Tare. 


l\IAGDALEN DE PASSE; a copy fro77l the ahove; 
8vo. 


This ingenious lady was the daughter of Crispin de Passe, from 
whom she learned the art of engraving, and practised it with great 
success, though her works are not equal to those of her brothers. 
She worked with the graver only, in a neat but laboured style. In 
two or three small subjects, which she has engraved from Elsheimer, 
she has attempted the style of Count Gondt; but she has not pro- 
duced the same neatness of colour, and forcible effect; they how- 
ever possess great merit. The principal works, from her hand, arc, 
Catherine, marchioness of Buckingham, with a feather-f.:'ln in her 
hand; a small quarto print. 
The four Seasons; small upright plates, from designs by her 
father. 
Cephalus and Procris, Salmacis anù IIermaphroditus, dated 1623, 
and Latona changing the Lycian peasants into frogs; with some 



200 BI 0 G llAP HICAL IIIST OR Y 


other subjects, from Ovid's Metamcnophoses; small plates, lengt11- 
ways, from Elsheimer, Pinas, and other masters. 
A set of Landscapes; middle-sized plates, lengthways, from Row- 
land Savery, and A. Willeres, among which is a Storm with a 
Shipwreck. 


JOHN PAYNE; fr017t a dra1.Dlng o in tlie possessioll 
of 1J1'r. Robert Grave, fOr'JJ2erly AIr. Willia'JJ2 Oldys'. 
R. Grave sc. 8vo. 


Payne was a scholar of Simon Pass, and the first Englishman 
that distinguished himself by the graver. Had his application been 
equal to his genius, there is no doubt but he would have shined 
among the first of his profession; but he was idle, and though re- 
commended to King Charles, neglected his fortune and fame, and 
died in indigence before he was forty. There is a thin volume in 
octavo, called" Good-Friday," containing meditations on that day, 
and printed in 1648; to which are annexed some poems, under the 
title of Calanthe, by T. Rawlins. Among them is an epitaph on 
John Payne, then lately deceased; cc Yet had we a Payne for his 
s11ip," some heads from the life, especially that of Dr. Alabaster, 
Sir Benjamin Rudyard, and several others. The ship was a print of 
the Royal Sovereign, built in 1637, by Phineas Pett. It was 
n- 
graved on two plates joined, three feet long, two feet two inches 
high. The head of Dr. Alabaster truly deserves encomium, heing 
executed with great force, and in a more masterly style than the 
works of his master. It was taken from a painting by Cornelius 
Jansen. 
FrOlTI this artist's hands, we have the following portraits: 
Alderman Leate; an oval, with verses. 
Roger Bolton; an oval, with four Latin verses, 1632. 
Hugh Broughton; six Latin verses. 
Sir Edward Coke. chief-justice, 1629. 
lVlr. Hobson, with eight English verses. 
Christian, duke of Brunswick, &c. trophies; four Eng-lish verses. 
Robert Devereux (2d) earl of Essex, hat and feather, J. P. neat 
little square print. 
Henry Vere, earl of Oxford, in the middle of a larger print by 
'V. Pass, in which, at top, bottom, and sides, are soldiers exercising, 
or holding banners, with mottos. 



O_F ENG.LAND. 


201 


Carolus Ludovicus, princeps elector: a mere head, without even 
the neek. 
Algernon, earl of Northunlberland ; in the same manner. 
Elizabeth, countess of Northumberland. 
Dr. Smith, of St. Clement's Danes, 1\1. D. 
I-Ienry VII. Henry VIII. Count l\Iansfield, Bishop Ha1J, Bishop 
Lake, Bishop Andrews, Sir James Ley, chief-jnstice, George 
\Vithers, the poet, Richard Sibbs, Ferdinand of Austria, Shak- 
speare, John Preston, 1\lr. Arthur Hildersharn, \Villiam \Vhitaker, 
Francis Hawkins, a boy; and these particular title-pages, to the 
Guide to Godliness; to the \V orks of John Boys; to Christian \Var- 
fare; to God's Revenge against l\1urder, and to La l\Iuse Chresti- 
enne, du Sieur de Rocql1igny, 1634. 


G. GLOVER; frÚJJl a drawing' ill the possession qf 
J1Jr. lloúert Grave, f01'"JllC1'ly lIJr. fVilliaìJl Oldys". ll. 
G J'llVC,jllJl. sc. 8vo. 


Glover was a native of England, whose labours as an engraver 
were chiefly confined to the booksellers. 'Ve have a sufficient 
Humber of portraits, drawn 
nd engraved by him, which, though 
possessed of no superior excellence in themselves, have been 
thought valuable, as conveying the resemblance of many illustrious 
personages, who flouríshed in his time. And, indeed, his portraits 
are the best part of his works. If he be not one of the best, he is 
certainly far from being one of the worst, of our early English 
artists. He worked entirely with the graver, in a bold, open style, 
without much taste. His shadows are not properly harmonized 
with the lights, wbich give his engravings a dark, heavy appear- 
ance. When be departed from the rortrait line, and attempted 
fancy figures, he failed prodigiously. Of this sort are some of his 
frontispieces, and the cardinal virtues, balf figures, a set of small 
upright plates apparently from. his own designs; his chief portraits 
are, 
John Lilburnc; a small upright p!atc. 
Lewis Roberts; a quarto print, dated i 637. 
Sir Thomas Urquhart; a small whole length (luarto. 
Sir Edward Dering; from C. Jansen, quarto, 16J.O. 
John Fox the martyrologist; small folio. 


'.OL. Ill. 


:2 D 



202 ß lOG It A P II I C .\ L II 1ST 0 R Y 


WILLIA1\I lVIARSI-IAI.AL;" froJJl a drlllviJlg ill the 
posses/Ûon of Mr. Robert G1YlVC, forJJlcrly i1Ir. WilliaJJt 
Oldys'. R. G rave,jull. sc. 8ro. 


'Villiam Marshall was one of those laborious artists, whose 
engravings were chiefly confined to the ornamenting of books; 
and indeed his patience and assiduity is all we can admire, when 
we turn over his prints, which are prodigiously numerous. lIe 
worked with the graver only, but in a dry tasteless style; and 
from the similarity, which appears in the design of all his por- 
traits, it is supposed that he worked from his own drawings after 
life, though he did not add the words, ad 'l:i1.:um, as was com- 
mon upon such occasions. But, if we srant this to be the case, 
the artist win acquire very little additional honour upon that 
account; for there is fuH as great a want of taste" manifest in 
the design, as in the execution of his works on copper. As far 
as one can judg'e from the portraits, which \ve have by him, he 
appears to have begun to engrave early in the reign of James I. 
and he was employed by the booksellers, for forty years from the 
year 1634. Portraits constitute the best part of his performances; 
but we have besides a large number of frontispieces, ornamental 
title-pages, and other decorations for books, by his hand; his 
principal prints are, 
Alexander) earl of Sterling; an oval, sn1all folio. 
Dr. Donne, when young; an octavo. 
The Rev. Dr. John Taylor; an oval, quarto. 
The Rev John Sym; the satne. 
Rev. Josiah Shute; an oval, in folio. 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, on horseback; a small half sheet. 
The Frontispiece to the Arcadian Princess; in octavo
 dated 
1635. 
The Frontispiece to the Evangelical Harmony, printed at Canl- 
bridg'c, in quarto. 
The Frontispiece to Virgil's vVorks, by Ogilby, dated 1649. 


l\11{. DANIEL KNIVERTf)N; a 8'ìJUlll head, in 
the .froJltisjJÎece to Winstanley -8 "Lo!Jal .JIart!Jrolog!/ /' 
1665; 8l"o
' 



OF ENG LAND. 


203 



IR. DANIEL KNIYEltTOK; cnlarp;edfroJìl the print 
II hove; 8vo. 


1\lr. Kniverton, who had, previous to the civil war, been a haber- 
dasher in Fleet. street, afterward attended the court held at Ox- 
ford, and was retained in the service of the king in quality of a 
nlessenger. The king having put forth several proclamations, for 
the adjournment of the ternl from London to Oxford, which had 
been hitherto fruitless, for want of the necessary legal form of 
having the writs read in court; so that the judges at Oxford, who 
were ready to perform their duty, could not regularly keep the 
courts there; which else they would have done, sent several mes- 
sengers, of whom l\1r. Kniverton was one, with these writs of adjourn- 
ment to be delivered in court into the hands of the judges, of which 
the
'e were three in number, Justice Bacon in the I{ing's Bench, 
Justice Reeve in the Common Pleas, and Baron Trevor in the Ex- 
chequer.- Two of them performed their charges, and delivered tlu
 
writs to Justice Reeve and Ba;:on Trevor; who immediately caused 
the messengers to be apprehended. 
The houses being informed of it, gave direction "that they 
should be tried by a council of war, as spies; which was done 
at Essex-house." The messengers aUeged, "that they were 
sworn servants to his 111ajesty for the transaction of those ser- 
vices, for which they were now accused; and that they had been 
legally punishable, if they had refused to do their duties; tlH
 
term being to be adjourned by no other way. Notwithstanding 
all which, they were both condemned to be hanged as spies; and 
that such a sentence might not be thought to be only in terrorem, 
the two poor nlen were, within a few days after, carried to the 
Old Exchange, where a gallows was purposely set up; and there 
Kniverton was, without mercy, executed Nov. 27, 1643, dying with 
another kind of courage than could be expected from a Ulan of 
such conùition and education.- The other, after he had stood some 
time under the gallows, looking for the same conclusion, was 
reprieved, and sent to Bridewell; where he was kept long after, 
ti11 he made his escape, and returnéd again to Oxford. 



204 BIOGIt.APHICAL RISTon \ 


.AC1"ORS. 


EDWARD ALLEl'

; {whole [eug'tlt, ill the gOll'Jt 
of lJ;Ia/j'ter 0/ Dulzvich ('allege. 1'. Nug'cnt sc. III 
Harding"s "Biog;r. lJJirrollr"," 1792. 


ED"r ARD ALLEYN; oval. J. Wooding' sc.. III the 
c, Biographical J1Itlg'azine. " 


Edward Alleyn was born in 156G, in tbe parish of .Allhallows, 
Lombard-street. His mother was daughter of James Townley, 
esq. of Lancasbire. He went on the stage at an early age, and 
soon acquired great celebrity in his profession, and was considered 
the Roscius of the day. He was the sole proprietor of the Fortune 
playhouse, in 'Vhitecross-street, which he built at his own ex- 
pense, and was also proprietor of a bear garden on tbe bank- 
side, which being the fashionable amusement of the time, pro- 
bably yielded him as much profit as his theatre. He had the 
office of master of the bears, which he held till his death. After 
he left the stage he retired to Dlilwich, where he built and en- 
dowed the college for the maintenance of a master-warden, four 
fellows, six poor brethren, and six sisters, twelve scholars, six as- 
sistants, and thirty out-nlembers. The building was nnished in 
1619, under the direction of Inigo Jones. Ob, 1626, aged 60. 
For a particular "account see Lj'son's " Surrey." 


TOIVI BOND; fro1J! an ol' t iginal picture in DuhDich 
Colleg'e. ()laJJzp sc. 4to. In JValdrou"s "5'llakspearron 
If,liscellany. " 


Of Bond nothing more is known, but that he acted in Shakerley 
l\tJarmion's comedy of Ilol/alld's Leaguer, 1632. 
To Chapman's Bussy D' A.l\IBOI8, a tragedy, 1641, (first printed 
in 1607), is prefixed a prologue; in some respects similar to that 
relating to Perkins, on his attempting the part ofBarahas, in which 
are the following lin.cs:- 



OF ENG LAND. 


20.j 


U _____ Field is gone 
\'Vhose action first did give it name, and one 
\Vho came the neerest to him, is denide 
By his gray beard to shew the hcight and pride 
Of J)'.Ambois Jouth and braverie; - - - - - 


- - - - - - - - - - a third man with his best 
Of care and paint's defends our interest; 
As Richard he was lik'lI, nor doe wee f
are, 
In pers
nating D'Ambois, bee'le appcare 
To faint, or goe lesse, so your free consent 
As heretofore give him encouragement." 


It was suggested by the late J. P. Kemble, in whose matchless 
collection of old plays was the above-mentioned edition of Bu.r;sy 
Ð' Ambois; and who was no less acute in the study on the stage: 
that the above lines allude to, and by the third man is meant, the 
now-so-little-known Tom Bond. Mr. Kemble was almost certain 
that he had met with such information in some old tract, or poem; 
but, not having taken a memorandum, he could not refer to it. 
Should this be the fact, we may conclude that Bond was an actor 
of some celebrity; nor, were it otherwise, is it likely that his por- 
trait should have been thought worthy of presen-ation: had he 
lived at a later period, we should, no doubt, have had some informa- 
tion concerning him from Ðoumes; but for whose Rosl'Íus Angli. 
canus we should 11ave known little or nothing of some celebrated 
actors; many snch, in the infancy of the English theatre, having 

trl/tted and fretted their hOllr upon the stage, are heard of no more, 
not ha\' ing left a reck behind. 


RICHARD PER.I(INS ; front an original picture 
ill Dillwich Colleg'e. Clrnnp se. 4to. III JValdron's 
" Ac}hakspearean AIiseellany." 


Richard Perkins was one of the performers belonging to the 
Cock-pit theatre, in Drury-lane. His name is printed among those 
who acted in Hannibal and Scipio, by Nabbes; The TVeddillg, by 
Shirley; and The Fair J.1Iaid of the rVest, by Heywood. After the. 
l)layhouses were shut up, on account of the civil wars, Perkins and 
Sumner, who betonged to the same house, lived together at ClerJ.
.- 
enwell, where they died and were buried. They both died some 
years before the restoration. 
In " The Prologue to the Stage at the Cock-pit," 
pokf'n before 



20G BIOGR
\PJIICAJ.. JIISTOR-Y 


the representation of l\'1arlow's Jew of lUaltá, in whi('h the famous 
Edward Alleyn had originally performed the character of Barabas, 
now attempted by Perkins, this apology for him appears: 


" ------- nor is't hate 
To merit in him who dvth personate 
Our Jew this day, nOI' is it his ambition 
To exceed, or equal, being of condition 
1\Iore modest; this is aU that he intends, 
(And that too at the urgence of some friends) 
To prove Jlis best, and, if none here gainsay it, 
The part he hath studied, and intends to play it." 


,V right, in his Historia Histrionica, says, "Those of principal note 
at the Cock-pit, were Perkins, l\lichael Bowyer, Sumner, 'Villiaul 
Allen, and Bird, eminent actors, and Robins, a comedian." By 
this distinction Wright seems to have appropriated the title of 
actor to a performer of tragic characters. 
At the concJusion of 'Vebster's TVhite Decil, 1631, is the follow- 
ing eulogium on Perkins. 
"For the action of the play, 'twas generally wen, and I dare 
affirme, with the joint testimony of some of their owne quality (for 
the true imitation of life, without striving to make nature a mon- 
ster), the best that ever became then}; whereof, as I make a generall 
acknowledgement, so in particular, I must remember the well ap- 
proved industrie of my friend ./..71Iaster Perkins, and confesse tllf' 
worth of hjs action did crowne both the beginning and eud." There 
is great intelligence in his countenance, which is very expressive: 
and, if the face be an index of the mind, we may reasonably sup- 
pose that he felt and pourtrayed the passions like another Alle..1jll. 
Perkins wrote a copy of verses prefixed to Heywood's" Apology 
for Actors." 



OF ENGL.A N D. 


201 


C LAS S XI. 


LADIES, AND OTHERS OF THE FEMALE SEX, 
ACCORDING TO THEIR RANK, &c. 
ELIZABETHA (MARIA) VILLIERS, dncÌssa 
de Richn10nd et Lenox. Vandyck p. llollar f. h. s/1. 
There is anothel
 sllzall pl' t int of her vg Hollar, dated 
1645. 


MARY, dutchess of Richmond and Lenox. Vandycli 
p. Bockllzun f. ill the character of 
'Yt. Agnes, 'with it 
lanzb: h. sh. rJ2ez,z'. 


1\1adame la Duchesse de llICH)IO
T. Vandycli p. 
}Tander Brllggenf. h. S/1. J1Zcz';-;;. 


l\IARY, dutchess of Richn1ond. JTandycli p. T11: 
Vaillantf. h. sh. llZCzz. 


MARY, dutchess of Richn1ond; 1ncz''::,'. J. Go/e. 


Her portrait is in the famous family-piece, by Vandyck, at 
'Viltan. There is another of her at Burghley, a good copy, by 
Ashfìeld. 
Mary, daughter of George Villiers, the first duke of Bucking- 
ham of that name. She was thrice married: I. to Charles, lord 
Herbert, son of Philip, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery; 2. 
to James, duke of Richmond and Lenox; 3. to Thomas How- 
ard, brother to Charles, earl of Carlisle. She left no issue Ly 
either of her husbands. 


ANNA Ð'ACRES, comitissa Arl1ndeliæ, JJ:Ì;. 60, 
1627; it j){ltch on Iter tell/pic,. 4lo. lIotlar j: rarc. . 



208 B lOG R A IJ II I C .A L II 1ST 0 R Y 


AN
A D'AcHES, countess of Arundel; prqfilc; 
121710. l
 IIollar. 


AN N D'AcREs, countess of Arundel; oval. Thanc. 


ANN E, countess of Arundel. Gcrinzia se. ]11, 
" Noble Authors," by Mr. Park, 1806. 


Anne Dacre, countess of Arundel, was the eldest of the three 
daughters and coheiresses of Thomas, lord Dacre, of Gillesland, who, 
together with their brother, who died by an accident,* were warùs 
to Thomas, duke of Norfolk. That nobleman married to his 
third wife, their lllother, Elizabeth Leiburne, lady Dacre, and be- 
stowed her three daughters, who were become great heiresses, on 
his own three sons. This laòy was the wife of Philip, earl of 
Arundel, who died in the Tower, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; 
h
ving been condemned to death like his father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather. By him she was Inother of Thomas, earl of 
..Arundel, the famous collector, for whom V orsterman drew her 
portrait in her old age, and Hollar engraved it.t 


AI
A THEA TALBOT, &c. COll1itissa ArundeIliæ 
et Surriæ, &c. et prima cOlnitissa .A_ngliæ. l T alldyck p. 
Hollar f. 1646; h. 
'h. a COP!!; 8vo. 


ALATHEA TALBOT, with Eliz. countess of Arull- 
del; 2 ovals Oll one }Jlatc. JrV. IIollar; scarce. 


ALA THEA TALBOT, &c. J
 Richardson. 


ALATJIEA 'rA LBOT, &c. in the sanle plate ,rith the 
Earl of ArundeL Ree Class I I. 


· \\'hile a boy lIe was practising to vault on a hoLh'y-horsc; he sprung too far, 
pitchrd on the ground, and fradured his skl1I1.-LoRD HA I J.ES. 
t fhe avon> account is tRI
t'n f:(l111 a manuscript il\::-cription under the head, in 
the colicctioll of the HOllouraulc IIuldcc \\ .1Ipule. 



OF ENGLAND. 


209 


Alathea, daughter and coheir of Gilbert Talbot, earl of Shrews- 
bury, and wife of Thomas Howard, earl of Arunde1. The earl 
was extremely happy in the virtue and amiable qualities of this 
lady, whose taste was, in some deg-ree, similar to his own. She 
even entered into his favourite amusements, but was never known 
to carry them to excess. * 


ELIZABETH, late countess of Kent; a s17zall oval; 
hefore her " Receipts." 


ELIZAB]:TH, countess of Kent; sJ7zall oval. Fa i- 
thorne sc. fine and rare. 


ELIZABETH, countess of I(ent; ill an oval of foli- 
ag'e,. to "Search in Physic," 
'c. 1659. (Chantry.) 
scarce. 


ELIZABETH, countess of Kent; in a slnall oval; 
her hair combed strai
'ht on the forehead, broad tucke1" 
round her neck. Fer"d. Ferd. pin.1}. W. Hollar. An- 
other in the 17zanner of Ga!J'lDood. 
Elizabeth, seconù daughter and coheir of Gilbert Talbot, earl 
of Shrewsbury, and wife of Henry de Grey, earl of Kent. She was 
sister to Alathea, countess of Arundel, above mentioned. There 
goes under her name, a book entitled" A choice Manuall of rare 
and select Secrets in Physic and Chirurgery, by the Right Honour- 
able the Countess of Kent, late deceased ;': the 12th edit. 1659, 
12rno. But her being an author was the least valuable part of her 
character; she was a lady of uncommon virtue and piety. She 
died at her house in White Friars, the 7 th of Dec. 1651. This 
laùy was a different person from Elizabeth, countess of Kent, 
who cohabited with Mr. Selden, and left him a considerable 
fortune. 


· I scarce ever heard of a lady infected wit11 the pedantry of the II Yirtu," or in- 
deed of any tIling else. 'V ycherly, in his" Plain Dealer," has drawn the character 
of the widow Blackacre t as a great law pedant; but this is supposed to be the cha- 
racter of his own father. 


VOL. III. 


2E 



210 B lOG R A 1") 1-1 I C A L II 1ST 0 R Y 


ELIZABETH, nuper comitissa Huntingdon; two 
angels holding' a coronet over her head. JJIarshall sc. 
4to. There is a neat p':int of her, by J. Payne, before a 
Scrnlon preached at her funeral, úy J. F. at Ashby de la 
ZOllch, in the COllJ
ty of Leicester, Feb. 9, 1633. 


ELIZABETHA, nuper comitissa Huntingdon; t'iOO 
ong'cls holding; a coronet over her head. W Richard- 
son. 


Elizab
th, youngest of the three daughters and coheirs of Fer.. 
dinando Stanley, earl of Derby. Sbe died the 20th of Janu
ry, 
1633. The Lord Viscount :Falkland wrote an epitaph on this excel- 
lent lady. The following lines are a part of it: 


The chief perfections of both sexes join'd, 
'Vith neither's vice, nor vanity combin'd, &c. 


ELIZABETH, countess ofSouthalllpton. Vandyck 
p. R. T0171pson C,l'C. In the collection of the Earl of 
Kent;* 'lvhole leng,th,. h. slz. me.zz. 


This lady, stylcd the fair lVlrs. Vernon, and celebrated for her 
beauty in the curious letters of Rowland 'Vhyte, in the" Sidney 
Papers," was the daughter of John Vernon, of Hodnet, in Shrop- 
shire, esq. She espoused Henry, earl of Southampton, distill" 
guished by his sufferings in adhering to the person and fortunes 
of the famous Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, the favourite of 
Queen Elizabeth; having engaged with him in the unhappy insur- 
rection in London, February the 8th, 1601, related at large by 
Camden, and other historians, and which, but for the clemency 
of that princess, had cost him his life. I-Ier second son Thomas 
succeeded to the title of Earl of Southampton, and became lord 
hig'h-treasurer of England; her eldest son James deceasing in 
the lifetime of his father. Her three daughters, Penelope, Anne, 
and Elizabeth, married; the first, William, lord Spencer, of ,V orrn- 
leighton; the second, Robert Wallop, of Farley, in the county of 


*' Therc is an excellent portrait úf her by Cornelius Jansen at Sherburn Castle. 



OF ENGL.AND. 


211 


Southampton, esq. son of Sir Henry 'Vallop; and the last, Sir 
Thomas Estcourt knt. one of the masters of the high court of 
Chancery.* 


RACHAEL, countess of Southampton. Vandyclc p. 
lflc. Ardell f. 1758; whole length,. she ?7le.Z'.Z'. fro)]?' 
the orig'lJzal in the collection of the Lord Royston and 
the lJIal'éhioness Gt'ey. It is now Lord Hard'loick's. She 
is drawn with a globe, sitting in the clouds, and is said 
to have been 'lJzad. Petitol'sjine enaJJzel, in the Duke of 
Devonshire's collection, was copied from this picture of 
Vandyck. It is allowed to be tlze 'l710st capital work of 
its kind in the lvorld. 


We are informed by Sir William Dugdale, that this lady was of 
French extraction, and first espoused Daniel de l\Iasseu, baron 
of Ruvigny; after whose decease, she became the consortt of 
Thomas, earl of Southampton, lord high-treasurer of England, in 
the reign of Charles the Second. She bore to her lord two sons, 
Charles and Henry, who died young; and three daughters, Eli- 
zabeth, Inarried to Edward Noel, son of Baptist, viscount Camp- 
den; Rachel, first married to Francis, lord Vaughan, son and heil o 
to Richard, earl of Carbery, in Ireland, and afterward to William, 
second son to William, lord Russell; from whom the present Duke 
of Bedford is lineally descended; and Magdalen, who deceased in 
her infancy.! 


ANN A, con1itissa de Bedford. Valldycl,; 1 J . P. 
L01Jzbart se. h. she 


· This article was communicated by Dr. Campbell, whose excellent biographical 
writings are well known. 
t The daughter of this Elizabeth was married to the first Duke of Portland; and 
from the same Elizabeth, and her sister Rachel, ,the Dukes of Portland and Bedford
 
enjoy the great inlleritance of the Earls of Southampton.-LoR I) ORFORD. . . 
* The above account of this lady was also communicated by Dr. Campbell. See 
what is said of her in Dugdale's II Baronage." See also the J ntroduction to Lady 
Rachel Russel's" Letters," p. 61. 
In the "Strafford Letters," vol. i. p. 337, mention is madl' of this lady's intro- 
duction at court. with some curious particulars relating to her persoll and character. 



212 BIOGRAPHIC.ð.J... IIISTOR Y 


ANNE CARRE, countess of Bedford. H. Meycl'" sc. 
1816. Fronz the orig'inal of Vandyke, in the collection of 
the Eal'"l of Egre1Jlont; in Lodge's "Illustrious Por- 
. " 
traits. 


Anne, countess of Bedford, was sole daughter and heir of Robert 
Carr, earl of Somerset, by Frances, eldest daughter of Thomas 
Howard, earl of Suffolk, who married to her first husband Robert 
Devereux
 earl of Essex, from WhOlll she was divorced. This Lady 
Anne was wife of 'Villiam Russell, earl of Bedford, who was 
created duke 1694;* but she did not live to partake of that 
honour. She died the 10th of lVIay, 1684, in the 64th year of 
her age. I have been informed, that this Countess of Bedford 
was so ignorant of her mother's infamy as to have called it a 
calumny, when she accidentally met with an account of it in a 
book which fell into her hands, after she was a woman grown. 


MARGARET (ELIZABETH), countess of Essex; 
black feather at her ear. Hollar f. 121llo. 


MARGARET (ELIZABETH), countess of Essex; 
oval. t
 Richardson. 


Elizabeth, countess of Essex, was second daughter to Sir 
'Villiam Paulet, of Eddington, in Wiltshire, by his lady, Elizabeth, 


III Ie 1\Iarl'Y w110m you will," said the old lord to his son, Ie except a daughter of 
Somerset." The son saw a lady at court, fell in love with her; he learned that she 
was Lady Anne Carr, the daughter of Somerset! he resolved never to make his 
addresses to any other woman, and his îather consented to the hated union. The 
old lord was seized with the small-pox, a disease fatal to the Russel family. His 
own children fled; his daughter remained with him, caught the distemper, and re- 
covered, but at the expense of her beauty.-LoRD HAILES. 
In the "Strafford Letters," &c. published by Knowles, at p. 359, vol. i. is a si- 
milar account of Lord Bedford's great abhorrence of this match, and at pages 2. 58. 
and 86, of vol. ii. is a continuation of this courtship, with many curious particu- 
lars relating thereto, it being long in hand for the cause above a'Ssigned, and partly 
as it seems from Lord Somerset's want of money to make up a suitable portion for 
his daughter. At length in 1637, owing in some measure to the king's interposition 
in favour of the match, and the eJ.tremc fondness of the young lord and lady for 
each other, they were marricd.-BINDLEY. 



OF ENGLAN D. 


213 


daughter to Sir John Seymour, and the Lady Susan Paulet, whose 
father was the Lord Chedwick Paulet, brother to the l\'Iarquis of 'V in- 
chester. Her great-grandfather was Sir Henry Seymour, brother 
to the Duke of Somerset, lord-protector.-The Earl of Essex saw 
this lady at the Earl of Hertford's, where he spent his Christmas, 
in 1630; and was so charn1ed with her beauty, and the sweetness 
of her manners, that he became deeply enamoured with her; and 
was mar:ied to her in the beginning of the following spring. She 
had cohabiied with hilll about four years,* when she was accused, 
and as it appears to me, very wrongfully, of an adulterous com- 
merce with 1\11'. Udall,t who paid his addresses to her sister, whom 
he visited at Essex-house. This accusation unfortunately occa- 
sioned a separation from her husband: but he acknowledged a son 
whonl she had by him, though he declared, that he was determined 
not to own him, if she was not brought to bed by the 5th of N 0- 
vember. It was thought very capricious in the earl, that he should 
rest his own and his lady's honour, and that of his posterity, upon 
the narrpw point of a single day; as it required no uncommon reach 
of understanding to be informed, that a woman's labour might be 
retarded by a multiplicity of accidents. The child, however, hap- 
pened to be born on that day; but dying in his infancy,! the house 
of Essex became extinct. Arthur 'Vilson, who was certainly pre- 
judiced against this lady, seems by no meaus to have done justice 
to her character.
 She married to her second husband, Mr. after- 
ward Sir Thomas IIiggons, a gentleman of great merit; by whOln 
she had several daughters. This gentleman gives us to understand, 
that the injuries which she suffered in her reputation were the eflècts 
of the spleen and malice of her lord's servant
, whom she had highly 
offended, by introducing order and economy into his family; and 
Inoreover of the ill-will of Sir 'V alter Devereux, the earl's near 
relation, who had conceived a mortal antipathy against her. II 


· Higgons's" Fun. Orat." t Or U veda Ie. 
t Higgous, ubi supra. 
f See 'Vilson's account of his own life, in Peck's U Desiderata Curiosa," \'01. II. 
II The Dutchess-dowager of Portland, who did me the JlOnour to read this work, 
before it was sent to the press, was pleased, upon the perusal, to procure me a 
manuscript copy of "A Funeral Oration, spoken over the grave of Elizabeth, 
countess of Essex, by her husband,' 1\lr. Thomas Higgons, at her interment in the 


1f This is part of the epitaph inscribed on the plain flat stone under which she 
lic5 iuterred: "Orationc funcbri, a marito ip50, amoJ"c i->ri:)co laudata fuit." 



214 13 I 0 GRAPHICAL IIISTOR Y 


Tllcre is a print hy Hollar, which is ?nentioned hy 
Vertlle, in his Catalogue of the JVorks of that artist and 
called" DOROTHY, countess of Suffolk." She lzas a 
wlz iie feather at her ear. 
I never heard of any countess of Suffolk of the name of Doro- 
thy. Susannah, countess of Suffolk, daughter of the Earl of Hol- 
land, who possessed, with ahnost every female accomplishment, a 
strength of mind and memory rarely found in men, is probably the 
lady here meant. She died on the 19th of l\Iay, 1649, and was 
buried the 29th of the 
ame month, at Walden, in Essex. Her fu- 
neral sermon, in which great justice is done to her unaffected piety, 
as well as her other excellences, was preached by Dr. Ed ward 
Rainbow, 


FRANCESCA BRIDGES, Exoniæ comitissa do- 
tissa. VOlldyc/c p. Guil. Faithorne C.2'c. h. she This 
is one of Faithorne's best portraits, and very scarce. 
The original, which represents her aged, and. in mourning, is in 
the gallery at Strawberry-hill. See some curious critical remarks 
on this fine picture in Richardson's" Essay on the whole Art of 
Criticism in Painting," p. 59, &c. or at page 184, &c. of his 
Works. 


cathedral church of \Vinchester, Sept. 16, 1656, imprinted at London, 1656." As 
this pamphlet is extremely rare, I conclude that the copies of it were, for certain 
reasons, industriously collected and destroyed; though few pieces of this kind have 
less deserved to perish.- The Countess of Essex had a greatness of mind which 
enabled her to bear the whole weight of infamy which was thrown upon her; but 
it was nevertheless attended with a delic#icy and sensibility of honour which poi- 
soned all her enjJym('llts. l\Ir. Higgolls has said much, and I tbink, much to the 
}JUrposc, in her vimlication: and was himself fully convinced from the tenor of her 
life, and the words which she spoke at the awful close of it, that she was perfectly 
innocent.-In reading this interesting oration, I fancied myself standing by the 
grave of injured innocence and beauty; was sensibly touched with the pious affec- 
tion of the tenderest and best of husbands, doing public and solemn justice to an 
amiable and worthy woman, who had been grossly and publicly defamed. Nor 
could I withhold the tribute of a tear; a tribute which, I am confident, was paid at 
her interment, by everyone who lo\'ed virtue, and was not destitute of the feelings 
of humanity. This is what I immediately wrote upon reading the oration. If I am 
wrong in my opinion, the bellevvlent reader, I am sure, will forgive me. It is not 
the first time that lilY beart has got the better of my judgment. 



OF ENGLAND. 


215 


FRANCES BRIDGES, countess of Exeter. Van Dyclc; 
John Ogborne; 1777. 
Frances Bridges, daughter to the Lord Chandos, was first mar- 
ried to Sir Thomas Smith, of Abingdon, master of the requests, and 
Latin secretary to James I.. After his decease, she became the 
second wife of Thomas Cecil, the first earl of Exeter of that name, 
who died February the 7th, 1622. After the earl's death, she was 
falsely and rnaliciously accused of incest with her son-in-law, the 
Lord Ross, t who married a daughter of Sir Thomas Lake, whom he 
slighted. This scandalous accusation was accompanied with that 
of witchcraft, the great crime of this age, and also with that of an 
intention to poison her accusers: these were the Ladies Lake and 
Ross. Sir Thomas, who said " he could not refuse to be a father 
and a husband," was artfully persuaded to join with them, in a pro- 
secution against the innocent countess. King James took great 
pains to inquire into the truth of this affair, and discovered such 
a complication of forgery, subornation, and perjury, as is scarce 
to be paralleled in history. The king sat in judgment upon them 
himself, and " compared their crimes to the first plot of the first sin 
in Paradise; the Lady Lake to the Serpent, her daughter to Eve, 
and Sir Thomas. to poor Adam." Lady Ross, who confessed her 
guilt in open court, was pardoned. Sir Thomas and his lady were 
fined 10,000l. to the king, and 5000l. to the injured countess. 
The last Inentioned lady had only one daughter, who died in her 
infancy. t 


ELIZABETHA, comitissa Devoniæ. Vandyck p. 
L017lbart sc. It. she 
This belongs to a set which consists of twelve prints. 


· Fuller's II \V orthies," in Berks, p. 94. 
t Son of Thomas, earl of Exeter, by Dorothy, daughter of Lord Latimer, his first 
lady. But, according to Bolton,
 U son of \Villiam, earl of Ex('ter, by Elizabeth, 
sole daughter and heiress of Edward, earl of Rutland, his first lady. In right of 
his mother, Lord Ross." If Bolton be right in this, the Countess of Exeter in 
question must be Elizabeth, sister and coheir of Sir Robert Drury, of Halsted, in 
Suffolk, knight. 
t Lloyd and other historians, who have told tl1Ïs story, have not mentioned the 
name of this Countess of Exete.', but it seemed to me to be clear from dates, that 
she was the person. Of this I am now duubtful from the passage just cited. 



, See his H Extinct Perrage," 17ô9, 8vo. p. 247. 



21 G II [ 0 (
 H A }) II I C A L II 1ST 0 H ,
 


ELIZABETH CECIL, countess of Devonshire. I. S. 
Ag'ar sc. frO}]l the original of Van D!Jck, in the collec- 
tion qf the Rig'ht Hon. the Earl of EgrcnlOJlt; in 
Ir. 
Lodg'e
s "Portraits of Illustrious Persons." 


EJizabeth, second daughter of 'Villiam Cecil, earl of Salisbury 
and wife of William Cavendisb, the third earl of Devonshire, by 
whon1 she was mother of the first duke. She had also another son 
Char!es, who died unmarried, about the year 1670; and one 
daughter, Anne, who first espoused Charles, lord Rich, only son 
to Charles, earl of Warwick; and afterward John, lord Burghley, 
who, on the demise of his father, became earl of Exeter. It is re- 
markable that this lady accompanied her husband twice to Rome. 
Ob, 1689. 


CI-IRISTIAN, countess of Devonshire. J. Hard- 
ing; * delin. Schcneker sc. 


Christian, daughter of Edward, lord Bruce, a relation and chief 
favourite of James 1. by whose recommendåtion she was married 
into the noble family of Cavendish. The king was present at the 
ceren10ny, and gave her a fortune of 10,0001. The countess was 
distinguished as the patroness of the wits of the age, who frequently 
assembled at her house; Waller frequently read his verses there, 
and William, earl of Pembroke, wrote a volume of poems in her 
praise. Having Inet with severe domestic losses by the death of 
her beautiful daughter, Lady Rich, and her second son the brave 
Charles Cavendish, her thoughts became more devoted to national 
affairs, and she began to take an active part in the interesting 
politics of those times. Being in principles a zealous royalist, she 
entertained many of the king's friends at her house, and concerted 
measures with theln for the restoration. Charles II. on his return 
to England, shewed the sense he entertained of zeal for his service, 
by frequently visiting her at Rochampton, in company of the queen- 
nlOther, and the royal family, with whom she enjoyed an unusual 
intimacy till her death, January, 16, 1674-5. She was buried in 
great state, February 14, at Dcrby. 


· The modern artists have got into a very absurd way, when they make drawings 
frùm pictures, of putting their own instead of the painters names. 



OF ENGLAND. 


217 


LUCIA, con1itissa de Carlisle. l'àndgck p. L01J1Úart 
sc. h. slz. A COIJY by Vertue,. Svo. 
Lucy, countess of Carlisle, * &c. ,Vandyck p. P. 
a Gunst sc. 'lvhole lcngth, large h. slz. 


Lucy, countess of Carlisle. Gay/wood f. Sl1lalt. 
The original, which was in the Wharton collection, was after- 
ward in that of James West, esq. 


Lucy, countess of Carlisle. V. Dyclc,. C. Bailliu. 


Lucy PERCY, &c. E. 
Ycriven sc. 1816; front tllc 
orig'inal of Vandyck, ill the collection of the Rig'ht I-IOll. 
the Ea1"1 of Egrenlont,. in .J.1Ir. Lodg'c's "Illustrious 
Portraits. " 


Lucy, daughter of Henry Percy, earl of NorthUll1berland, and 
wife of James Hay, earl of Carlisle. She holds the next place to 
Sacharissa in the poems of 'Valler, and appears there to ITInch 
greater advantage than she does in the portraits of Vandyck. It 
was not so much the beauty of this celebrated lady, as the sprightli- 
ness of her wit, and the charms of her behaviour, that rendered her 
an object of general admiration. But her greatest admirers could 
not help seeing her vanity and affectation; yet an were forced to 
acknowledge, that if ever these foibles were amiable, they were so 
in the Countess of Carli.sle.t-In 1636, she became a dowager. 
Mr. 'Vaner has addressed an elegant copy of verses to her in 
mourning.! She died in 1660, and was buried near her father, at 
Petworth. 


· She is erroneously said, in the inscription of the print, to be daughter of Jocc- 
line Percy, earl of Northmnberland. 
t Sir Toby :l\IaUhew's fantastic character of her is in Fenton's observations on 
,V aller's poem, entitled, "The Country, 
o my Lady of Carlisle." . 
t St. Evremollt informs us, that from the inmost recesses of Whitehall, she had a 
great hand in animating the faction at \Vestminstel'. He could also have informed 
l1S, that she was the reputed mistress of the Earl of Stratford and of Pym. Sir 
}Jhilip Warwick speaks thus of her, in his U :Memoirs :"
 "That busy states- 


VOl.. 111. 



 P.201-. 
2 F 



218 BIOG RAPIIICAL IIIST OR Y 


M.ARGARI'"r A., con1itissa de Carlisle. Vane/yelL p. 
Lonzbart sc. Her daug;hter, a child, is 
'lalldiJlg' by !zer. 


Her portrait is at \Voburn-Abbey. 
Margaret Russel* was wife of James Hay, the second earl of 
Carlisle, and son of the first; by his first wife Honora, daugnter of 
Lord Denny.t The ear), her husband, died in October, 1660, when 
the title became extinct. In 1661, Charles Howard, descended frOlu 
a younger branch of the house of Norfolk, was created earl of 
Carlisle. 


ELIZABET, comltIssa Warwick. A. vall Dgc!t, 
pin..r. (Pontius.) 
ELIZABET, comitissa Warwick, &c. J
 Richard- 
.son e..1/c. 8vo. 


Countess of Warwick. J. Thane e..1}C. 


Elizabeth Ingram, daughter of Sir Arthur Ingram, of Temple 
Newsam, in Com. Ebor. knt. was the first wife to Robert, fifth earr 
of 'Varwick and Holland. She had several children by the earl,. 
and died some years before him. 


DOROTHEA, comitissa de Sunderland. Vandyck 
p. L01Jzbart sC. h. she 
DOROTHY, countess of Sunderland, &c. a copy rif 
the above, by Vertue, 'lDlzo eng'raved another portrait of 
her, in the quarto edition of TValler's "Poen/s." It is 
one qf the head-pieces. 
DOROTHY SIDNEY, countess of Sunderland. JTT. 


woman, the Countess of Carlisle, who had now chat)ged her gaJJant from Strafford 
to Pym, and was become such a she saint that she frequented their sermons, and 
took notes," &c. 
· Daughter to the 'Earl of Bedford.-LoRD ORFORD. 
t Dugdale's "Baronage." 



OF ENGLAND. 
. 


219 


. 


T. Fry; 1816. Fronz the ori
'illal of Vandycl'i, ill tlie 
collection of tlze Right Hon. tlie Earl of Eg'Tclnonl ; 
in lIIr. Lodge"s " Illustrious Pot'traits." 
There is, at HaIl-Barn, a portrait of her by V anòyck, which she 
presented herself to Mr. Waller. That at'Vindsor, which goes 
under the name of Sacharissa, is of another countess of Sunder- 
land, daughter of George, lord Digby, and daughter-in-law to 
Doroth y . 
Dorothy, daughter of Robert Sidney, earl of Leicester, was 
married to Henry, lord Spencer of ,V ormleighton, in his minority. 
The marriage was consummated at Penshurst, the 20th of July, 
1639.* lIe was created earl of Sunderland the 8th of June, 1643, 
and killed the same year, at the first battle of Newbury, in the 
twenty-third year of his age. She ehpoused to her second husband, 
Robert Smythe,of Bounds, in the parish of Bidborough, in Kent, esq. 
whom 
he survived. She l1ad issue by him, Robert Smythe, go- 
vcrnor of Dover Castle, in the reign of Charles II. Henry, son of 
this Robert, was father of Sir Sidney Stafford Smyth, lord chief 
baron of the Exchequer.t 
This truly amiable lady, who affected retirement, and was never 
vain of that beauty, which has rendered her fame immortal, was 
celebrated hy ,V aller, under the name of Sacharisga. t 'Vhen 
she -was far advanced in years, and had outlived every personal 
charm which had inspired the poet in his youth, she asked him in 
raillery, " when he would write such fine verses upon her again?" 
f.' Oh, madam!" said he, " when your ladyship is as young again."
 


· See an elegant and spirited letter written on this occasion, by "VaIler, in his 
41 Life," before his works. 
t Collins's H Peerage," vol. i. p. 381, edit. 1768. 

 Fenton, in bis observations on 'Valler, speaking of lhis name, says, tbat it 
4.1 recalls to mind what is rclated ()f the Turks, who, in their gailantries, think ButuT 
Birpara, i. e. Bit of Sügar, the most polite and endearing compliment they can use 
to the ladies." 

 An ingenious correspondent has observed, that 'V aller's repartee would have 
becn better, if be had said, " When we are both young again ;" the reflection upon 
.the lad!J'$ age only is ....ery unlike the politeness of Waller.1I 


n ProbaLly Waller meant to morlify ber, for the disregard of l1Ìm when sTlc 'II'as 
y()nng; the time of flattering and being flattered, was gonc by in both of them.- 
.BI l' DLJ: \. 



220 DIOGltAI)IIIC.AL IIISTOR Y 


She survived her lord about forty years, and was buried with hinl in 
the same vault, at Brington, in NOl'thamptonshire, the 25th of Fe- 
bruary, 1683-4. 


CHA1-tLO'rTE DE LA TREMOUILLE, countess 
of Derby. Þ-lug'ent sc. 
CHARLOTTE, countess of Derby; Jol. Gardiner sc. 
4to. 


This lady, a woman of very high and princely extraction, being 
daughter of Claude, duke of TremouiHe in France, by Charlotte, 
daughter of \ViBialn, first prince of Orange, and Charlotte of Bour- 
LOl1, was wife of tbat truly heroic loyalist, James, the seventh earl 
of Derby, who was crueHy put to death by the rebels in 1651. 
This lady behaved with great and exemplary prudence, dexterity, 
Rnd honQur, in aU affairs of life; and was remarkable for her gaHant 
defence of Latham-house in 1644, when it was besieged by the 
parliament forces. Sir Thomas Fairfax offered her honourable 
terms; she answered, she was uJlder double trust to her king, an.d tv 
Itl'r hUJ'balld, and that without their lea'Ce she could not gÏL:e it up. 
-Orders were given by Fairfax for a formal siege: after many sallies 
of incredible valour, under the countess's orders, which were won- 
derfully successful, and after a four months' siege, and the loss of 
two thousand men of the assailants, Colonel Rigby, their com- 
mander, sent the countess a rude summons, to which she returned 
this answer: "Trumpet, tell that insolent rebel Rigb!J, that if he 
presume to send another summons within this place, I will ha
'e the mes- 

ellger hanged up at the gates." This incomparable heroine, rctired 
with her husband to the Isle of Man, until it was betrayed by one 
who had been her own servant; who having corrupted the inhabit- 
ants, seized on her, and her children, and kept them prisoners, 
without any other relief than what she obtained from the charity 
of her impoverished friends, until the restoration. She died in 
1663, and was buried at Ormskirk. 


ANNA SOPHIA, comitissa de Caernarvon. 
Vandyck p. LOflzbart sc. h. .sit. There is a larp,'e Ilead 
of this lad!!, by Baroll, fvhiclz, frolJt its size, scents to 



o 
F E 
 G L.\. N D. 


221 


have been eJ/.lfraved fronz a tracing", * taken froJl!' Vllll- 
d.!Jck's picture of the PClJzbroke fa1JÛly at JVitto/l. 


AXNA SOPHIA, countess Caernarvou.. TZ Dyck; 
TV. IIo/lar,. 
'rnall. 


AXK, countess Caernarvon. 
 Dycl(; lI:fúrill sc. 
Anna Sophia, eldest daughter of Philip, earl Pembroke, and 
wife of Robert Dormer, earl of Caernarvon; a nobleman of great 
hopes, who was killed at the battle of Newbury, the 20th of Sept. 
1643. Both their portraits are in the family-piece at vVilton. 


FRANCES STUART, countess of Portland. VltJl- 
{lyck p. Broîvne;t h. she JJZCzz;. 


MARIA (I
rances) STUART, &c. Hollarf. 1650, 
h. she This has been copied, in 8vo. by GaYîvood. 


FRAKCES, countess of Portland; fol. V. D!Jclì; R. 
Caywood. 
Frances Stuart, wife to Jerome Weston, earl of Portland, was 
the youngest of the four daughters of Esme, duke of Richmond 
and Lenox, who was brother and successor to Lodowick, mentionetÌ 
in the preceding reign. She was sister to James, duke of Rich- 
nlond, and the Lords John and Bernard Stuart, of whom I have 
before given some account. It may not be improper to observe 
here, that the duke, her brother, had a son named Esme, who suc- 
ceeded his father, as Duke of Richmond, in 1655, and died young' 
in 1660. He was succeeded by Charles, earl of Lichfield, his 
cousin-german, who died in 1672; with him the title in this family, 
which was of the blood royal of Scotland, became extinct.- There is 
a print of Francps, countess of Portland, after Vandyck, by Gay- 
wood. It is inscribed, by mistake, " Maria Stuart," &c. 


. · An outline, taken by applying oiled or transparent paper to the painting. 
t The name of an engraver aud I'rilltseJl
r, by whom this print was sold, and 
very },robabJy engra"cJ. - 



222 


BIOGRAPHICAL I-IISTORY 


LADY A UBIGNEY ; f1"oJn a dralving'in the King"s 
"(,Ylarcndon." R. CoojJcr se. 


Lady Aubigney, was a woman of consummate policy, and greatly 
in the confidence of King Charles I. in whose cause she adventured 
so far as to incur the resentment of the parliament, from whom 
she suffered a long imprisonment under the suspicion of being privy 
to the design, which had beèn discovered by Mr. 'ValleI', for which 
Tomkins and Challoner had been put to death; and she had like- 
wise suffered herself, had she not made her escape to Oxford. Her 
husband, Lord Aubigney, was killed at Edge
hill, and she afterward, 
with the king's approbation, married the Lord N ewburgh; this noble 
pair found means to correspond with the king while imprisoned in 
the Isle of Wight, and most of tbe letters which passed between the 
king and queen, passed through their hands. They had a cipher 
with the king, by which they gave him notice of any thing they 
judged of importance, and had informed him of the intended removal 
of him from Hurst Castle to London, advising him at the same time 
to contrive some method to call at the Lodge at Bagshot in his 
way; having planned a Inode for his escape, which however could 
not be effected. Lady Aubigney died at the Hague, soon after the 
death of the king. 


BLANCH, lady Arundel. ]{oblc sc. front a picture 
at fVarc!our Castle,. }Jrfji.red to 5 f euJard's "Anecdotes," 
1795. 


Lady Arundel (daughter of the spirited Earl of 'Vorcester, who 
nobly defended his castle of Ragland) displayed her father's courage 
in defence of \Vardour Castle, when besieged by Sir Edwarù Hun- 
gerford and Colonel Strode, with a body of men about 1300. 'Vhen 
they summoned the castle to surrender, the Lady Arundel (her hus- 
band being then at Oxford) refused to deliver it up, and bravely 
replied, " that she had a command from her lord to keep it, and she 
would obey his comInand." Her force was only twenty-five fighting 
Inen against their great army; yet she defended the castìe for nine 
days, and then surrendered on hono
rable terms. Ob. October 28, 
1649, Æt. 66. See an interesting account in Seward's" Anec- 
dotes." 



OF ENGLAND. 


223 


. 


MARY BEAVl\'I0NT, countess of Buckinghan1; 
from a l1zlniature, in tlte collection at Strawberry-hill. 
St01V sc. 4to. 


This lady, whose 111aiden name was Beaumont, is chiefly remark- 
able as the mother of the celebrated Duke of Buckingham, who 
was assassinated by Felton, at Portsmouth. She was the second 
wife of Sir George ViJIiers, knight, and, in compliment to the duke 
her son, was created countess of Buckinghanl by letters patent, 
dated July 1st, 1618. In the Peerages she is called" daughter of 
Anthony Beaumont, of Glenfield, in the county of Leicester, esq." 
Lut Roger Coke, in his "Detection of the Court of James I." on 
the authority of his aunt, whose youngest sister was married to 
John Villiers, viscount Purbeck, the eldest son of Sir George, by 
l\rlary Beaumont, throws great doubt on this statement. She had 
three sons and one daughter by Sir Geor
e; and being left a widow 
in 1606, was afterward twice married; first to Sir '\Villiam Rayner, 
and, secondly, to Sir Thomas Compton. 
I.ord Clarendon, in his noted story of the ghost of Sir George 
'Tilliers, has been the means of rendering this lady more known 
than she otherwise would have been. 
The historian concludes his relation in the following terms: 
" Whatever there was of all this, it is a notorious truth, that when 
the news of the duke's murder (which happened within a few 
months after) was brought to his mother, she sel-
mcd not in the 
least degree surprised, but received it as if she had foreseen it; nor 
did afterward express such a degree of sorrow, as was expected 
from such a mother, for the loss of such a son." 
She died the 10th of April, 1632, at her lodgings at the Gate- 
house, Whitehall, which opened to King-street; and was interred 
with considerable pomp in the abbey church of \Vestminster, in a 
vault under a little chapel in the south aisle of the choir. 


LADY FAIRFAX ; an etching in an oval. Claussi1/, 
fecit,. 4to. 
LADY FAIRFAX ; 1ne.zz. 4to. JVoodburn eL'l'C. 
Anne, lady Fairfax, fourth daughter of Lord Vere, was brought 
up in Holland, and a zealous Presbyterian, but appears to have dis- 



224 BJOGRAPIIIC.AL IIISTOR\. 


approved or her husband's conduct towards King Charles the 
First, at whose trial this lady exclaimed aloud against the pro- 
ceedings, and the irreverent usage of the king by his subjects; 
insomuch that the court was interrupted; for, her husband (Lord 
Fairfax) being calJed first as one of the judges, and no answer 
being made, the crier called him a second time, when a voice was 
heard to say" he had more wit than to be there," which put the 
court into 80me disorder, and some murmuring was heard. Pre- 
sently when the impeachment was read, and that expression used 
of, "All the good people of England," the same voice, in a louder 
tone, answered, "No, nor the hundredth part of them;" upon 
which one of the officers (Co!. Axtel*) bid the soldiers give fire 
into the box, frem whence the presumptuous words were uttered. 
But it was quickly discerned that it was the general's wife; who 
was persuaded, or forced, to leave the place. But a1though she 
bad concurred in her husband's joining the rebellion, she now ab- 
horred the work, and did all she could to prevent him from pro- 
ceeding any farther in it. 


FRANCES LADY SEYl\I0UR, of Trowbridge; 
fronz tile collection at Petwortlz. Platt sc. III Adolphus's 
"British Cabinet;" 4to. 
Frances, lady Seymour, was daughter and joint-heiress to Sir 
Gilbert Prinne, of Allingham, in the county of Wilts: she died 
during the lifetime of Lord Seymour, to whom she bore two chil- 
dren; Charles, who succeeded to the title, and Frances, who 
married Sir \Villialn Ducie, afterward lord viscount Down. 


CATHARINJ:\ HOWARD, excellentissin1i ducis 
Livoxiæ (Lenoxiæ) hæredis conjux. Valli/gcl.: p. A.. 
L077Z1neli JZ SC. h. sh. 


CATHARI
A HO,J{ARD, &c. 1Z Dyck; P. i/eJode. 


Catbarine, eldest daughter of Theophilus Howard, second earl 
of Suffolk, married first, to George, lord D t Aubigne, son of Esme, 


.. This circumstance was particularly urged against Axtel 011 his trial. and may 
be sai(} to have cost him his life. 



OF ENGLAND. 


225 


. 


duke of Richmond and Lenox, whom she turned Papist to wed; 
and secondly to James Levingston, earl of Newburgh.* 


CA THARIN A HOWARD, grandchild to Thomas, 
earl of Arundel, Æt. 13. Húllar f. ad vivu1Jl, 1646; 
12rno. A reverse of the sa1Jze.t 
LADY CATHARINE Ho,v AnD; near half leng,th. 
Hollal"f. 4to. 


CATHARINE Ho,v ARD; anonY1nous; nea1"ly front 
face; hair Oll her neck. TV. Hollar, 1650. 


CATHARINE Ho\\r ARD ; anOJlYUlOUS; prrfile. 
 
Hollar, 1648. 


CA THARINE Ho,v ARD; very slllall; an etching'; 
(Hollar) no nanzc or date,. scarce. 
Catharine, daughter of Henry, lord Ma1travers. She was after- 
ward married to John Digby, of Gothurst, esq. in Buckinghamshire, 
eldest son of the famous Sir I{enelm Digby. 


There is an anonyrnolls print of a lady in a fur tippet, 
'lvith a je'lvel at her breast, by Hollar, after Vandyck. It 
is dated 1657, and is, as I anl info1'nzed, called LA D Y 
HOWARD, in the second edition of the Catalog'ue of 
Hollar's Works, p. 82. ' 


CATIIARINE, daughter of Arthur, eldest son of 
Sir'Villialn Usher, knt. wife of Sir Philip Perceval, 
kl1t. (first of that name), married the lûth of October, 


· From the information of l\Ir. \Valpole. 
t A reversc, or counter-proof, is taken from another proof, fresh printed, and 
wet, by passing it through the rolling-press: but, by this means, tht: strength and 
beauty of the latter is somewhat impaired. 
VOL. III. 2 G 



226 B lOG RAPII I CA I... II IS TOR Y 


1626, died the 2d of Jan. 1681-2. Faber f. 8vo. One 
oftlze sct of tlze Perccval j{[}71ily.* 


This lady, who had a numerous issue by Sir Philip, lived to see 
two generations descended from herself, to all of whom she, from 
her haughty and litigious temper, gave more or less vexation; and 
at length broke off all intercourse with the Perceval family. She 
espoused to her second husband the Earl of Castlehaven. See 
the" History of the House of Y very." 


JANE, daughter and heiress of Arthur Goodwin, 
of Winchendon, in the county of Bucks, esq. mar- 
ried to Philip, lord 'Vharton, father to the late Mar- 
quis of Wharton. A. Vandyck p. P. Van Gunst sc. 
larß'c h. slz. 


The original, which was at Winchendon, is now at Houghton. 
See ARTHUR GOODWIN, Class VIII. 
Mr. Hogarth, in the preface to his "Analysis of Beauty," has 
censured this portraitt as thoroughly divested of every elegance,'"' 
from Vandyck's ignorance of the waving line, or line of beauty, as a 
principle in his art. 


PHILADELPHIA, and ELIZABETH 'VHAR- 
TON, the only daughters of Philip, lord Wharton, 
by Elizabeth, his first lady. A. Van D!Jck p. 1640; 
P. Van Gunst sc. 'lolzole lellg,tlzs,. larg'e ". sll. 
PHILADELPHIA 'VUARTON; frOlJl the picture lit 
tlte Houg'htoJl Collcction. DUlll.:artoJl sc. 
The original picture of these two children is in the grand col- 
lection at Houghton, and is reckoned among thc capital pieces of 
Vandyck. 
In a pedigree of the "\Vharton family, in Collier's" Dictionary," 
Elizabeth is said to have been an only daughter of Philip, lord 


· The print may be placed here, as Philip had employments in England. 
t It is there, by mistakC', called U a print of the Dutchess of \VharfoD." 



OJ;' ENGLAND. 


22'7 


'Vharton, by his first lady, Elizabeth, daughter and heir to Sir 
Rowland \Vandesford, of Pickhay, in the county of York, attorney 
of the court of wards, and to have espoused Robert, earl of Lindsey. 
Philadelphia is there said to have been the youngest of his four 
daughters, by Jane Goodwin, his second lady; and to have mar- 
ried Sir George Lockhart, a famous lawyer, and president of the 
session in Scotland, by whom she had a son named George. This 
account of the family appears to be true, as there is a print in- 
scribed, "Philip Lockhart, esq. son of Sir George Lockhart, &c. 
by Philadelphia, youngest daughter to Philip, late lord Wharton." 


JOAN, lady Hericke. 
1632. J. B. ( Basire) sc. 
LcicesteTshire ." 


Ætatis suæ 54, July 27, 
III Nichols's "History of 


This lady was daughter of Richard May, esq. citizen of l..ondon, 
and in May, 1596, became the wife of Sir 'Villimn Hericke. In her 
picture she is dressed in a close black gown, richly ornamented 
with lace, and fine ruffles, turned up close over the sleeves; a 
large twilled ruff; over her head a black hood, closely laced iq 
front, thrown open, yet hiding her hair; a watch in one hand, in the 
.other a prayer-book; and at, her side hangs a feathered-fan; on the 
picture is painted, 


II Art may hir outsid thus present to view, 
How faire within no art or tongue can shew." 


Of the time of this lady's ùeath, or of the place of her interment, 
we find no memorial. Her youngest child was born in 161.5; and 
in the year following, being then resident in London at a town- 
house, and at Richmond as a summer retreat, she wrote some af. 
fectionate letters to her husband, whom business had at that time 
called to Beaumanor. All that we know of Lady llericke, after 
this period, is by a letter of her eldest son, April 26, 1619, and 
another from her niece, Julian Noel, in 1621, and that she was 
fifty-four when her portrait was painted in 1632. 


ELIZABETHA HARVEY, filia domini Harvey, 
baron is Kedbrook. Vandycl,; p. Hollar f. 1646; h. slt
 
ELIZ..\ßETll IIERVEY. Il. Ga
lJwood fee. 



229 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTOR Y 


This lady married John Harvey, of Ickworth, esq. treasurer to 
Queen Catharine, consort of Charles II. and died without issue. 


SUSANNA TEMPLE, lady Thornhurst, lady 
Lister. C. Johnson p. R. White sc. h. she 
SUSANNA TE
iPLE, &c. 8vo. w: Richardson. 
Susanna Temple was maid of honour to Anne of Denmark, 
queen of James I. and esteemed one of the greatest beauties of the 
court. Whilst she was in that station, the king presented her, with 
his own hand, to Sir Geoffry Thornhurst; and she was drawn in 
her wedding habit by Cornelius Jansen. The original portrait is in 
the possession of George Gregory, esq. at Harlaxton, near Gran.. 
tl1am, in Lincolnshire. John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, 
offered a considerable sum for this picture, and Lord \Vilmington 
was very desirous of purchasing it, but neither of them could pro- 
cure it. Lady Thornhurst married to her second husband, Sir 
Martin Lister, son of Dr. l\:Tatthew Lister, physician to Anne of 
Denmark, and afterward to Charles I. Dr. Martin Lister was the 
issue of this marriage.* 


LADY TERESIAt SHIRLEY; a chaplet of roses 
on her head, long hair, part of 'lolzich is braided, and 
t1viJlcd 'lvith a 'rope of pearls J' nalied breasts, necklace. 
Vandyck p. Hollar f. h. slz. 


· Dr. :Martin Lister, who was one of the most distinguished fellows of the ROJal 
Society in the reign of Charles II. was author of several books of medicine, and 
natural philosophy; and of some occasional picct's in the" Philosophical Transac- 
tions." The most valuable of his works is his Book of Shells, in two volumes folin ; 
which are chiefly engraved from the drawings of his two daughters, now in the 
Ashmolean l\IuseulU.t He has been ridiculed by Dr. King,
 and others, f\Jr his 
attention to this be:mtiful part of natural history. Jupiter has, for much the same 
reason, been ridiculed by Lucian, for spending so large a portion of his time iu paint- 
ing the wings of butterflies. 
t Hcr name ''':is Tcresia, as appears from Dod's II Churcb History," vol. ii. 
p. 366, and also from Herbert's u Travels." 


:t This book has been republished, with improvemcnts, by thc late 1\lr. \ViJliam 
Huddesford, keeper of that museum. 

 See Dr. King.s " Journey to London," publhhed under tbe tictjtiuus name of 
SOl biere. 



OF l
NGI..AND. 


229 


LADY TERESI A SHIRLEY. J. Basire. 
Tlzere is a portrait of Lady Shirley, with a chaplet of 
Il'oses in a border, inscribed" Barbara, dutchess of Cleve- 
land," 
'c. 
'old by John Overton;,' scarce. 
The print, which has only the painter's and engraver's names, is 
extremely scarce. Mr. John Barnard had two of them, one of 
which he sold to the Dutchess of Portland for three guineas. 
There is a portrait of her, in a Persian dress, at Preston-house, 
near Brighthelmston; and whole lengths of her and her husband, 
in Persian habits, at Petworth. 
This lady, who was wife to Sir Robert Shirley, the famous ad- 
venturer, was a relation of the Queen of l>ersia,. and is said to 
have been a Circassian. t She is said to have fallen in love with 
Sir Robert for his val our, which he signalized in several engage- 
ments with the Turks, during his residence in Persia. Dr. Fuller 
informs us, that her complexion resemble(l ebony more than ivory 
(which does not appear fron1 the print), and that she was herself 
very valiant.! In 16 I 2, she came first into England with her hus- 
band, who was sent hither in quality of ambassador from the Sophi, 
and was brought to bed of a child, to whom the queen stood god- 
motr..cr, and Prince Henry godfather. She must have been quite 
young at this time: her portrait was done many years afterward by 
V andyck.
 


lVIURIEL LYTTLETON, daughter of Lord-chan- 

ellor Brol111ey; died lü30; oval; ill flash's " History 
of Trórccster
'hire." 
Mrs.Muriel Lyttleton, daughter of Lord-chancellor Bromley, may 
be called the second founder of the family, as she begged the 
estate of King James when it was forfeited, and lived a pattern of 
a good wife, aff('ctionate wiùow, and careful parent, for thirty years, 
with the utmost prudence and economy, at Hagley, to retrieve the 


· See Finefs If Philoxenis," p. 175, where there is a curious anecdote of Sir 
Robert ShidcJ. 
t It is well known that the Circassians trade in beauties, and that they suppJJ Y 
the seraglios of the Sophi and the Grand Signiur. 
t u 'Vorthies," in Sussex, p. 107. 

 It "as, perhaps, copied by Y andyck, from an original by a former rainter. 
Quærc. 



230 ßI 0 G flAP II leAL II 1ST 0 II Y 


estate and payoff the debts; the education of her chilùrcn in vir- 
tue and the Protestant religion being her principal employ. Her 
husband, lVIr. John LytUeton, a zealous Papist, was condemned, 
and his estate forfeited, for being concerned in Essex's plot, though 
he seems to have had no design to subvert the government, and 
was condemned on very slender proofs, amounting to little more 
than that he was in the Earl of Essex's retinue, which accompanied 
him from Essex-house in a tUlTIultuous lTIanner into the city, which 
might have been justly esteemed a seditious riot, but not high- 
treason. 


ANASTASIA (VENETIA) STANLEY, lady 
Digby. Hollarf. 1646. 
LADY ÐrGBY. J. Oliver,. A. Birrell, 1802. 


There is a portrait of her at Althofp, done after she was dead, 
by Vandyck. Mr. Walpole has a miniature of her by Peter Oliver, 
after the same picture. He has also miniatures of eight other per- 
sons of the same fanlily. There are two fine busts of her at Mr. 
Wright's, at Gothurst, near Newport-Pagnel, Ducks, fOlomerly the 
seat of Sir Kenelm Digby; one of which was engraved by Basire 
for Pennant's "Journey frOln Chester to London," p. 337, and a 
view of her monument, as it was in Christ Church, N ewgate-stl'eet. 
but destroyed in the fire of London, is in the" Antiquarian Reper- 
tory," vol. ii. p. 195, from a drawing in the curious pedigree book 
of the Digby family, in the possession of the present noble repre- 
sentative of that ancient family. 
Venetia, daughter and coheiress of Sir Edward Stanley, grand- 
son of Edward, earl of Derby, and wife of Sir Kenelm Digby. Her 
1Jeauly, which was much extolled, appears to have had justice done 
it by all the world. It is not quite so clear whether equal justice 
were done to ber reputation, which was far fron1 escaping censure. 
The Earl of Clarendon mentions Sir Kenelm's "marriage with a 
lady, though of an extraordinary beauty, of as extraordinary a 
fame.". 1\'11'. Skinner has a small portrait of her by Vandyck, in 
which" she is represented as treading on Envy and l\1alice, and is 
unhurt by a serpent that twines round her arm."t Here the his- 


!It .. Lifc of the Earl of Clarcndon," p. 31. 
t ". Allccd.Jtcs of Painting," vuÌ. ii. 
ù edit. p. 102. 



OF ENGLAND. 


231 


torian and painter illustrate each other. This was a model for a 
large portrait of her at 'Vindsor. 


I
ADY BLOUNT, widow of Sir William Main- 
waring; frou/; an orig'inal in the possession of the Rev. 
Geor!!;e Lefroy, of Ash, ill Hanlpshire. Schencker sc. 4to. 
Hesther, daughter and coh
ir of Christopher vVase, of Upper 
Holloway, in the county of Middlesex, esq. married, when very 
young, Sir William l\1ainwaring, of\Vest-Chester, knt. who unfortu- 
nately lost his life in the cause of Charles the First, at the assault 
of Chester in Oct. 1645, leaving by his lady two daughters, his 
coheirs; of whom Hesther married Sir Richard Howe; and Judith, 
the other coheir, was first wife oC Sir John Busby, of Addington, in 
the county of Bucks, kl1t. but she dying at the age of 19, at her 
father-in-Iaw's, Sir Henry Blount's seat, at Tittenhanger, left one 
child who lived to Inaturity, Hesther, wife of the honourable Thomas 
Egerton, of Tatton Park, Cheshire. 
Lady IVlainwaring, after the death of Sir William, became, in 
1647, the wife of Sir Henry Blount, so well known by his" Travels 
to the Levant," and other writings; by him Lady Blount had issue, 
the famous Sir Thomas Pope Blount, of Tittenhanger, bart. born at 
Upper I-Iolloway, Sept. 12, ] 649. the author of the" Censura An- 
thorum ;" and the celebrated Deist, Charles Blount, who is supposed 
to have been assisted by his father in his well-known book "the 
Anima l\iundi." 


MARGARET SMITII, n1arried to Sir Tholnas 
Carye, one of the bed-chamber, and brother to Phi- 
ladelphia, lady Wharton. Vandyck p. 1636; P. a 
GUllst sc. 'lvhole ICJlg,tlz,. larg'e It. she 
This was in the 'Vharton colh
ction, now at Strawberry-hill. 
MARGARET S
l\IITH, vidua TholTIæ Cary, et uxor 
Ed yardi Herbert, equitis. .Vandyc/f p. Faithorne sc. 
II. sh. l1zis is OJle oj'the scarcest and Jinest of all our 
Eng"lish prints. 


MADAl\1 KIRK.' Jl(lJul!Jck p. IIaY'lvood f. It. sl,. 



232 BIOGRAPIIICAL HISTOR \ 


MADAl\I A
!\ E KIRK. Vall{{ljck p. Browne; larg'e 
h. s Ii. ,}Jle.z'_
. * 


l\1ADAl\I KIRK, sitting in a chair. Hollar f. h. she 
MADAl\I ANN KIRK; whole leng,th. Vandyck; J. 
Becket fecit. 
IVIADAl\I KIRK, SlttlJzg;,. with tlze Countess of lJ;Ior- 
tOJ!. V. Dyclì" Gronsveldt se. 
1\lrs. Kirk was one of the dressers to Queen Henrietta Maria. 
She stood for this place in competition with Mrs. Neville, to whom 
sbe was preferred. t \Vhen the king withdrew from Hampton- 
court, he ordered Co!. '\Vhalley to send her tbe queen.s picture. 
Her portrait in n1iniature is at Burghley-house. 


D. ANNA WAKE. Van Dyck p. P. Clollwet se;, 
4to. Ruff, ruffles, bracelet, &c. 
Anna Wake, daughter of Robert \Vake, a merchant of Antwerp. 
She married James, third lord Savile, and second earl of Sussex. 
He died in 1671. 
Sir William Wake, in a letter to Mr. Bull, which I have seen, 
says, that it is more than probable that this lady is of his family, as 
"there appears to have been an Anne, daughter and coheir of 
Gregory Brokeby, of Frithby, in the county of Leicester, who mar- 
ried Sir John 'Vake, in the reign of Charles I."t 


· There is a miniature of her at Burghley. 
t See" Strafford Papers," vol. ii. p. 37. 
t I have often wished for a Campanella at my elbow, to inform me of the cha. 
racters of several ladies in this Class.
 I pay little regard to what the satirist says
 
who tells us that, 
" l\Iost women have no characters at all." 
and that they are, 
" Best distinguished by black, brown, and fair.'" 
When I see a plea
ing form, I fancy, as others ha\'e done before me, that it wa'S 
attended with many excellences, and adorned by the virtues, as well as the grace!t-. 



 Campanella, a celebrated Italian mimic and phy!!iognomist, is said to have had 
a surprising talent of conforming his features to the likeness of such as were any 
way remarkable, and by virtue of that conformity, of entering into their characters. 
See an account of him in Spon's H Recherches (l'Antiquité:' 



OF ENGLAND. 


233 


LUCY SACHEVERAL, sitting' under a tree. P. 
Lely inv. Faitho1"ne se. l
aris; 1649. In Lovelace's 
" Lucasta," before a pag;e inscribed to her. This SCeJJlS 
to 
e the invention of the painter, as the inscription inti- 
1nates. See the article of LOVELACE. 


BATHUSA MAKIN (Makins), Principi Elizab. a 
Latinis, Græcis, & Hebræis. 


Forma nihil, si pulchra per it, sed pectoris alm
 
Divini species non moritur a viget. 


lV. lJI. ( Ma1'shall) se. sTnall 8vo. 


BATHUSA MAKIN, &c. 
lcry. 


In the Woodburn Gal- 


. She is represented olù, without any remains of beauty. I should 
rather conclude that she never had any, as her figure is remark- 
ably homely. 
Mrs. Makins, who was sister to Dl'. John Pell,. one of the 
greatest linguists and mathematicians of his age, may he justly 
placed in the first rank of learned ladies. She maintained a 1iterary 
correspondence with the celebrated Anna Maria Schurman, t who 
was, perhaps, the only woman comparable to her in the knowledge 
of the languages.t 


· Evel.v n 's U N umisma.ta," p. 265. There is an account of Dr. PeU, in 
Birch's" History of the Royal Society," vol. iv. p. 44-J., &c. and in the u Bio- 
graphia." 
t See preface to Bal1ard's U :l\Iemoirs," p. ,'ii. 

 It appears from the following notice, that 1\Irs. l\Iakins continued to exercise 
her learned talents, long after she had ceased to employ them in the service of 
royalty. In 1673, was published a quarto pamphlet, entitled, U An Essay to re- 
vive the ancient Education of Gentlewomen in Rcligion, l\:Ianners, Arts, and 
Tongues, with an Answer to the Objections against this way of Education." At 
the end of which i
 the Postscript :-If any inquire where this education may be 
performed; such may be informed, tbat a !ichoûl is lately erected for gentlewomen 
at Tottenham High-cross, within four miles of London, in the road to "Tare j where 
. Mrs. Makins is governess, who was sometimes tntorcss to the Princess Elizabeth, 
daughter to King Charles the First; \'\'her
, by the blessing of God, gentlewomen 
"'OL. I II. 2 II 



234 lllOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOR \- 


1\1RS. MARY GRIFFITI-I. G. Glover se. Before 
" Hæe lIon1o," ÇfC. hy Willia17l Austin, esq. 121710. 5'lle 
is represented with a 'lvatch in her hand. 
IVIns. M_\RY GRIFFITH; 121110, }
 Richardson. 
This excellent woman was endowed with luany virtues and ac- 
complishments; and was particularly careful in the employment of 
her time, which she knew to be essential to the attainment of every 
useful and ornamental qualification. Her business and diversions 
were usually regulated by her watch, and the latter always with a 
subserviency to the former. ' 


1VIARGAIlET LEMON. TT Ull dyc/ì p. W. Hollarf. 
1646; h. sit. ten }ì
cJleh verses. 
MARGUERITE LEl\ION; Angloise. Vandgck p. Gay- 
'lL'ood s c . 


1\1ARGARET LE1\IOX. J;"p"andycli p. Morin se. octagon; 
her hair e01Jlbcd hacA
, and adorned with flowers. lIeI' 
na1J1e is not inscribed. 
MA llG ARETA LEl\ION. L07Jl'Jnelin sc. h. sh. 
The picture of her, from which Hollar engraved the print, is at 
Strawberry-hill, and came from Buckingham-house. 


may be iustructed in the principles of religion, and all manner of sober and virtuou3 
education; more particularly in all things ordinarily taught in other schools; 
f \tVarks of all sorts l ì 
Dancing l I H If h . 
1\1 . ate tIme 
) - USIC, \.. b 
as.") S' . ('"to e spent 
I W Jn?
ng, J in these things; 
I ntmg, 
lKecping Accounts. 
the other half to be employed in gaining the Latin and French tongues; and those 
that plea
e, may learn Greek and Hebrew, the Italian and Spanish; in aU which 
this gentlewoman hath a competent knowledge, &c. &c. 
Those that think these things improbable or impracticable, may have farther 
accollnt every Tuesday at .Mr. l\Iason's coffee-house in Cornhill, near the Roval 
Exchange; and Thursday, at the Bolt and Tun in Fleet-street, between the ho
urs 
of three and six in the afternoon l by some person whom 
Irs. ]-lukins shall appoint. 
-BINDLEV. 



OF ENGLAND. 


235 


l\largaret Lemon was mistress to Vandyck, who drew several 
portraits of her. There is a very fine one in a lower apartment at 
I-Iampton-coul't. This woman was almost as famous in her time 
as the painter himself, and was said to have been liberal of her 
favours to several persons besides that artist; particul
rly to En- 
dymion Porter, groom of the king's bed-chamber. 


SCOTCH LADIES. 


_4.NNA, comitissa de l\iortol1. VllJl((ljck p. LO}}lbart 
8C. h. sit. 


AXN, countess of Morton; 8vo. G. Vcrtuc. 
A 
N, countess of lVIorton; sitting 'lvitll lJfada17l, 
]{irlì. v: Dyck,. J. GroJlsveldt. 
_J\.N 
, countess of 1\1:o1"ton. Bocquet 8C. III "lVoble 
Authors," by .AIr. Par It" 1806. 
Her portrait, by V anùyck, is at Althorp. 
Anne, daught
r of Sir Edward ViUicrs, president of Munster, 
and half brother to George, the great duke of Buckingham; and 
wife to Robert Douglas, earl of l\lorton. She was governess to 
the Princess Henrietta,* and is celebrated by 'Valler. Fenton 
speaks of her as "one of the most admired beauties of this age ;" 
and says, that" the graces of her miild were not inferior to those 
of her person." In 1646, she conveyed the princess, in disguise, 
from Oatlands, into France.t She caused a " Book of Devo- 
tions"! to be composed for her daily use, which was published by 
1\1. G. a lady of her acquaintance, to whom she had recolnnlended 


· Afterward Dutchess of Orleans. 
t Fenton's Observations on \Valler's Poem to Lady l\Iorton. See several letters 
of Sir Edward Hyde to her in the second volume of the "Clarendon Papers." 
Some of these letters, which are strongly expressive of the writer's esteem and 
friendship, are addressed to her under the title of Lady Dalkeith. 
* It is from this "Manual of Devotions," that 1\1r. \Valpole, in his II Catalogue 
of Royal and Noble Authors," quotes the remarkable expression of II Lord wilt 
tbou hunt after a fica?" 



236 BIOGRAPHICAL IIIS'fOH. Y 


it. The imprimatur is dated 1665, and the fourteenth edition was 
published in 24mo. 1689. It appears from the dedication of this 
book to the Countess of 1\lareshall, daughter of Lady 1\10rton, as 
well as from the print, that the author of the "British Compen- 
dium" for Scotland, is mistaken in calling her Elizabeth.* 


AN NE, countess of Argyle; fro17z a pictu1
e in tlie 
collection of Lady Mary Coke,. in "Noble Authors," 
hy lJIr. Park,. 1806. 


This lady was. the daughter of William, earl of Morton, and 
the first wife of Archibald, seventh earl of Argyle, who distinguished 
himself at the battle of Glenlivot, in 1594. Sir William Alexander 
inscribed his " Aurora," in 1604, to Lady Agnes, countess of Argyle, 
where he gallantly says of his amatory fancies, " that as they were 
the fruits of beautie, so shall they be sacrificed as oblations to 
beautie." The countess collected and published, in Spanish, a set 
of sentences from the work of St. Augustine. She is said to have 
died prior to 1638. See" Noble Authors." 


The LADY LETTICE, viscountess Falkland, 
Æ't. 35. Marshall se. 12mo. 


LETTICE, viscountess Falkland. W. Richardson. 
The portrait is prefixed to" The holy Life and Death of the 
Lady Lettice, viscountess Falkland, with the Returns of spiritual 
Comfort and Grief in a devout Soul, represented in Letters to that 
honourable Lady, and exemplified in her. By John Duncon,t 
Parson sequestered, third Edit. 1653;" 12mo. The first edition 
was printed in 1648. The account of her" Life" is in a letter 
addressed to the Lady Morison, mother to the viscountess, at 
Great Tew, in Oxfordshire. It is dated April the 15th, 1647, and 
seems to have been written soon after her death. 
This excellent lady was daughter of Sir Richard Morison, of 
Tooley Park, in Leicestershire, knt. and relict of the celebrated Lu- 
cius Cary, viscount Falkland, who was killed in the first battle of 


· " British Compel1d." p, 135. 
tiler chaplain. 



OF ENGLAND. 


237 


Newbury. When that great and amiable man was no more, she 
fixed her eyes on heaven; and though slInk in the deepest affliction, 
she soon found that relief fronl acts of piety and devotion, -which 
nothing else could have administered. After the tumults of her 
grief had subsided, and her lnind was restored to its former tran- 
quillity, she began to experience that happiness which all are 
strangers to but the truly religious. She was constant in the pub- 
lic and private exercises of devotion, spent much of her time in 
family prayer, in singing psalnls, and catechising her children and 
domestics. She frequently visited her poor neighbours, especiaJIy 
in their sickness, and would sometimes condescend to read religi- 
ous books to them, while they were employed in spinning. She 
distributed a great number of pious tracts. Lord Falkland left her 
all that he was possessed of by will, and committed his three sons, 
the only children he had, to her care. Db. Feb. 1646, Æt. 
circ. 35. 


1\1ARIA RUTEN (RUTHEN or RUTHVEN), &c. 
uxor Antonii Vandyck, pict. Vandyck p. S. a Bois- 
vert sc. 


MARIA RUTEN, &c. Vandyck p. Gayu'oodf. It. she 
copicd frorn the fornzer. 


VANDYCK.'S WIFE; frol1Z II picture by "f)ir Ant. Van- 
dyck, in the collection o..f 5 f ir Richard Lyttleton. Barto- 
lozzi se. h. she 


MARIA RUTEN, &c. V. D!Jck; 
 Faithorne eJ,"c. 
MARIA RUTEN; anongmous. V. Dyc/t; L. Ferdi- 
nand. 


MARIA RUTEN. 
 Dyck:J' Joluz .AIe!Jssclls. 


MARIA RUTEN; an etching
' 
 D!Jck; rare; Jol. 


There is an original of her, by Vandyck, in the possession of 
Sir John Stepney, at Llannelly, in Caermartheu:5hire. 



238 


n lOG RAP II I C ..."'- L II 1ST 0 R Y 


Vertue, in a manuscript catalogue of heads, which I have, men- 
tions a print of Vandyck's daughter, by Arnold de Jode. 
IV! ary, daughter of the Earl of Gowrye, descended from Lord 
1\lethllen, son of Margaret, daughter of Henry VII. by Francis 
Steward, her third husband. Her father was executed for a con- 
spiracy against James VI. of which there are accounts in several of 
our histories. Bishop Burnet observes, that her issue by Vandyck 
" stood very near to the succession of the crown."* She had only 
one daughter by Sir Anthony, who married Sir John Stepney, a 
gentleman of Wales. t 


AN IRISH COUNTESS. 


ELIZABETH, Castlehaven comitissa. TTandyck J}. 
Lombart se. h. 8h. 


· "Rist. of his own Time," i. p. 19.
 
t The fullowing account of the Stepney family, which was communicated by the 
late Sir Thoma5 Stepney, father to Sir John, the present representative for the 
county of l\lonmouth, will rectify some mistakes relative to Lady VandJck and 
ller descendants. 
'c John Stepney, of Pendegrest, esq. who descended from Ralph Stepney, lord 
of Aldenham, in Com. Hert. was created a baronet the 19th uf James I. He left 
three sons, Sir Juhn, Thomas, and Charles. John died without issue-m
le, by 

'hich the title and part of the estate devolved to Joþn Stepney esq. son to his 
brother Thomas. This Sir J obn Stepney married Justina, daughter and heir to 
Sir Anthony VandJck, by wllom he had issue his son and successor, Sir Thomas 
Stepney, grandfather to the present Sir Thomas. The supposition that 1\1r. Stepney, 
the poet and envoy, was descended from the Stepney who married Vandyck's 
daughter, is erroneous. The p
digrt'e from that period is perfectly clear; the late 
Sir Thomas Stepney being the only son of that marriage. If I may hazard a con- 
jecture, and a very probable one, Stepney, the poet, was either son or grandson of 
Charles, third son of the first baronet. Lady Vandyck married to her second 
11usband, Sir Richard Pryse, of Cogerthan, in Com. Cardigan." 


t This is all erroneons.-Bishop Burnet mistook the daughter of Lord l\1ethuen, 
by Lady Jean Stewart his second wife, for a daughter by the queen-moth
r. He 
was not the first who committed the mistake. 
Vandyck's wife was the daught
r of Dr. Ruthven, a ",brother of John, earl of 
Gowrye, who, afrer the ruin of the Ruthven family, retired into England and be- 
came a physician. His mother, Dorothea, was the daughter of l\Iethuen by a sc.. 
t:onù marriage, and the wife of JViliiam, carl of Gowryc.-LOItD IJ
ILES. 



OF ENGLAN D. 


239 


Elizabeth, countess of Castlehaveri, was daughter and coheir of 
Benedict Barnham, alderman of London." She was wif
t of the 
infamous l\lervin, earl of Castlehaven, and baron Audley, who 
was executed the 7th of Charles I. for an unnatural crime, and 
also for assisting in a rape upon her. James, his eldest son by 
tl1is lady, was restored to both his dignities, the 19th of tbe same 
rClgn. 


C LAS S XII. 


PERSONS REMARKABLE FROM ONE 
CIRCUMSTANCE, &c. 
JOI-IN BRADSHAW, (sergeant at law) president 
of the pretended high court of justice; fronl Ull orig;i- 
'/lal painting". lII. Vanderg;llcht sc. 8vo. large l1at..t 


JOHN BRADSHAW; la.4to. partly scraped,. (rare. 


· B. Barnham was also the father of Alice, viscountess St. Alban's, \\bo after- 
warù married Sir John Underhill. 
t Her portrait was painted in her widowhood. 

 The following inscription is on a copper-plate, belonging to Bradshaw's hat in 
Ashmole's l\Iuseum. The inside of the crown of this hat, which he wore at the 
telaJ of tbe king, is well guarded with iron. 
IC Galerus iIle ipse, quo tectus erat 
Johannes Bradshaw, archi-regicida, 
Dum execrabili regicidarurn conventui 
præsideret. 
Djgnus ut in eodem loco, 
Quo Fauxi laterna, 
collocetur; 
Ilia papisticæ, hic fanaticæ 
Nequitiæ monulU('ntnm. 
In hoc dispares ; 
Scilicet id Ilefas, 
Quod ilIa in tenebris machinata est, 
Hic sub Dio perfecit. 
Dat. An. Domini 1715; a Tho. Bis!e S. T. P." 



240 B IOGRAPHICAJ
 IIISTOR Y 


JÒHN BRADSHA'V; in Cau!fteld's "Hig'/l COlll..t of 
Justice. " 


Bradshaw had the peculiar infamy of being the only man that 
ever sat in judgment upon his sovereign. His reward for presiding 
at the trial was as extraordinary as his crime; as the parliament, 
soon after, made him a present of Summer Hill, a seat of the Earl 
of St. Alban's, valued at 10001. a year.*' Bradshaw is supposed to 
have communicated some old evidences to Marchimont N edham, 
to be inserted into his translation of Selden's "Mare Clausum."t 
Ob. 11 Oct. 1659. He declared, a little before he left the world, 
that if the king were to be tried and condemned again, he would be 
the first man that should do it.: 


CAPTAIN ROBERT D()VER; on horsehack; 
hefore the "Al1llalia Duhrensia, upon the yearly celebra- 
tion of ]Jlr. Robert Dover's Olynlpic GaInes, upon Cots- 
wold Hilts," 
'c. Lond. 1636: 4to. 


CAPTAIN ROBERT DOVER; illCau!field's "Rc1Jzarlc- 
ahle Persons.." 


This book consists of verses written by Michael Drayton, Tho- 
nlas Randolph, Ben Jonson! and many others.
 
Robert Dover, an attorney, of Burton on the Heath, in the county 
of 'Varwick, was, for forty years, chief director in the annual cele- 
bration of the games upon Cots wold Hills, in G louce
tershire. 
These games, to which multitudes resorted, were cudgel-playing, 
wrestling, leaping, pitching the bar, throwing the sledge, tossing 
tbe pike, and various other feats of strength and activity. Many 
of the country gentlemen hunted or coursed the hare; and the 


· Walker's U History of Inrlepend." Part ii. p. 258. 
t Nicolson's u Historical Library." iii. 124. 
t See Peck's U De
iderata Curiosa," xiv. p. 32. 

 l\Iatthew \Valbancke appears to have been the editor of these poems, probably 
at the request of Dr. Dover, to whom they are dedicated, and "who thought it his 
duty to perpetuate the mcmory of that good man his grandfather." This he de- 
served from a circumstance more extraordinary than his presiding at the games; 
for though bred an attorney. he ne\'er tricd but two causes, having always made up 
the difff'rences.-S I R 'V. l\hr!o n A v E. 



o F ENGLAND. 


241 


women danced. A castle of boards was erected upon this occasion, 
fro1l1 which guns were frequently discharged. Captain Dover had 
not only the permission of James 1. to celebrate the Cotswold 
Games, but appeared in the very clothes which that monarch had 
formerly worn,:j(( and with much more dignity in his air and aspect. 
See "Athen. Ûxon." ii. col. 812, where the print is particularly 
described. 


ARCHEE (ARCIl y), the king-'s jester; a whole 
ICJlg,tlz, ill a long' particolourcd Tunic; hat and feather. 
" Archee by kings and princes grac'd of late, 
Jested himself into a fair estate ; 
And in this book, cloth to his friendS' comlnend, 
His jeers, taunts, tales, which no man can offend." 
The print, which was engraved by T. Cecill, is before his "Jests," 
in 12mo.t 


ARCHEE, the king's jester; in Cau!field's " Re1nark- 
able Persons." 


ARC flEE; s171all 'il'.
'f)!e leng,tlz; "This is no lJIuckle 
John nor S017uners tVilliaJlz," <S'c. prtji.Ted to his "Jests," 
1600; Haywood
' scarce. Copied by Richardson. 
A RCI-IEE, 'lDith Archbishop Lalld; WOOd-Cllt. 


,. They were given him by Endj'mion Porter, the king's servant. 
t Ther{' are many jests in this book which were never uttered by ArdJy, and 
which are indeed, in general, very unworthy of him. It has been justly observed, 
that no nation in the world abounds so much in jest-books as the English. Under 
thi::l head may come Tarlton's Jests, the witty Apophthegms of James I. and the 
l\Iarquis of \Vorcester, and some of those of Lord Bacon. 'Ve have also the Court 
and State Jests, in noble drollery; England's Jester; and the Oxford, Cambridge, 
and Coffee-house Jests. In the reigns of George II. and III. were published the 
Jests of Ben Jonson, the Earl of Rochester, Tom Brown, Joe l\1ille1",t Ferdimmdo 
Foot, 1\11"s. Pilkington, and Bean Nash; and almost everyone of these medlies are 
thought to be intermixed with the No-jests of the compilers. The jests of QUill 
came forth presently after his death, and they were soon followed by those of 
Yorick and Shakspeare. 


t This book has been much read and studied by tlJC speakers and retailers of 
C.OOD THI
GS. 


VOL. III. 


2 I 



242 BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTORY 


Archy, or Archibald Armstrong, who was a great master of grr- 
Inace and buffoonery, was jester, or fool to James I. and his son 
Charles. His famous reply to the former of these princes, relative 
to his sending the heir of his crown into Spain, is too well known 
to be here repeated. He had a particular spleen against Bishop 
Laud, upon whom he was sometimes very sarcastical.* When the 
liturgy, which that prelate endeavoured by all means to introduce 
into Scotland, was absolutely rejected, and great tumults were 
raised upon that account, he said to him tauntingly, " 'Vho is fool 
now?"t The king who was luuch offended at this impudent jest, 
ordered him to pull off bis coat, and dismissed him. He was suc- 
ceeded by Muckle John,! who was the last persoll that was re- 
tained as fool to the English court. Killegrew is said to have been 
jester to Charles II. but the Duke of Buckingham, the :þarl of 
Rochester, and Colonel Titus, were as much that king's jesters as 
he was. 
He died] 672, at Arthuret, in Cumberland, the place of his 
birth, where he retired after his disgrace. See Lysons's " Cnul- 
berland," page 13. 


MR. IIOBSON, &c. J. Paynef. a purse lJl his 
hands; eig'ht Eng'lish verses; h. sit. 


IVIR. Honsox; cig'ht Rng'fish verses,. 4to. J
 
Richardson,. lJfr. Hobson:}' J. Caulfield. 


His portrait is, or was, at his inn in Bishopsgate-street. 
I-Iobson, the carrier of Cambridge, by the help of common sense, 
and a constant attention to a few frugal maxims, raised a much 
greater fortune than a thousand men of genius and learning, edu- 
cated in that university, ever acquired, or were even capable of ac- 
quiring. He was, to use the citizen's phrase, "a much better man" 
than l\lilton, who has written two quibbling epitaphs upon him. 
But if that great poet had never lived, his name would have been 


· lIe once, when the bishop was present, asked leave to say grace, which being 
granted him, he sail1, "Great pra:se be given to God, and little Lat:d to the dcvil." 
t A stool wn
 thrm..n at the dean's head, who first read it in the cathedral at 
Edinburgh. Arch y said, it was" the Stool of Repentance." 
t See" Strafford Pap"'r>>," ii. J,;1. 



OF E N G L A 
 D. 


243 


dl ways remembered; as he took an cffectualillcthod of perpetuating 
his memory, by erecting a handsome stone conduit at Canlbridge, 
supplying it by an aqueduct, and settling seven lays of pasture 
ground towards the mainten
nce of the same, for cver.* He died 
in the time of the plague, 1630, in the 86th year of his age. There 
is a poem called" Hobson's Choice," which I have seen printed 
in a folio pamphlet, together with " The Choice," by Pomfret. See 
more of him in the " Spectator," No. 509. Hi
 will is aillong 
Peck's Collections. 


OLD PARR; froJJz an orig;inal picture, in the collec- 
tion of [Tvedale Price, esq. Ceo. PO'lvle del. et /)'c. 4to. 
Etched with the dry needle. t 
TUOJ\IAS PARR. Vorsternzan sc. 


This is mentioned upon the authority of Mr. Gough; I never 
saw the print.f 


" The old, old, very old man, or THOMAS P AUf{, 
the son of John Parr, of Winnington, in the parish of 
Alberbury, in Shropshire, who was born in 1483, in 
the reign of Edward the IVth, and is now living in 
the Strand, being aged one hundred and fifty-two 
years, and odd months," 163.'). C. v: Dalen 
'c. sitting' 
in a gt"eat chair, with a bolster behind hirtZ, hi/)' eyes ltalj
 
open; 4to. 
TUOl\IAS P AH.R; 1ne.zz. J. Faber. 


TUO:\IAS P AUn. ; Jol. lIaúcrt, 1715. 


"rIlO:\IAS I") ARR; 4lu. 'J1le.z
'. P. v. f:J'. (uutcr.) 
TUOl\IAS PARR; 4tu. 


· "Cantabrigia Depicla," p. 10. 
t The most delicate kind of etching, which was plac;tl
cd by J.iembram1t. It 13 
done upon the bar
 plate, without aqua fortis. 
t My grateful acknowledgments arc due to this ingenious rmd communicatÍ\ e 
çeutlcman for several favours. 



244 n lOG R ...\ PHI C.A L II 1ST 0 R 1 


THOl\IAS PARR; half leng,tll. J. Cau!Jield. 
THOl\IAS P AUR, &c. who lived in the reigns of ten 
kings and queens, ,vho no\v lies buried in 'Vest- 
minster Abbey; 4to. 
OLD PARR, ../Et. 151. G. JV/zitef. 4to. 'J71e
z. 
There is a portrait said to be of him, at Belvoir Castle, amI 
another in Ashmole's Museunl. The .most valuable is in the col- 
lection of the Dutchess of Portland. 
Thomas Parr seems to have been a man of ,,-ery different sta- 
mina from the rest of n1
nkind; as Dr. Ii'uller tells us, that he is 
thus" charactered by an eye-witness of him :" 


U From head to heel, his bod.}' had all over, 
A quick-set, thick-set, nat'ral hairy cûver."1it 


At a hundred and twenty+ he married Katherine IVlilton, hi
 
second wife, whom he got with child; and was, after that era of 
his life, employed in threshing and other husbandry work. 'Vhell 
he was about a hundred and fifty-two years of age, he was 
brought up to London by Thomas, earl of Arundel, and carried to 
court. The king said to him, " Yon have lived longer than other 
men, what have yon done more than other men T' He replied, " I 
did penance when I was a hundred years old."! Ob. Nov. 1635. 
The fullest account of him extant, is in his cc Life," by Taylor, in 
the" Harleian l\liscellany." 


YOUNG PARR. G. Whitef. 4to. 'Jnez,z. I-Ie is 1'C- 
presented 'Vcry old. 


Young Parr, the supposed son of the former, is said to have 
lived to a very advanced. age. Turner, in his "'V onùers of Na- 
ture," subjoined to his "History of remarkable Providences,"
 


., II 'VorlLies in Shropshire," p. 11. 
t It should probably be a hundred and two, according to Dr. Campbell, ill his 
" Hern
ippus Uedivivus." 
t Peck's" Collect. of diverse curious historical Pieces," subjoined to his Lives 
of Cromwell and l\lilton. 

 Chap. xxxii. Sect. 1..1. 



OF ENGL.AND. 


. 


245 


tells us, that old Parr married his first wife at eighty years of age, 
and in the space of thirty-two years, had but two children by her, 
who died young; that at a hundred and twenty, "he fell in love 
with Katherine l\1ilton, and got her with child." If this be true, 
several of the stories told of young Parr are false. 


JEFFERY HUDSON; a sJ7lall print; before a 
very s1Jlall book, entitled, "The Þ/C'lV Year's Gift," pre- 
sented at cOllrt, froJJl the L{l{(lj Parvllla, to tILe Lord 
jlliJlÙnus (Co7717JlOnly called Little JejjèJ"!}), her ,}}lqjest!}
s 
servant, 
'c. 'lorilten by AIicrophilus. 
JEFFERY HUDSON, and the Giant; froJJl the bas- 
relief, near Bag'llio-court, ill Pennanfs " London," p. 218, 
.lirst edition. 
JEFFERY HUDSON. J. Call!field. 


JEFFERY fluDso
; ill the vic'lV of" T"eubaÜr
.:" 
5 f . fjparro'lv, ] 800. 


JEFFERY HUDSON; whole If'llg'lh, with II dog". 
D. lJIytens,. JaJJzes StO'll), 1810. 


JEFFERY HUDSON, &c. copied jac-sinzile fronl the 
orig'inal print of AI. D. (lJIartin Drocshollt), by 
B. Reading'. 
At Petworth is a whole length of Henrietta Maria, with Jeffery 
l-Iudson, by Vandyck. There is another in the possession of Lord 
l\Iilton. 
This diminutive creature, when he was about s
ven or eight years 
of age, was served up to table, in a cold pie, at Burghley on the 
Ifill, the seat of the Duke of Buckingham; and as soon as he maùe 
his appearance, pr
sented by the ùutchess to the queen, who re- 
tained him in her service. * He was then seven or eight ycars of 


· The king's gigantic porter once drew him out of his pocket, in a masque at 
court, to the surprise of all the spectators. 



246 ß lOG 11..\ P II LeA L II 1ST 0 n y 


age, and but eighteen inches in height. He is said not to have 
grown any taller, till after thirty, when he shot up to three feet 
nine inches. Soon after the breaking out of the civil war, he was 
made captain of the royal army. In 1644, he attended the queen 
into France, where he had a quarrel with Mr. Crofts, whom he 
challenged. Crofts came to the place of appointment, anned only 
with a squirt. A real duel soon after ensued, in which the antago- 
nists engaged on horseback, with pistols. Crofts was shot dead 
with the first fire. Jeffery returned to England at the restoration, 
and was afterward confined in the Gatehouse on a suspicion of being 
concerned in the popish plot. He died under confinement, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. See more of him in the "Anecdotes 
of Painting," ii. p. 8,9, 10, whence the above account is extracted. 
In Ashmole's 
luseum are his waiscoat, breeches, and stockings. 
The former is of blue satin, slashed, and ornamented with pinked 
white silk. The two latter are of one piece of blue satin. 


FRANCIS BATTALIA, an Italian that s\vallowed 
stones. rIollat' f. 16-11; h. she 
FRANCIS BATTALIA. "rrhe true portraiture of a 
Roman youth whose strange birth and life cannot 
sufficiently be adn1ired," &c. &c. whole length,. llo/ding' 
it g'lass in one haud, lInd in the other a }Jlate 'loitlz stones. 
(}{/u!field, 1794. 
The following strange account is given us of this person, by 1\11'. 
Boyle, and a much stranger by Dr. Bulwer; I shall transcribe 
theln both: "Not long ago, there was here in England, a private 
soldier, very famous for digesting of stones; and a very inquisitive 
man assures me, that he knew him familiarly, and had the curiosity 
to keep in his company for twenty-four hours together, to watch 
him, and not only observed that he eat nothing but stones in that 
time, but also that his grosser excrement consisted chiefly of a 
sandy substance, as if the devoured stones had been in his body 
dissolved, and crumbled into sand." -Boyle's " Exp. Philos." 
Part II. Essay III. p. 86. 
Dr. Bulwer says, he "saw the man, and that he was an Italiau, 
Francis Battalia by name; at that time about thirty years uf age; 
and that he was born with two stOllC8 ill oue hand, and oue ill the 



OF ENGLAND. 


247 


. 


other; which the child took for his first nourishment, upon the 
physicians' advice: and afterward, nothing else but three or four 
pebbles in a spoon, once in twenty-four hours, and a draught of 
beer after them; and in the interim, now and then a pipe of to- 
bacco; for he had been a soldier in Ireland at the siege of l:imeric ; 
and, upon his return to London, was confined for some time, upon 
suspicion of imposture." Bulwer's" Artificial Changeling," p. 
307. He is said, sometimes, to have eaten about half a peck of 
stones in a day. 
" 1-Ie took tobacco and drank wine or strong drink till he could 
neither go nor stand." See Lysons's " Cheshire," p. 563. 


LAZARUS and BAPTISTA COI
LEREDO, the 
twin brothers; engraved by rIoltar, without his nanze, 
1635; wit It a long; inscription in GerJJlaJl. 


Another; 4to. by]lf. HaffJlel
. 


LAZARUS COLLEREDO. R. S. Kirby e.vc.- 4to. 


Of the actual existence of this most extraordinary terror of 
nature, Bartholini's account, who saw them at Copenhagen and 
Basil, is sufficient; and that they were in England, and exhibited 
as a sight, the following notice cannot but sati
fy the most incre- 
dulous. Extract from the MSS. of the office-book of Sir Thomas 
Herbert, master of the revels to Charles I. frOln which I copied it:* 
"For six months a licence granted to Lazarus, an Italian, to 
shew his brother Baptista that grows out of his navell and carryes 
him at his side-in confirmation of his majesty's warrant granted 
unto him to make publique shewe, dated the 4th November, 1637- 
It. 138. He hath promist to make it up lOt." 
Also in the" Strafford Letter, "vol. ii. p.118, lUr. Gerrard, in a let- 
ter to Lord Wentworth, lord-deputy in Ireland, describes them much 
in the same manner, only speaks of them as from Savoy, mistaking 
probably, Gellf't'a for Genoa, at which place they were certainly 
born. 
It is extremely remarkable that another object of the same kind, 
though not near so nU1Ch a double figure, viz. James Poro, who 


;II JA
IES BD1IJLFY. 



248 n lOG R...\ P II r C .A L II 1ST 0 It Y 


was seen in l.ondon in 1714, should not only be an Italian, but 
born at Genoa also, as appears by a mezzotinto print of hiln frOlu 
the picture in Sir Hans Sloan's collection. 


Innocent N AT. 'VITT; ill a blach
 cap, 
i'ith two 
..favours on it,. he helds a 'wooden sUJord ill his rig'ht liaJl{L 
Glover del. et sc. Under the print are fOllr verses. 
Innocent N A T. 'V ITT; in Cau!Jz
cld'8 " Relllarkable 
Persons." 


Nat. "\Vitt was a poor harmless idiot, who was so unhappy as to 
be continually teased anfl provoked by the people in the streets, 
who were as nluch worse idiots than himself, as an active is worse 
than a passive fooL 


JOHN BULL and R. FARNAM; [ZDO sluGl1 
portraits, cut in 'wood,. elicit holds a book. 
" Here Bull and l.'arnam hold their books laid open, 
"\Vho of the sword and pestilence have spoken: 
And out of witless madness thought to be 
Prophets, though poor silk-weavers by degree." 


JOlIN BULL and R. FAR
Al\f; ill Cau!Jiehl's " Re- 
,}}larkable Pcr
'oJls." 


Bull and Farnam, who on several occa
Úons distinguished them- 
selves by their vehemence and vociferation in preaching, as well as 
by the denunciations of vengeance, and other rant and nonsense 
in their writings, were regan]ed by many of t}}e vulgar as men of 
an apostolic character. Bull was the more attended to, Lccau
c 
he, with a bold front, always took the head, bore ùown every op- 
ponent, and roared the louùer of the two. 


An anonYlllous head, by IIollar; of a monopolizer 
of s\\'eet ,vines; ueal' hhn arc three barrels, orer'll'hic/z 
is the 'Ivord "lJJedÙlJJl;" he holds another s11zall one 
under his arnz. ÞS f igll of the Bcl!, 

'c. bush
' Ol'cr the 



OF ENGLAND. 


249 


Slo'n is inscribed " Good wine needs no bush nor A 
b 
beli." Under the head are these lines: 


" Thou purchas't (Medium) to enrich thyself; 
Thy plot was naught, thou must return thy pelf 
Unjustly got; besides thou shalt endure 
Fa)" sourer sauce to thy sweet wines be sure." 


This is the portrait of Alderman Abell, of London, who, 
with one Richard Rilvert, was concerned in a fraudulent trans- 
action relative to a n1onopol y of sweet wines, for which they were 
severely punished, when the parliament undertook the correcting 
the illegal patents granted in the reign of Charles I. The particulars 
may be seen in the parliamentary history of the times, and the sub- 
ject may be farther illustrated by the following transcript of the 
title-pages of three curious pamphlets in the possession of Jalnes 
Dindley, esq. 
" A dialogue or accidental discourse betwixt lVII'. Alderman Abell, 
and Richard Kilvert, the two maine projectors for wine, and also 
Alderman Abell's wife, &c. contayning their first manner of their 
acquaintance, how they began to contrive the patent itself, how 
they obtayned it, and who drew the patent. Also in what state 
they now stand in, and how they accuse and raile at each other 
with invective speeches, &c. with the manner and fashion how pro- 
jecting patentees have rod a tilting in a parliament time," &c. 
Printed also in the same yeare of grace, 1641. 


Another, with a wood-Cllt of the17Z ; the Alde'rnzan wit"
 
a baTrel under his arm, and tile sig'n of the Bell ove1
 
his head, ]{ilvert holding' a pa'l'chment scroll, inscribed 
" Pattent for Wine ;" black letter, 8 pag'es, 4to. At tile 
end, another wood-cut, representing one of theul riding' 
'lvith his face to the horse's tail, 'lchich lie holds in one 
hand in; the other a flag, inscribed " Tara-tan-tara." 
A 'l7zall goes before hint playing on the tabor, others fol- 
lo'wÙlg'Lvith halberts, crowd of spectators, 
'c. 


The copie of a letter sent from the roaring boyes 
in Elizium, to the two arrant knights of the grape in 
VOl!. I II. 2 K 



250 n lOG H...\ P II I C.A L II 1ST 0 n \
 


lilnbo, ALDER3IA N J\BEL and lVI. KILVE
lT, the two 
great projectors for wine, and to the rest of the 
\vorshipful brotherhood of that patent. Brought 
over lately by Quart Pot, an ancient servant to 
Bacchus, \VhOnl for a long time they had m
st cruelly 
rackt, but hoped shortly to be restored to his ancient 
liberties. Whereunto is added, the oration which 
Bacchus nlade to his subjects in the lower world; 
published for the satisfaction and benefit of hig 
subjects here; 4to. IG41; a POeJJl. 


T\vo oval wood-cut portraits; KILVERT with his 
patent in his hand, a glass and a wine llleasure on a 
table by hin1, ABEL "\vith his rebus of a Bell, and 
cask under his arm, standing by him. The last dis- 
course betwi,xt Master ABEL, and 1\tIaster RICHARD 
KILVERT, interrupted at the first by an angry 
gentle\V0111an, who being herself unkno\vn unto the 
observer of this conferrence, it was conceived by 
him afterward to be a certain friend of lVlr. Abel's; 
a 'wood-cut. 1ico 'JJzen and a 'lV011lan sitting' at a table, on 
1.vliicll lies a paper, probably the patent,. 4to. 1 G4] . 
Another curiolls tract ."- 


" Reader here you'l plainly see 
Judgement perverted by these three: 
A Priest, a Judge, a Patentee." 
Written by Thomas Heywood. Printed in the happy yeare of 
grace 1641. 
With wood-cut of Archbishop Laud, Lord Finch, and 
Abel. Title and ð-l.V pag'es. 


An exact legendary, compendiously containing 
the ,vhole life of ALDERl\IAN ABEL, the nlaine pro- 



OF ENG LAN D. 


251 


jector and patentee for the raising of wines, &c. &c. 
bifore ILis hOllse (!tolding his patent), on tlie top Of'lo/Ûclt 
is a bell
' A. B. on each side,. !tis 'lVifC in a/lother COJJl- 
partlnent sitting" on a goos
 ,. a sheet; B. L. 1 64 I ; 'rare. 


ABEL and KILVERT, two wine projectors. TV: Riclt- 
ardson; fro7Jl a curiolls U)OOd-Cllt. 
It is well known that monopolies, which were carried to a great 
height, were also abolished in this reign. 


SIR GILES MOMPESSON. In three divisions: 
first, Sir Giles insulting tlte 'Jlzistress of the Bell inn, 
'loho defends herself'lvitlt a lJpit. He holds II patcnt in 
his left nand,. in tlte 17ziddle he is Tcpresentcd running' 
a'loay for the seJjeant at arUlS, and ill the last is 'loalkillg; 
Oll crutches, 
'c. 
Y.:. Tare. 
Silo Giles M0111peSSOn, a gentleman otherwise of good parts, 
Lut for practising sundry abuses in erecting and setting up new 
inns and alehouses, and exacting great sunlS of rnoney of people, 
by pretence of letters patent granted to him for the purpose, was 
censured by par1ialnent, l\larch 17, 1620-1; was sentenced to be 
degraded, and disabled to bear any office in the Commonwealth, 
though he avoided the _ execution by flying the land; but upon 
Sir Francis Michell, a justice of peace of Middlesex, and one of the 
chief-agents; the sentence of degradation was executed, and he 
Inade to ride with his face to the horse's tail through the city of 
London. Vide Baker's "Chronicle." 


JOJ-IANNES CLA VEL, .ÉEtatis Sllæ 25.. Robert 
.1lJiglulJl cre. 1628; four En...!.5'!islt vcrses. Before 
"./1 llecantation of an ill-spent Life, or a Discoveric (if 
tIle IIig1l-way La1o, with vcltenlCJlt Dissuasions to all (ill 
that ](ind) Offenders. As a/so callÜ:lous AdJJlOllitioflS 
hOlD to shun and lljJprehcnd a Thicf/' E5'c. 4to. The third 
edition of this palllphlet was published in 1634. I.- 



252 ß lOG ILA P II I C 
\ l.4 II 1ST 0 It Y 


is said to have been approyed by the king, and pub- 
lished by his express command. 


JOHANNES CLAVEL; in ("{luijield's "llelJzarkablc 
Persons." 


This person, who had a liberal education, appears to have been 
in great necessity when he first took to the highway. To his re- 
cantation, which is written in an humble strain of poetry, are pre- 
fixed a great number of dedications, both in verse anù prose. They 
are addressed to the king, queen, privy council, clergy, judges, and 
others; and, an10ng the rest, to Sir Willimn Clavel, knight ban- 
neret, to whom he was heir at law, and whOln he had grossly 
injured. He was condemned with several others of his gang, but 
found meaus to procure a reprieve. It appears fCOln his verses to 
the queen, that she was his intercessor with the king to save his 
life. He expressed, when under sentence of death, and indeed 
afterward, the strongest marks of penitence for his crimes. He 
appears to have been extremely impatient of confinement; and the 
drift of his dedications was to procure his enlargement. It seems, 
froln the last edition of his" Recantation," published in 16a4, that 
be was then living, and at liberty, and totally reformed. 


MALL* CUT-PURSE; a 'JJlasculine 
DOUlllll lit {[ 
171an'S dress,. an ape, Zion, and eag'Ze, by her. 


" See here the presidess 0' the pilf'ring trade, 
IVlercury's second, Venus's only maid; 
Doublet and breeches, in a un'form dress, 
'I'he female humorist, a kickshaw mess: 
Here's no attraction that your fancy p;recl
 ; 
But if her features please not, read her feats." 


Duodecinzo. B(fore her Life, 1662. 


MALL CUT-PURSE, &c. JJZ Richardson. 


· A contraction ofl\Iary: it is still used in the west, among the COlll1l10U people. 
Hence is dcrive{l the diminutive l\Ialkin (or l\Ia\\ kin, a kind of loose 1II0p, maùe of 
cluuts for swecping the oven), a tcrm ofl{'n npplicù to a <li. ty :Jlatlcrnly wench.; but 
it originally higu" fÌC& 110 more than little 1\1011. 



o I.' EN (; LA_N D. 


'25:3 


MALL CUT-PURSE, &c. in Cau!/icÜ[s " RCl71arlt'able 
Persons." 


This notorious woman is mentioned by Butler and Swift, in the 
following lines: 


" He TroHa lov'd, TroHa more bright, 
rrhan burnish'd armour of her knight: 
A bold virago, stout and tall 
As Joan of France, or English ]-Iall."-HuD. 
" The ballads pasted on the wall, 
Of Joan of France, and ET/glish lUaU." 
B.\ UCIS and PIlI LE l\:IO X . 


- 
Mary Frith, or Moll Cut-purse, a woman of a masculillc spirit 
and make, who was commonly supposed to have been an henna- 
phrodite, practised, or was instrumental to almost every crime and 
wild frolic which is notorious in the most abandoned and eccentric 
of both sexes. She was infamous as a prostitute and a procuress, 
a fortune-teller, a pick-pocket, a thief, and a--receiver of stolen 
goods:* she was also concerned with a dexterous scribe in forging 
hands. Her most signal exploit was robbing General Fairfax upon 
Hounslow I-Ieath, for which she was sent to Newgate, but was, by 
the proper application of a large sum of money, soon set at liberty. 
She well knew, like other robbers, in high life, bow to make the 
produce of her accumulated crimes the means of her protection, 
and to live luxuriously upon the spoils of the public. She died of 
the dropsy, in the 75th year of her age, but would probably have 
died sooner if she had not smoked tobacco, in the frequent use of 
which she had long indulged herself. It was at this time almost 
as rare a sight to see a woman with a pipe, as to see one of the 
sex in man's apparel. Nat. Field, in his comedy, caJled Amends 
for the Ladies, has displayed some of the" merry pranks of Moll 
C " 
nt-purse. 


JOHN FELTON, who lJ'labbed tlie Duke '!f BllC!t'- 
lngha171" whole lcngth, standing in a rOO1Jl, a It/life in his 
hand,. 81Jlall quarto. 
This print, which is supposed to be unique, is in the collection 
of Benjamin Way, esq. of Denham-court, near Uxbridgc, Ducks. 


'" SIlt' made this trade very ddv&lulagn,us, kl\'iug ilclt:d UpOll mud. the samc 
V h .111 lhdt Junathan Wild did ill the l"Cign of George 1. 



254 ßIO G RAP II I C.A L II 1ST 0 R Y 


JOHN FELTON; a'lDood-cllt, representing Ilis stabbing 
tlte Duke of Bucking'ha17l. 
JOHN }i'ELTON; a copy front the SGl1ze. T. Rodd C.'t'C. 
8vo. 


John Felton, a person of respectable family, and of good fortune 
and reputation, in Suffolk, being bred to the army held the com- 
mission of a lieutenant of foot, and served under the Duke of 
Buckingham in the expedition against the Isle of Rhe; in dle 
retreat from which, his captain being killed, he conceived the com- 
pany by right should have been conferred upon him; but being 
refused in his suit by the duke, he threw up his commission in dis- 
gust, and withdrew himself frOlll the army. About this time the 
House of Commons had accused the duke of several misdemeanors 
and miscarriages, stylíng' him an enemy to the public. Felton, 
who had attended to all the invectives against the duke, some of 
which had even been. delivered from the - pulpits in the city, ima- 
gined he should do God anù his country a service by putting hin1 
out of the way, which he effected by stabbing him, on the eve of 
St. Bartholomew, at Portsmouth, where he had gone to make ready 
the fleet and arnlY, for the relief of Rochelle, then closely besieged 
by Cardinal Richelieu. For this murder the assassin was brought 
to trial" found guilty, and hung in chains at Portsmouth, 


RICI-IARDUS IIERST, Fidie Odio suspensus 
Lancastriæ, 19 Augusti, A. D. 1628. 
RICHARD HERST. G. Barrett. 


Hichard Her3t, or Hurst, whose head has been engraved among 
the clerical martyrs of the church of Rome, was, as Dod iuforms 
us, *" a yeoman of considerable substauce, near Preston, in Lanca- 
shire. He was executed as the murderer of a pursuivant, who was 
COlumissioncd to search his house. As this nlan, like the rest of 
his bretbren, had almost an unlimited power, he behaved himself 
with such insolence that it excited a scuffle, in which he received a 
mortal contusion. The blow was said to have been given by a 


· Vol. iii. p. 68. 



OF ENGLAND. 


255 


servant maid. Hurst, as the same author says, suffered death on 
the 26th of August, 1628. 


MATTHEW HOPKINS, 'lvith t'lVO witches. One 
of l!lenz, naJned Holt, is supposed to say, " .iffy ilnpes are, 
I. Ileuztluzar; 2. p"ljc-zvackett,. 3. Pecke ill the Crowu; 
4. Gric.z;.zcl Greedigutt." lfòllr aJlilJzals attl!lld: JarJJzaru, 
{t black doo' , . /jacke and 5 f u o 'ar a hare' ]{ezves a f erret. 
ð 0"" 
Villcg'ar TOJJl, a bull-headed g'rtyhound. This print is 
ill t he 1
 epysian Library. * 
MA TTHE'V IloPKINS; in Caulfield's "Re11zarlcable 
I
ersoJls." 


MATTHE'V HOPKINS; sJJlall 
vhole lellg.th. Caul- 
field sc. 
Matthew Hopkins, of l\tlaningtree, who was witch-finder for the 
associated counties, hanged, in one year, no less than sixty reputed 
witches in his own county of Essex.t The old, the ignorant, and 
the indigent; such as could neither plead their own cause, nor 
hire an advocate, were the miserable victims of this wretch's cre- 
dulity, spleen, and avarice. He pretended to be a great critic in 
special 'lnarks, which were only moles, scorbutic spots, or warts, 
which frequently grow large and pendulous in old age, but were 
absurdly supposed to be teats to suckle imps. His ultimate me- 
thod of proof was by tying together the thumbs and toes of the 
suspected person, about whose waist was fastened a cord, the ends 
of which were held on the banks of a river by two men, in whose 
power it was to strain or slacken it. Swimming, upon this experi- 
ment, was deemed a fun proof of guilt, for which King James, who 
is sllid to hare recommended, if lle did not invent it, assigned a ridi- 
culous' reason: "That, as such persons have renounced their bap- 
tisnl by water, so the water refuses to receive them."! Sometimes 
those who were accused of diabolical practices were tied neck and 


· Gough's "Anecdotes of Topcgr
phy," p. 495, notes. 
t See the account of his Commissiou aud l<:xploits, by himself. 

 See" The History of i\ludern Enthusiasm," by T. Evans, p. 31, 1st edit. 



25G n I 0 C nAP II I C A L II 1ST 011 \P 


heels, and tossed into a pond; "If they floated or swam, they were 
consequently guiJty, and therefore taken out and burnt; if they 
were innocent, they were only drowned."* The experiment of 
swimming was at length tried upon Hopkins himself, in his own 
way; and he was, upon the event, condemned, and, as it seems, 
executed as a wizard. Dr. Zachary Grey says, that he had seen 
an account of betwixt three or four thousand persons, who suffered 
death for witchcraft, in the king's dominions, from the year 1640, 
to the restoration of Charles II.t In a letter from Serjeant 'Vid- 
drington to Lord Whitlock, Inention is made of another fellow, a 
Scotsman, of the same profession with Hopkins. This wretch 
received twenty 
hillings a head for every witch that he discovereJ, 
and got 301. by his discoveries. t 


FLORAM M.A.RCI-IAND ; 'lvhole length,. .wood-cut; 
on tILe baclc of the title to tIle "Fallacie of tILe great 

vater drinker discovered, fully TejJresellting' what tl1(: 
ingorediellts that provoke hhn to 
;o wonderful a v017Ût, and 
by 'lVhllt art one {!yolass see171cth to be of one co lOll 1'1 and 
another of another,. and what he doeth when he taketlt 


.. " Universal Spectator," No. 388. 
t Grey's "Hudibras," vol. ii. p. 11. Dr. Grey supposes, with great rcason, 
that Hopkins is the man meant in the following lines of Butler. 
Has not the present parliament 
A ledger to the devil sent, 
}"ully empower'd to treat about 
Finding revolted witches out 1 
And has not he, within a year, 
Hang'd threescore of 'em in one sl1ire? 
Some only for not being drown'd : 
And some for sitting ahove ground 
"\'Vhole days and nights upon their breeches, 
And feeling pain. were hang'd for witches; 
And some for putting knavish tricks 
Upon green geese and turkey chicks, 
Or pigs that suddenly deceast 
Of griefs unnat'ral as he guest, 
'Yho after prov'ù himself a witch, 
.A nd made a rod for his own breech. 
lIud. Part ii. Canto iii. 


* \\ hitlucl
's H l\Icmorials," p
 421. 



OF ENGLAND. 


257 


lhe 'rose 'l{Jate1'1 and the angelica ?vater: hy lIIr. Tholllas 
Peedle and lJIr. Tho1Jzas Corbie, 'who þrollg'ht lzÌ171 over 
into England from Tozers in France; and afte'r Wed- 
nesday ne

't, bein..!J the 26th of this present June, will be 
constantlg ready every aficrnoon, if desired, in their 01D}l 
persons, to make an e.lperÏ1nental proof of what is here 
declared. Anno Donzini, 1650." 


A TURKISH ROPE-DANCER. w: Holla1' del. 
et fecit; 12nzo. 
The only memorial of this man, that is left behind him, is to be 
gathered from the ensuing ballad, which it seems was made by an 
eye-witness of his performance; it is entitled " A New Song on the 
Turkish A rtist, who not long since came into England, anù 
danced on a rope eight and thirty feet from the ground." 
A Wight there is, come out of the East, 
A mortal of great fame; 
He looks like a man, for he is no beast, 
Yet he has never a christen-name. 
Some say he's a Turk, some call him a Jew, 
For ten that bely bim, scarce one tells true, 
Let him be what he will, 'tis all one to you; 
But yet hc shall bc a Turk. 


This Turk, as I said in the versc before, 
Is a very fine tawny thing; 
If I tell you his gifts, you can ask no more, 
He can fly without any wing. 
He towers like a falcon over the people, 
Before he comes down he's as high as Paul's steeple, 
'Tis strange he makes not himself a creeplc, 
But yet be shall be a Turk. 
On a sloping cord he'll go you shall see, 
Even from the very ground, 
Full sixty foot high whcre I would not be 
Though you'd give me a thousand pound. 
First he stands and makes faces, and looks down belcw, 
Would I had twelve pence for each coulc1 not do so, 
By my trotb I'dc ncver make ballad mo, . 
Uut yct he shall be a Turk. 


VOL. III. 


2L 



258 


n lOG R ...\ P JI Ie _\ L II I" TOR Y 


REMARI(S ON DRESS. 


In this reign, the hat continued to be worn with much such a 
sort of crown as that described in the reign of Elizabeth; but the 
brinl was extended to a reasonable breadth. Hats inclining to a 
cone, a figure very ill adapted to the human head, occur in the 
portraits of this time. 
The hair was worn low on the forehead, and generally unparted: 
some wore it very long, others of a moderate length. The king, 
and consequently many others, wore a love-lock on the left side, 
which was considerably longer than thp rest of the hair.* The 
unseemliness of this fashion occasioned l\lr. Prynne to write a book 
in quarto, against love-Iocks.t 
The beard dwindled very gradually 'under the two Charleses till 
it was reduced to a slender pair of whiskers. It became qllite ex- 
tinct in the reign of James II. as if its fatality had been connected 
with that of the house of Stuart.t 


· Peck's C( Desiderata Curiosa," ii. lib. xv. p. 
 1. "ihen the lock was cut off, 
may be seen at p. 561, of some papers published by T. Hearne, at the end of 
" WALTER HEMINGFORD." 
t This book, which is written in the true spirit of the times, is well wortb the 
notice of my readers, espccially the ladies. It is entitled, "The Unlove1inc&s of 
Love-Iocks,
 or a summary Discourse, proving the 'Vearing and Nourishing of 
Locks or Love-locks, to be altogether unseemly and unlawful unto Christian;;;; in 
which there are likewise some passages out of the Fathers, against Face Painting; 
the 'IV caring of supposititious, powdcred, or extraordinary long Hair; and the 
'Vomen's mannish, unnatural, impudcnt, unclJristian cutting of the Hair," &c. 
16
8, in twel ve sheets, 4to. 
How would Prynne lJave exclaimed, if he had seen such bushes of hail' as the 
ladies bore upon their hcads in the last and present year!1I Bushes so enormous 
that. they seemed to req llire the tonsure of a gardener's shears, instead of scissars, to 
reùuce thcm to tolerable dimensions. Among all the strange Gothic figures which 
I have seen, I never met with so mom-trous a disproportion as that betwixt the 
female head and limbs at this period; even the long and large hoop was wanting 
to keep it in countenance. 
The hair of the" committee cut/' as it was called. was remarkably short; not 
unlike that in the print before Birkellhead's "Character of an Assembly-man." 
t For an account of the various kinds of beards worn in this and the former 
reign, see John TayIo1"s u 811pcrbiæ Flagellum," or Grey's" I111dibras," vol. i. 
p. 300, edit. 1. 
 



 It appears that Charles I. cut off his love-Jock in the year 1646. It is obvious 
to rcmark here, that his present majesty cut off his hair soon after his return from 
Portsmouth, in 1773. Numbers now begin to find that they grow gray, and are 
troubled with the headache II 1773. 



OF ENGLAND. 


259 


The ruff, wbich of all fantastic modes maintaincd its possession 
the longest, was worn, for some time after the accession of Charles; 
but it had almost universally given place to the falling band, when 
Vandyck was in England.
 
Sla
hed doublets
 doublets with slit s1cevcs, and cloaks, were 
much in fashion. 
Trunk breeches, one of the most monstrous singularitics of dress 
even seen in this, or any other age, were worn in the reigns of 
James and Charles I. 
1641-The forked shoes came into fashion, being almost as 
long again as tIle feet, and not less an impediment to the action of 
the foot than to reverential devotion. Short feet were soon thought 
to be more fashionable. 
1650-Mel1 and women brought down the hair of their heaùs to 
cover their foreheads, so as to lHeet their eyebrows. 
163-1-1t was not till the reign of Charles 1. that one Captain 
Dailey, of the navy, erected four hackney coaches, put his men in 
livery, and appointed them to ply at the May-pole, in the Strand. 
I-Iackney chairs were soon after introduced. 
The points, which formerly used to be 
een hanging about the 
waist, are seen dangling at the knees, in some of the portraits of 
this period. 
Little flimsy Spanish leather boots, and spurs, were much worn 
by gentlemen of fashion. It was usual for the beaus in England 
and France,t to call for their boots, and some tl}ink their spurs too, 
when tht>y were going to a ball, as they very rarely wore the one 
without the other. 
.1\lr. Peck, the antiquarian, informs us, that he had in his pos- 
session, a whole length portrait of Charles, the dress of which he 
thus describes: "lIe wore a falling band, a short green douùlet, 
the arm-parts, toward the shoulder, wide and slashed; zig-zag 
turned up ruffles; very long green breeches (like a Dutchman), 
tied far below knee, with long yellow ribands; red stockings, great 
shoe-roses, and a short red doak, lined with blue, with a star on 
the sllOulder." t 
L
dies wore their hair low on the forehead, and parted in small 


· A medal of Charles I. in p. 104 of Evel,yn's "Numism;:)ta," represents him 
with a ruff; another, I>. 108, with a falling band. The' author obscrves that the 
bishops, and the judgcs 1 were the last that laid the ruff aside. 
t See Bruyere. 
* r
ck':s "Desiùerata Curiosa," ii. lib. J\.\". p. 
1. 



200 


BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOR Y 


ringlets. l\Iany wore it curled Jike a peruke, and some braided 
and rounded in a knot, on the top of the crown. They frequently 
wore strings of pearls in their hair. Ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets, 
and other jewels, were also much worn. 
Laced handkerchiefs, resembling the large falling band worn by 
the men, were in fashion among the ladies: this article of dress 
has been lately revived, and called a Vandyck." 
l\'Iany ladies, at this period, are painted with their arms and their 
bosoms bare; and there is no doubt but they sometimes went with 
those parts exposed. 
Cowley, in his discourse "Of Greatness," censures some enor- 
mities in the dress of his time, in the following terms: "Is any 
thing more common than to see our ladies of quality wear such 
high shoes as they cannot walk in without one to lead them! And 
a gown as long again as their body; so that they cannot stir to the 
next room, without a page or two to hold it up ?" 
The citizens' wives, in this reign, seem to have had their domestic 
sumptuary laws, anf! to have adopted the frugal maxims of thcìr 
husbands. There appears from Hollar's habitst to have been a 
much greater disparity, in point of dress, betwixt them and the 
ladies of quality, than betwixt the former, and the wives of our 
present yeomanry. 
The dress of religion gave the highest offence to some gloomy 
zealots in this reign, who were determined to strip her of her white 
robe,:t to ravish the ring from her finger, to despoil her of every 
ornament, and clothe her only in black. 


· It was rcvived by Lady Dyscrt, "]\0 is said to have f.aken her banc1kercl1icf 
from a portrait of Henrietta Maria. 
t Entitled II Theatrum l\Iulicrum," &c. 
t The surplice, which was in derision called II a rag of popery," gave grcat 
offence to many women of nice mo()csty and tender consciences, who thought it 
highly indecent that a man should wear II a shirt upon his clothes." The devout 
women in these days seem to have regarded this vestment with different eyes from 
those of an honest country girl at Christ Church, in Oxford, who, upon seeing the 
students returning from prayers in their surplices, blesseci herself, and, in mJ hearing.. 
said, with an ecstatic emphasis, that theJ looked like so many angels in white. 
The matrimonial ring and the sqnare cape wcrc, by the Puritans, held in equal 
detestation with the surplice, the liturgy, and church-music. The device 011 the 
standard of Colonel Cook, a parliamentarian of Gloucestershire, was a man in. 
armour cutting off the corner of a sqnare cap with a s\\'01"<.I. His motto was, 
l\Iutu quadrata ,'otundis, 
alluding to the well-known appcllat:on of the puritan party. 



OJ.... ENGLAND. 


261 


API:)ENDIX 


TO 


THE REIGN OF CHARLES I. 


FOREIGN PRINCES" ALLIED TO TIlE 
ROYAL FAMILY. 


MARIA, de Medices, regina Franciæ, triunl renum 
l11ater. P. Pontius sc. Vandyck p. Martin Vanden 
EJlden
: e.'l'c. It. sh. 


l\1:.ARY, oflVledicis (or Medices), thequeen-nlother; 
'lvitlt a view of the gYlte at St. JaJlzes's. VeT'tue sc. A head- 
piece ill .V{tller's Works,. 4to. 
MARIA de Medicis; 8vo. Pourbus; J. C. Viriigcr. 
MARIA de Medicis. Hondius. 


lVIARIA de Medicis ; fol. Wieri..1\ 
MARIA de Medicis; whole length, scated on a 
throne, inscribed "La Courollne de Justice;" four 
French verses. 


l\'IAR r A de l\ledicis; fzvo ullg'cls Itoldiug a crO'lVJl ovcr 
her head,. four French verses. Crispin de Passc sc.fec. 


11 The plates of many of Vandyck's heads. and some of Ilis historical picces, were 
deB \'ercd to Vandcll Euclca, as 80011 as they came out of the cngraver's hand
: 
thosc wrought off by him are valuable for the goodness of the impression. 



262 n lOG RAP III CAL II I ST 0 It Y 


IVI A R r A de Medicis; p,'qfi/e,. 'lVOOd-Cllt,. inscribed 
" lJlaria fiIcdici f. Jl1DC.LY.LY.Ll. V II." rare. 
MAR r A ùe Medicis; in an oval; 8vo. fOllr French 
verses. Petrus ]?irens fecit. 
IVIARIA Medicis, dressed in black. Le Blond C.l'C. 
There are several portraits of her in the Luxemburg gallery, par- 
ticularly 
n the beautiful print of her coronation. That print resem- 
bles the fine medals of her engraved by Du Pres, in some of which 
she is represented with Henry IV. 
Mary of Medicis was queen of Henry IV. of France, with whom 
she lived in very little harmony.*' Henry, like his granùson Charles I I. 
was too general an admirer of the sex to maintain the least ap
ear- 
ance of .fidelity in the marriage state. It was even whispered that 
his inconstancy was the occasion of his death, and that it was not 
without the privity of Mary. She was by the king her hu
})and 
c.1ppointed regent of France, during the minorit.y of her son; and 
governed that kingdom under the influence of the l\larquis of Ancre, 
bel' favourite, and his lady. The former was assassinated by the 
encouragement of the young king; the latter was burnt for a witch
 
but professed that she had no other power over the queen, than a 
stronger has over a weaker bead.-In 1640 Mary was, by the vio- 
lence of a faction formed against her, driven to seek refuge in Eng- 
land, which was itself a scene of faction and tumult: she was even 
insulterl by the populace in the streets of London, on account of her 
religion. \Valler wrote a copy of verses on her landing.t 


GULIELlVIUS, princeps Auriacus, COUles Nas- 
saVlæ, &c. Ale.l'aJlder Cüoper }). lIenr. 11ondÙl8 /J'C. 
I 64 I . 


· Onc of the famous wisk
s of Henry IV. "hich he a\'owcù to the Duke of 8uJJy 
was, that he might be (airly rid of l\Iargaret his first queen. This was probaLl,y his 
:silcnt wish, at least, with respect to l\Iary. 
t There is a print b}/ M. Lasne, o.fteJ' Valld,ycl" il1sc1'i
ed "lOA NNES PUGI-:T Dl, LA 
SERR E, a supremis Cunsiliis Regis Chri
tianissil1li Consiliarius dignis5imus, Gallicc 
Histuriugraphus clo<]llcntissimus, et quillquaginta liLrorml1 Auctor cclcLcrril1lus." 
As this person has, in a folio vulunw, 
ivcu an accuunt of the receptiun and cutcr- 
tainmC'ut uf l\Iary (;[ 1\1cùicis in .England, it is pruuablc that he "as one of hcr 
train. Ilullar did scvcral curious prints for tlJÍs bOük. 



OF ENGLAND. 


263 


,V I LLI A 1\J, prince of Orange, &c. a sl1zall head, 

1J llIarsltall, in the sallze plate with tILe PrillcessllIary, 
his cOJ/sort. 


,"T I LLI Al'tI, prince of Orange, after VaJld.!}ck, a sJ7lall 
"aif leJlf!,'tlt. G. "Vertue f. nzez'z. 


WILLIA1\I, prince of Orange, father of King'Vil- 
liam, attended by a person on horseback. Terbll1
'1t p. 
(}ajJl. Baillie sc. h. sh. III the nzanner of RC17zbrandt.' 


W ILLIAJ\I, prince of Orange, on horseback, ill 
ar17zour, hat alldfeather,. two Cupids èrowning' hÙJl witlt 
laurel,. view of a battle, Eb"c. 16-15. J. Levecque. 


WI LLIAl\I, &c. in a1
J1l0ll1
. HOJldtIz01
.st; Queboren; 
ftL . 


W ILLIAJ\I, &c. on horsebaclc; Itat and featlLer; 
Allardt,. sheet. 
WILLIAl\I, &c. Æt.9, 1635; fol. lJIeriveldt; Delff. 


WILLIAM, &c. in a Vandyck dress; cap andfeatlIer,- 
1Jlezz. A. V. D!Jck. 
WI LLI A}\;I, &c. 
vhole leng,th. Honthorst; Sallier, 
1781; sheet. 
W ILLIAl\I, &c. JJï: Sllerwin sC. S1Jlalt folio. 


W ILLIAJ\f, &c. Deljf,. half sheet. 
'V I LLIAJ\I, &c. 4to. De Jode e
l'C. 


W ILLIAl\I, prince of Orange, &c. by Faitllornc. 
Sold by Robert Peake,. fol. 



264 BY OC RAPIIICA L HIST 0 R Y 


WI LLIA
r, prince of Orange, &e. Peter Quast; 
Cr is. van Queboren scul. 


WI LLIA 1\1, prince of Orange, born 1627; married 
23d May, 1641; holding hat andfeatlzer; whole leJl
.th. 

 lIoltar,. rare. 
A Copy. w: Richardson. 
This young prince, before he was fifteen years of age, was raar- 
Tied to Mary, eldest daughter of Charles I. who was then in her 
eleventh year. The marriage was celebrated at St. James's tIle 22d 
of February, 1640-1. He succeeded his father in all his honours 
and commands, the 23d of Jan. 1648.-He was a man of courage, 
ambition, and enterprise; and there is great reason to believe that 
he intended to make himself absolute; as he actually made an at- 
tempt to seize Amsterdam; but he did not succeed. He died of 
the small-pox, the 6th of Nov. 1650, in the twenty-fourth year of 
his age. I t was surmised that the chagrin, occasioned by bis dis- 
appointment, contributed to his death. His posthumous son, \Vil- 
liam, did not only preserve the republic of Holland, but delivered 
Great Britain from arbitrary power, and made a noble and effectual 
stand against the dangerous ambition of France, which threatened 
the liberties of Europe. 


KNIGHTS OF THE GARTER, &e. 


CLAUDE DE LORRAINE, due de Chevreuse, 
pair de France, &c. 4to. 


Installed 
Decem. 
1623. 


This duke, who was brother to Charles, duke of Guise, was the 
king's proxy when he espoused the Princess Henrietta, whom he 
attended into England in quality of ambassador extraol'dil1ary.* He 


· Sir John Finet informs us,t that the king went to meet his consort I\t Canter- 
bury; and that the mayor " borrowed the recorder, master Henry Finch's mouth, 
for a welcoming speech;" by which expedient he acquitted himself with much ele- 
gance. 


t II Philoxenis," p. 152. 



OF .ENGLAND.. 


2G5 


was a man of an active and restless disposition, like several others 
of his house, and was remarkable for his animosity against the Pro- 
testants. He died of an apoplexy, the 24th of Jan. 1667. 


GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, king of Sweden, &c. EJected 
1621. 
(knight of the Garter). T.Ceeill se. 4to. 
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS; 4to. W. .lJ:larshall seulp. 
Sold by Tho. Jenner. 
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS; sheet. JJf. Mierevelt p. 
W. Delff; 1633. 


GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS; 4to.. ilL D. ('roeshout); 
sial' English verses. 
GUSTA VUS ADOLPHUS, &c. S. Furck. 


GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, &c. eighteen Latin verses. 
P. Virg'il 
Iaro fee. 


GUST A VUS ADOLPHUS; on horsebaclc, in arl1lOllr; 
hand fronz the clouds holding a sword,. sheet. Fran. 
Ilocills e
rc. 


GUSTA vus ADOLPHUS, &c. L. ](illian; 1630. 


GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS; sheet. lJI.Lasne etJ.Brio!. 


GUST A VUS ADOLPHUS; Izalf slzeet ,. four LatinlÎnes. 
T. 7'orzi fee. 


GCSTAYUS ADOLPHUS, on horseback at the battle of 
Leipsic, 'with ViC1DS of cities, to'll'JlS, 

c. lfIonco'l'net e.rc. 
sheet,. fine. 
IIis portrait, by l\Iierevclt, is in the collection of Charle
 .Ten- 
IH'nH, efo:q. in Ormond-ßtre{'t, where there are many more paintings. 
VOL. II I. 2 :\1 



2ûû 


BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTORY 


Sweden, which had been overlooked in the political system of 
Europe, soon became considerable, by the heroic courage and re- 
fined politics of Gustavus Adolphus. This great man seemed to 
be rising apace upon the ruins of the empire, which was extremely 
weakened by his victories. He made as rapid a progress in his 
conquests, as his successor Charles XII. and being a much more 
profound politician, held almost all Christendon1 in anxious sus- 
pense, as his designs were impenetrable. He was killed the 16th* 
of Nov. 1632, at the battle of Lutzen, where his army gained a 
complete victory over the Imperialists. He was father to Christina, 
queen of Sweden, of :whom Gaywood has given us a print, and 
Misson a picturesque description of her person.t The" Life of 
Gustavus Adolphus," was lately published by l\Ir. Walter Harte,. 
canon of 'Vindsor. 


HENRICUS FREDERICUS, princeps Arausio- 


.. According to other accounts the 6th.* 
t See l\Iisson's letter from Rome in his II Travels." Some curious particulars 
relative to her character, are in Lord Lyttleton's II Dialogues of the Dead." 


t There have been various reports about the manner in which the grcat Gus- 
ta\"us Adolphus, the asserter of Gcrman liberty, lost his life. Some say he was 
assassinated by the direction of Cardinal IticheIieu. Puffenùorf in his" History of 
Sweden," says, he lost his life by the hands of Francis Albert, duke of Luncnburg, 
one of his generals, who was bribed by the Imperialists. But in the archives of 
Sweden there hath lately been found a letter, which sets this matter in a different 
light. It was written Jan. 21, 1725, by 1\lr. Andrew Gædny, provost of the chapter 
of Vexis, to 1\Ir. Nicholas Hawesdon Dahl, secretary of the archives of Swedcn: the 
substance of it is as follows.-" Being in Saxony in 1685, I discovered, by a happy 
chance, the circumstances of the death of King Gustavus Adolphus. That great 
prince had gone, only attended by one domestic, to reconnoitre the enemy. It 
bcing a very thick fog, he unfortunately feIJ in with a post of the imperial troops, 
who fired upon him, and wounded him, but did not kill him. The servant, in 
bringing the king back to tbe camp, dispatched him with a pistol, and took the 
glasses which the king used on account of his being near-sighted. I bought thosc 
spectacles from the dean of N aumbourgh. The man who killed the king was ,'ery 
old, and at the point of death when I was in Saxony. A relllor:sc of his crime 
troubled him extremely, and his conscience gave him no rest. He sent for the 
a hove-mentioned dean, and confessed to him his horrid crime, with all its circum- 
stances. From this dean lleamt them, ,\ hich I have deposited among the arcJlivcs 
of Sweòen. 1 immediately wrote thc!'e particulars from (Jermany to Baron PU{fl'll- 
dorf, that he might in::.ert them in his II istory of Swedl'n. Il e wrote me an answer 
that hig Listo(y was already printed in Hulland, and that he had followed, in his 
lIi1rr.llÏulI of his e,-ents, thc scntimcnts of Chemintz," &c. &c. 



OF ENGLA.ND. 


267 


. 


nensium (Periscelidis eques). A. Vandyck p. P. Pon- 
tÙtS sc. in arnlour,jine; lar
'e she 
There is a curious print of flinl on his death-bed, with 
IÛsfanlily andfriends about hÏ1n, in Cats's Works. 


HENRY :FREDERICK; whole leng;th; Latin inscl"iptioll. 
w: Akersloot, 1628. 


HENltY FREDERICK. F. Brun. 


I-lENItY FREDERICK. C. v. Dalen. 


HENRY FREDERICK, richly drcst with a trunclzeon. 
lV. Delph sc. 


HENRY FREDERICK, Æt. 43. Hondius. 


HENRY FREDERICK. Van D!Jck pinæ. P. deJode sc. 
HENRY FREDERICK; large folio. S. Passe. 


I-IENRY FREDERICK, in an oval; elevated on a tll'rouc 
q! steps, witlt 'J7lany e1Jzblenlatical jig'ures; fourteen 
Latin verses; larg'e sheet. A. Newland; S. Passe, 1627. 


HENRY FREDERICK; oval. Passe. 


l-IE
RY FREDERICI{ ; fol. in an oval. G. HontlLorst; 
J. vall JJIeurs sc. 


I-lE
RY FREDERICK; oval quarto. C. V. Qucboren. 
HEN.RY FREDERICK. Van Dyck; C. Waumans. 


IIEXRV FREDERICK; whole IcngtlL, 7L'ilh English 
inscription. P. 5'tcnt e.Æ'C. 



268 BIO GRAPHICA L 1l1STOR Y 


HEI:\RY FREDERICK; on Itis deatlt-bed, with '1nany 
portraits. C. 
 Dalen; half sheet. 


Elected 
16
7. 


Henry Frederick, son of William I. prince of Orange, and brother 
to Prince Maurice, succeeded the latter, who was never married, 
in his command, in the Low Countries. He was, in every respect, 
worthy of his illustrious house; and was inferior to his brother 
Maurice only in the number of his victories. lIe was particularly 
remarkable for gaining several important conquests, with the loss of 
but few men, and was called " the father of his soldiers." He died 
at the Hague, the 14th of March, 1647. '\Villiam II. prince of 
Orange of that name, was his son, and William III. who became 
king of England, his grandson. 


FERDINANDUS II. Medices, magnus dux 
Hetruriæ quintus. Lucas ](ilian; AugustaJlus sc. 
1628; 4to. 


FERDIN ANDUS II. srnallfolio; rieh ornanzcnted bor... 
der of medals. Joan. Gellefec. et e
l'c. 


FERDINANDUS II. A. V. Dye/í'" LothariJYlls, i. e. 
Loronese. 


Ferdinand II. grand duke of Tuscany, succeeded his father, 
Cosmo II. in 1621, and died in 1670.-Mr. Kennedy, who pub- 
lished " A Description of Pictures," &c. at the Earl of Pembroke's, 
at 'Vilton, informs us, at page 20 of his book, edit. 1758, that 
" A Silenus and Bacchus, a very fine group, and a Flora, Loth of 
dle Parian marble, were a present to the first Philip, earl of Pem- 
broke, by the Duke of Tuscany, who, in King Charles the First's 
time, was in England, and resided with the said earl, three weeks. 
It is very certain that his son, Cosmo III. was here in the following 
reign." 


PETRUS DE BERULLE, Cardinalis, Con- 
gregat. Orat. D. J. Institutor. ChalJlpaignc jJ. N. de 
Plate lJIontaip;Jle se. 1661; h. sit. 



OF ENGLAN]). 


. 


2Gü 


PETRUS DE BERULLE. V. Lochon, 1657. 
PETRUS DE BERULLE; in Pcrrault; J. Lubin. 
Peter de BeruBe was son of Claude BeruBe, a judge of eminence, 
and a counsellor in parliament, by Louisa Seguier, sister to the 
chanceIJor. He first established the Spanish order of Carmelite 
nuns in France, and had the principal hand in the establishment of 
the fathers of the Oratory. He was a man of various learning, and 
of a pious and humble character, and was remarkable for carrying 
the hod, in building a chapel for these fathers. He industriously 
declined honours and preferments, and made a vow never to accept 
of a cardinal's hat. But when he went to Rome to procure a dis- 
pensation for the marriage of Henrietta Maria with the King of 
England, he so far gained the esteem of the pope that he sent a hat 
before him into France, together with an absolution from his vow, 
and an order to accept it. He attended Henrietta into England, 
where he was treated with great distinction, and received abundant 
marks of esteem. lIe died in the act of celebrating 111a8s;* the 2d 
of Oct. 1629, in the 55th year of his age. It was at his instance 
tbat Descartes came to a re30lution of publishing his philosophy; 
and that, in consequence of that deterlnination, he retired into HoI- 
land. BeruBe's character, together with his print, is in Perrault's 
fine book, entitled" Les Hommes illustres," &c. 1696, in two vo.. 
lumes folio; a work which does great honour to the French nation. 

he late rdr. Bateman had a curious carving of the cardinal, which 
resembles his engraved portrait. 


MESSIRE CHARLES DE LA UBESPINE, 
marquis de Chateau N euf, &c. ambassador extraord. 
en Angleterre, ou il conclude la Paix entre deux 
Couronnes, en 1630, &c. 4to. in Darct's "Itlust. 
Frenclnnen." 


FRANCISCUS DE BASSOMPIERRE,lnarchio 
d'IIarovel, Galliarum polenlarchus generalis, IIcl- 
vetiorum et Rhætorum præfectus. J1I. Las/lc del. ct 
8C. in ar1JlOltr; It. sh. 


.. The worthy author of this book died in the act of adminÌ1)trating the communion. 



2iO nIOGR.APIIIC
\.L IIISTOR Y 


FRANCOIS DE BASSOl\IPIERRE, marechal de France; 
Ul an oval,. 8vo. J. LaJJlsveld fee. 
Francis de Bassompierre, knight of the orders to Lewis XIII. 
and marshal of France, was descended from a noble family in Lor- 
rain, the head of which, as the marshal himself informs us, sprung 
from the commerce of a woman with a spirit. He acted in a military 
capacity, in several memorable battles and sieges; particularly át 
the famous siege of Rochelle; and on all occasions gave signal 
proofs of his valour and conduct. He was no less remarkable for 
his amours,*" of SOllie of which he has given us the history. He 
was employed in several embassies by Lewis, who sent him into 
England in the beginning of the reign of Charles. In 1631 he was 
sent to the Bastile, where he continued a prisoner as long as Car- 
dinal Richelieu lived. Here he \\Tote his " Memoirs," and his 
" Remarks on Dupleix's History of Lewis XII!." Mr. \Valpole, in 
his advertiselnent prefixed to Hentzner's " Journey to England," 
has justly censured hin1 for not knowing even the names of severa] 
things of which he has written. He calls York-house Jorchaux, 
and Kensington Inhimthort. Ob. 1646. 


CARDINA1
 CHARLES ROSSETTI; a 1Jlcdal- 
lion, in the " ./Edcs Barbcrinæ." 


CHARLES ROSSETTI. C. Bloma1't. 


CHARLES ROSSETTI; a circle. JV: Richardson. 


Cardinal Rossetti, a man of a haughty and aspiring disposition, 
who was bold and active in the advancement of papal power, was 
sent in the character of nuncio into England. He had a great sway 
over Henrietta Maria; of which the parliament loudly complained 
in their declarations.t He was afterward sent in the same cha- 
racter into Ireland, where he took upon him the command of that 
nation, as a people subject to the pope. The Irish, who were then 
in arms, were so impatient of this domineering zealot, that they be- 
sieged him in \Vaterford, which occasioned him to return to Italy 
with secrecy and precipitation; as he perceived t.hat the bigoted 


.. See Baylc's " Diet." art. TOUCHET, note (C). 


t 16.H. 



OF ENG LAND. 


271 


Catho1ic
 themselves were too much exasperated to pay any defe- 
rence to a tyrant, though iLJ.vested with a sacred character, and armed 
with the thunders of the Vatican. He, at his departure, left the 
kingdOln under an interdict, as an apostate nation.* 


HENRY DE SENNETERE, duc, pair, et mare- 
chal de France, marquis de Ia Ferté, &c. De Lar- 
'Jnessin se. larg'e 4to. 
Sennetere was a man perfectly qualified to act the part of an in- 
cendiary betwixt the king and parliament, for which purpose he 
was sent in the quality of ambassador into England; and had the 
satisfaction, when he left it, of having effectuaHy served Card)nal 
Richelieu and the popular leaders in the House of Commons, by 
doing his utnlost to kindle and foment a war, which was like to end 
in the ruin of the royal party, and the extinction of monarchy. The 
reasons assigned for his revocation, anù the sending of Count Har- 
court in the same character, are specified by Lord Clarendon, in the 
second volume of his History.t 


The lVIARQUIS DE VIEU-'TILLE; 1vhole 
Icngth,jroJJl ajine original picture by Van Dyclt, ill the 
collection of his Grace the Dul'c of Bllcking'hanl. 
It Cooper sc. Private }Jlate. 


The I\'1 A RQ U 1 S D I
 V lEU -V ILL E ; 
JVoodburn e.l'c. 


oval
' 11ZC.-::Z. 


The l\:1arquis de Vieu- Ville, a French nobleman, highly esteemed 
for his virtues and great talents, engaged himself in the cause of 
l{ing Charles the First, behaved himself Inost gallantly, but was 
slain while valiantly fighting at Anborn Chase, in September, 
1643. 


IIENRI, compte d'IIarcourt, &c. 'loliiskers, pcaked 
beard, 
'c. in Perrault's "]-lOJJlJJlCS Iltustres." 
There is an admirahle print of Count d'Harcourt engraved by 
Masson, after l\li;;narJ, in 16G7. 


lit C)arcl:<!IJII, iii. fha. p. 20.3. 


lit P. 399, 8\'0. edit. 



2i2 nTOGRAPTTICAL IIISTORY 


HENRI, COlnte d'Harcourt. Chal1l}Jagne; J.lJIorin. 
IIENRI, comte d'Harcourt; fol. J. Ie Elon. 


HENRI, comte d'Harcourt, on horseback,. vze'lO of 
Turin, J. .HuJllbelot. 


Henry of Lorrain, count of Harcourt, who is well known in his 
military character, came into England as an mnbassador, in 1643; 
under a pretence of mediating a peace betwixt Charles and the 
parliament. But as Mazarin had adopted the political plan of 
Richelieu, it was supposed that his secret intentions were to set 
them farther at variance. As he soon found that this was impos- 
sible, he returned to France, without doing any thing, except" as- 
suring the king, that the French court had his interest much at 
heart." 
 Db. 1666. See more of him in De Retz's " Memoirs." 


MICHAEL LE BLON, agent de la reyne et 
couronne de Suede, chez sa 111ajestie de la Grande 
13retagne. Vandyclc p. lïlco. Matharn sc. h. she 


Monsieur Ie Blon is mentioned by Mr. Walpole, among the col- 
lectors of the works of Hans Holbein. See" Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing," vol. I. p. 75, 76; 2d edit. 


CHRISTIAN THOMSON SEHESTED, A.F.f. 
In-Iloflnan's "Ho1Jl1nes illustres de Dane17larck." 


Sir John Finet, who calls him Tomson, l11entions his coming into 
England, together with Drahe, his colleague, on an embassy from 


· There are memoirs of a Count d'Harcourt, wlj!ch I remember to lJave seen; 
hut am in great doubt whether they were of the same person with the above, or not. 
The author of these memoÏ1'S observes, that the count, who had been in England, 
thought this national reflection of one of his countrJrnen upon tlw ]
JJglish. a \'C'ry 
injurious one, " That they are among mankind, what wolves are among beasts."t 
(>Lhcr French writers have represented us as a nation of bears, rather than wolves; 
but Yoltairc, as a nation of philosophers. 


t This was Guy Patin. See the" Freeholder," No. 

[ì. 



OF ENGLA ND. 


273 


Denmark.. Sehested was thirty-two years a senator of the reaJm, 
and se\'énteen years chancellor to the king; and was distinguished 
for his deep penetration, solid judgment, and unblemished integrity. 
Ob, 1657. 


GREGERS KRABBE, signeur de Tosteland. 
f:jèhley sc. dire.
\ a s111all head, in Hoflnan's book. 
Gregers Krabbe was knight of the order of the Elephant, and 
viceroy of Norway. He was sent hither by the King of Denmark, 
in the reign of Charles I. on account of the differences betwixt that 
prince and his parliament. He had the character of an able mi- 
nister. Db. 18 Dec. 1655. 


MOGENS SEHESTED, whose head is also in 
Hofn1an's book, was employed as an envoy frolll 
Denmark to several courts of Europe, particularly 
to that of England. He attended Ulric, the prince 
royal, hither, when he visited Charles I. He was 
much esteemed by Christian IV. and was, by Fre- 
deric III. honoured with the order of the Elephant. 
Db. 1657. 


There is a print, by Meyssclls, of STEPHEN DE 
GEMARA, a knight of St. Jago, ,vho had several 
great employments, under the King of Spain, in the 
Low Countries, and who was sent hither in the 
quality of anlbassador. 


JOANNES POLY ANDER, S. S. Theologiæ 


· "Philoxcnis," p. 220. It apIJears from the following anecclo1e, at p. 236 of 
the same book, that he was here in the mayoralty of Sir Hugh Hammersh'y, who 
was elected in 1627. 
Sehcsted, when Brahe was indisposed, sent Sir Hugh word that he would dine 
with him; but being given to understand, that he wculd not yield him the prece- 
dence, as it was an t'stablj
hed custom for the lord mayor to take place of all pcr!.ons, 
except the king, within the cit)', he changed his mind, and evaded the visit. 
VOL. III. 2 N 



274 BlOC RA PHIC..\ L IIISTOR Y 


Professor, 410. III .1Jfeursius"s " Athcllæ Batavæ." 
Tlle're is a jiJle print of hint by Suyderhocf. 
JOANNES POLY ANDER; fol. Balldring'ecn. pin.?'. 
C. v. Dalen se. 


JOANNES POLYANDER, Æt. 51. ftfirevelt P1Jl.1'. 

V. Delff sC. 


JOANNES POLYANDEU; Latin inscl'Oiptioll; folio. 
A. M"athalll sc. 


John Polyander was sent hither, in the character of ambassador,. 
in the reign of Charles I. He was twenty years minister of the 
church of Dort, and fourteen years professor of divinity at Leyden; 
-during which time, he was thrice rector of that university. His 
works are chiefly on theological subjects. He was also author of 
various poems, which were collected and published by his frien(ils. 


JOHANNES DE REEDE, Dom. de Rensvorde, 
&c. W
Hollar f. 1650; 4to. 


JOHANNES DE REEDE; zn Sinzon's 
p. 22. 
John de Reede was sent hither as an1bassador from the states of 
Holland, to cOl11pose the difference betwixt the king and parlia- 
ment. He laboured earnestly in the prosecution of this laudable 
design, and recommended himself so 111uch to Charles, that, in 
164.'), he created him a baron. There is a medal of him among tbe 
works of the Simuns, plate xxii. in which is also a medal of 


" ltledal s " 
, 


ALBERT JOACHI
I, another Dutch ambassador, 
who ,vas long resident in England; in SÙllon's 
"1Jledals," 1). 22. 


JAURAR BEN ABDELLA (Abdallah), al11bas- 
sador from l\1ully Mahamed Shegue, emperor of 



OF ENGLAND. 


275 


lVIorocco, &c. G lovcrf. sJ1zall 4to. Before a pall/pillet, 
rOlltaining all aCCOUJlt of his arrival and clltertalnrnent, 
tog'etlLer with his associate, Mr. Robert Blake, 1637. 
Jaurar Ben Abdallah, lord chanlberlain, privy Real, and prime 
minister to the Emperor of Morocco, was a native of Portugal, 
whence he was stolen away in his childhood, and detained in cap- 
tivity.* He and his associate, Mr. Blake, were, by the city as weU 
as the court, treated with such ceremony and magnificence as had 
scarce ever been seen in England on the like occasion. When he 
came to the Banqueting-house, at Whitehall, where the court was 
assembled, he was surprised at the grandeur and brilliancy of the 
scene, and was particularly struck with the beauty of the ladies. 
He said, wit.h an eastern emphasis, that beauty is glorious and ami- 
able beyond all things in the world; and that slick beaut,il as 'was then 
b
fore his e!les had more force in it than all the letters of the alphabet. 
The ladic>s were highly pleased with the compliment, as it intimated 
that their charms were more than could be expressed by all the 
powers of language. The design of this embassy was to cultivate 
the friendship and alliance of the English, who had been serviceable 
to the emperor in his wars, and been favoured by the dismission of 
a great l1ulnber of their countrymen froIll slavery. 
Mr. Robert Blake was a merchant, who farmed the emperor's 
ports and customs, and was, by. his address and management, a. 
principal instrument in procuring the libel'ty of the captives. 


P. P. RUBENS, (ambassador, &c.) large hat, 
g'old chain; sold by J. Clark,. larg'e 4to. 
Peter Paul Rubens, who, from the number and excellence of his 
works, seems to have been employed only as a }Jainter, was sent on 
several embassies by the Infanta Isabella; and afterward made 
secretary of state. He came into England to negoti
te a peace 
betwixt Philip the IVth of Spain ann Charles l.t which was soon 


. The author of the pamphlet says, that he was H distesticled or eunuched." 
t These two princes, "" hu were remarkable for the same elegant taste for the 
arts, seemed to ,Tie with each other in collecting pictUïes by the most eminent 
masters; and soon raised them to double their fornle,' value. A great part of the 
collectiun of Charles passed into the hands of Philip, who was, by his agent, the 
principal purchaser at the sale (}f the king's cHeels. 1 hd\"e 
ceu bcveml òf thc!ie 
rotting in tlll: E
curialt through dampness "ud nq;lcct. 



27G BIOGRA_PHICA_L IIISTORY 


21 Feb. 
.1630. 


COficluùed. The king conferred on him the honour of knighthood, 
and engaged him to paint the Banqueting-house at Whitehall. Ru- 
bens is so highly celebrated as an artist that the rest of his character 
is little attended to: but if he had never handled a pencil, his aç- 
complishments as a gentleman, a scholar, and a statesman, would 
have set him far above the common level of mankind. He was 
master of six languages: several of his Latin letters are among the 
elegant Epistles of Baudius. 


FRANCISCUS JUNIUS. lJI. Burg'hers sc. ad 
Tabulant Ant. Vandyck,. in Bibliotheca Bodleiana; 4to. 


FRA l\'CISCUS JUNIUS, &c. froJ1z the saUle original 
'lvith the above. Vertuc sc. 1743 ; frontisp. to his "Ety- 
molog;icltJJz An{5'licanum," by the Reverend lVlr. Lye :; 
jol. 
FRANCISCUS JUNIUS. Vandyck p. a tail-piece, in 
tlte Latin" Life of Alfred;" published by the Reverend 
l
Jr. Wise. 
FRANCISCUS JUNIUS. Hollar f. 121no. 
FRANCISCUS JUNIUS. Vander Werffp. P. a GUllst 
se. _ Before the folio editions qf his book "De Pictllra 
Veterll1Jl." 


FRANCISCUS JUNIUS, F.F. Ætat. XXXXIX. A. 
Van Dyck pinX'. Winceslaus Hollar fecit,. liolding a 
book; two Dutch verses, "Dits Junius;" 4to. 


FRANCISCUS JUNIUS; "Beata Tel/us Galliea quæ 
dedit," 
c. J. Bassenzeeker e
l:c. 
FRANCISCUS JUNIUS, F. N. I. V. D. et Professor 
in Academia Groningæ. 
francis, son of Francis Junius, the famous divine, was brought 
into England by Thomas, earl of Arundel, who appointed him his 



OF ENGI
_A.ND. 


2i7 


librarian, and kept him in his family thirty years. His learning 
was various; but he particularly exceHed in the knowledge of the 
Saxon and northern languages, in which he was exceeded by none 
of his age; as the late 1\'11'. Lye, editor of his "Etymologicum," 
and the" Gothic Gospels," has been exceeded by none of the pre- 
sent. I-Ie, with great pains, selected from the Greek and Latin 
authors every thing relative to "the. painting of the ancients," on 
which subject he published a book, first in Latin, 4to. 1637; and 
the next year, an Eno-lish translation of it: but with all his P flins, 
. 0 
he has left us Inuch in the dark as to this suhject.* The first 
I
atin edition of his book was afterward much improved with cata- 
logues of various artists, and their works, collected by himself, and 
published by Grævius, fo!' 1694. Ob. 19 Nov. 1697. See his 
article in the" General Dictionary," or the" Athen. Oxon." 


AMOS COMENIUS. Hollarf. sJJlal18vo. 
Al\IOS C02\IENIVS. T. Cross sc. frolltisp. to !tis 
" Orbis Sensllalill1n PiclllS," 1685; 12JJlo. 
J OANNES A1\IOS CO1\! EN] us. Noval, Londini, sc. 
'1l. 
J OA NNES A1\IOS COl\IENI us, Æt. 50, 1642; pl'C- 
jLl'cd to his" Pansophy," 12JJlo. G. Glover. 
Amos Comenius, a l\-Ioravian divine, was justly esteemed the 
greatest schoolmaster of this age. He wag employed in the in- 
struction of youth in several countries, and in the latter part of 
his life settled at Amsterdam. His" Janua Linguarum Reserata," 
was translated into twelve European languages, and also into the 
Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and l\10gu1.t I-lis" Orbis Sensualium 
Pictus
 or a Picture and N omenclator of all the chief things in the 
'V orId, and of l\len and Employments therein," is an excellent book 
in its kind.! He CaIne into England in 1641, by desire of the par- 


· The principal authors that treat of ancient painting and painters, are QuinlÏ- 
]ian, lib. xii. cap. 10. and Pliny t lib. xxxv. cap. 9 and 10. 
t Baylp. 
t l\Ir. Evdyn, speaking of this book. says, U I do bolJly affirm it to be a piece 
of 
uch excellent use, that the liI,e was never extant, how(>ver it comes not yet to be 
perceived," &c. "Sculptura." 3d edit. p. 1 '23. An improved edition of this book, 
with Letter cutg. is much wanted. 



2i8 llIOGRAPIIIC.L\L IIISTORY 


liament, to reform the method of education: but that assembly 
was too much employed in the reformation of government and re- 
ligion, to attend to that of learning.-Comcnius was an enthusiastic 
visionary, and a great pretender to prophecy. He col1ected the 
Prophecies of Kotterus and Drabicius, which he published at Am- 
sterdam, with remarks of his own. He sent a copy of this book to 
Lewis XIV. and plainly signified that God had promised him, 
what his own ambition seemed to grasp at, U the empire of the world." 
lIe was very confident that the Millennium would commence in 
1672, but did not live to see the falsity of his prediction. The 
famous l\ladam Bourignon and he were great admirers of each 
other. He died, according to Bayle, the 15th of Nov. 1671; but 
according to the inscription on N oval's print, published for the 
Moravian brethren, the 2.'5th of Nov. 1670. He is, in this inscrip- 
tion, styled "Anatolicæ Ecc1esiæ, quæ Ullitas Fratrllnz vocatur, 
Præscs ;" but in an epistle addressed to Charles II. in behalf of 
these brethren, he calls himself" Episcopus indignus." See the 
epistle in Kennefs "Register aed Chronic1e," p. 530, 531. 


FREDERICUS SP ANHEMIUS, SSe Theol. 
Doctor, &c. Æt. 47, 1647. J. 8llyderhoef sc. 
FUED. SPANHEl\IIUS, &c. Æt. 44, 1644. v: Negre 
pin.r. C. v. Dalen sc. 1644. 
FRED. SPANHEl\lIUS; mez;:;. halfsheet. J. vall Soulcr 
ad viVllnz sculp. 
Frederick Spanheim, a native of the Upper Palatinate, who was 
professor of divinity at Geneva, and afterward at Leyden, was one 
of the most learned and laborious men of the seventecnth century, 
and deserves to be ranked with the greatest and best divines of that 
age. Few, if any, of his contemporaries contributed lllore to the 
advancement of genuine learning and useful knowledge, which he 
promoted by private instruction, by public discourses from the pro- 
fessor's chair and the pulpit, aud by corresponding with the learned 
in ahnost every part of Europe. His polite manners would have 
become a court, and his knowledge of the world would have 
qualified hin1 for the most considerable offices of state. tIe died 
fuller of literary and virtuous fame than of years, in 1649. He is 



OF ENGLAND. 


279 


mentioned here, as having been several months in England, in 
1625. Two of his sons, one of whom was ambassador to the 
English court, in the reign of William III. and Anne, were of dis- 
tinguished learning and merit. His" Dubia EvangeIica" are 
among his most remarkable works in divinity; and his funeral ha- 
rangue upon the death of Henry Frederick, prince of Orange, is the 
most finished of his orations. 


IIOLGER WIND. FolkelJza f. a bust. In Hof- 
'lJzan. 


Holger Wind, lord of Harrested, privy-counsellor, &c. to the 
King of Denmark, was twice in England in the early part of his 
life, but not in a public character. The second time of his arrival 
was on the day on which Archbishop Laud was beheaded. He 
served three kings, with credit to himself and elnoJument to his 
country, in various employments of trust and honour. He was 
governor to Christian V. and acquitted himself with the highest 
approbation in that important elnployrnent. Db. 1683. 


(VINCENT) VOITURE. Clzarllpaigne p. Nan- 
tueil sc. 1649; It. slz. This is copied by Vertue and 
others. 


VINCENT VOITURE. Faithorne. 


VINCENT VorTURE. J. Lubin sc. 


V oiture was famous for introducing new and easy graces intO' 
the French language, and giving a more agreeable turn to many 
trite and familiar modes of expression, by a happiness peculiar to 
himself.. His irony has been particularly admired for its singu- 
larity and address. He, as well as the courtly Waller, was the- 
poet of the fair; and both have celebrated the charming Countess 
of Carlisle.t It has been ohserved, that few authors have suffered 
so much by translation as V oiture. His native beauties are of too 


· I have somewhere seen this expressed by a variation upon too Greek words 
 
Kamì. xo,
.:zç xa: Komi KctUl;j
. 
t It appears, by V oitUlie's Letters, that he was in England in 1633. 



280 BIOGRAPIIICAL HISTORY 


aelicate a kind to be co p ied in a foreiO'n lancruao-e. The followin g 
bob 
lines of Swift are characteristic of this orio'inal author: 
b 


V oiture in various lights displays 
That irony wbich turns to praise: . 
His genius first found out the rule 
For an obliging ridicule: 
He flatters with peculiar air 
The brave, tbe witty, and the fair: 
And fools would fancy he intends 
A satire where he most commends. 
Swift's Verses to Delany.. 


RENATUS DESCARTES, nobilis Ganus, &c. 
natus Hagæ Turonum, pridie cal. April, 15f)(). 
Denatus Holmiæ, cal. Feb. 1659." F. Hals p. J. V. 
lJfcllrs SC. 4to. 


REN ATUS DESCARTES; folio, in a square. C. V. Da/cn 
sc. Latin Ï11
'cription. 
RENATUS DESCARTES. F. Hals; Edclinck. 
RENATUS DESCARTES. F. Hals; Ficquet. 
RENATUS DESCARTES. F. Hals; Suyderltoef. 
REN ATUS DESCARTES. Ii'. Hats; Wille. 
RENE DESCARTES. F. Hals,. Porl1Jzan,. in " ]JIlts. 
FraJlfoîs. " 
Renatus Descartes, a native of Hay, in Touraine, was long 
esteemeù the prince of philoshophers. His lively anù penetrating 
genius discovere(l itself at an early period; but bis pursuits in 
science were some time interrupted by serving in the army. He 
disdained to tread in the steps of any of his predecessors in philo- 
sophy, which occasioned his appiying himself much more to think- 
ing than to reading. Hence it is that his "Principia," his" IVle- 
ditations," and other works have more of originality, as well as a 
greater appearance of truth than those of any other philosopher, 


· Vol. xvi. of his worlis, 8vo. p. 286. 



OF ENG LAND. 


281 


. 


, 
except the great Newton. Happy had it been for mankind, if 
there had been less of verisimility and n10re of demonstration in his 
philosophy; as it was the foundation of modern scepticisn1, an 
event absolutely unsuspected by the worthy author.. The reign 
of Descartes wa.s longer than could have been expected for so 
visionary a philosopher: the throne of Newton appears to be fixed 
upon a solid, perhaps an everlasting foundation. Descartes created 
a world of his own; Newton eXplained the laws of the universe as 
it came from the hands of the great Creator. He came into Eng- 
land in the reign of Charles I. where he made some curious obser- 
vations relative to the variation of the magnet. He was afterward 
strongly solicited by Mr. Charles Cavendish, brother to the Earl 
of Newcastle, to settle here; and the king would have made ample 
provision for him; but he thought it prudent to decline his l11a... 
jesty's offer, as he was then threatened with a civil war. Descartes 
contributed greatly to the fame of Harvey, by asserting his doc- 
trine of the circulation of the blood. I-Ie held a eorrespondence 
with 1\11'. Cavendish, Mr. Hobbes, Sir Kenelm Digby, and Dr. 
Henry More, who was a pa:Þsionate admirer of his philosophy. Ob, 
] 0 Feb. 1650, Æt. 54. 


GLAUS WORM IDS, IVledicinæ, in Acaden1ia 
Hafniensi, Doctor et Professor Regius, Anno 1648, 
Æt. 60. Alb. Haelweeh se. 4to. There is a g;ood print 
oj" hÙn, after Charles Van Mander, before his "Alll- 
seUllZ ;" fol. 1655. 
ÛLAUS W ORl\lIUS; in Freherus. 
ÛLAUS W ORl\I, D.IVledicinæ, in Acaden1ia Regia 
IIafniæ Professor Publicus, Æt. 38, 162G. SÙJlOll 
de Passe sculp. 8vo. SiLV Latin verses. 
Olaus 'Varmius, an antiquary of the first class, who is mentioned 
in the highest terms by those authors who best knew his excellence, 
was by his learning and sagacity qualified to make such discoveries 
as baffled the attempts of his predecessors. He, in his" Literatura 
Runica," has happily explained the old Cimbrian inscriptions which 
occur in every nation where the Gothic arms and letters prevailed. 


YOJ.... III. 


· See Bcattie's "Essay," IJ. 217, edit. 3. 
20. 



282 BIOGRA_PIIICAL IIISTOR Y 


He also eXplained those Runic monuments which are dispersed 
through the Danish and Norwegian kingdoms, in a work which 
probably occasioned his travelling into England: it is entitled 
"Monumenta Danica." His" l\luseum," which was published by 
his son, shews him to have been an inquisitive and industrious 
naturalist, and a collector of such curiosities as tended to the illus- 
tration and improvement of useful knowledge.*' See more of hilU 
in Nicolson's" English Historical Library," p. 54, 55. 


Effigies JOANNIS BANFI, Hunijadis, Rivulen- 
sis, Ungari, Hermeticæ Philosophiæ Scrutatoris, et 
Artis spagyricæ, Anglo- Londini, Professoris; qui 
Aurum et ArgentuIIl destruxit, et reduxit in Mercu- 
riuD1, per Mercuriuln, &c. fiXUIll sine Mercurio, fecit 
volatile: Corpora fecit incorporea; &c. In a scroll 
is this inscription: "Est in lYfcrcurio quicquid quæ- 
1'tllllt sapicntes." Below the oval is Æt. 70, 1640. Gul. 
lJIarslzall f. 4to. Anotlzer by Hollar, 121110. 
JOHANNIS BANFI. l
 Richardson. 


This man, who was far gone in philosophical fanaticism, was a 
noted alchymist, and a particular friend of Mr. Ashmole. Having 
discovered the secret of reducing gold and silver into n1ercury, he 
unfortunately fancied that he was very near converting that nlineral 
into gold. All his passions and pursuits seenl to have centred in 
his laboratory, as he was fully possessed with a notion that all 
valuable knowledge was comprehended in chymistry. 
By help of this, as he profest, 
He had first matter seen undrest, 
And took her naked all alone, 
Before one rag of form was on.-HuDIBRAS.t 


.. Our countryman Hearne, who had more merit than is commonly allowed him, 
and who, exclusive of his monkish collections, has furnished much curious and useful 
matter for the Eng1ish historian, antiquary, and biographer, is described by 1\lr. Pope, 
under the appellation of 'V OR!\IIUS, which he, doubtless, thought a pretty poetical 
name for a der;ourer of old books and manuscripts; not perhaps considering that it be- 
longed to a person who was an ornament to letters, and an honour to his country. 
t The first hint, as it seems, of these admirable lines, was taken from Cleaveland's 
" Character of a London Diurnal," where is this expression: "Before l\Iateria Prima 
can put on her smock." 



OF ENGLA.ND. 


283 


Though the world was inclined to laugh at this 81noke-dried 
mcrcurialist, and the rest of that lean fraternity, it is much more 
indebted to them than is cOlnmonly imagined; as while they were 
engaged in anxious search of the philosopher's stone, which they 
could never find, they frequently stumbled upon things which were 
well worth finding. 


A Siamese Priest; a wlzole-leJl{!;tlt figure, e
ractly 
Ùnitated by Captain Willianz Baillie, fronz a capital draw- 
ing in black chalk, ill the collection of John Barnard, 
csq. Underneath is an inscription which lnfo1'"77ls us, 
that he arrived at the court of Charles I. as an attendant 
to the a]}lbassadol
 of his nation, when Rubens, who took 
the drllîving, was pT>eparing; to leave Eng'land. 


Madame la Duchesse de CHEVREUSE. Jean te 
Blond sc. h. sh. Under the portrait is an inscription, 
in which she is c077zpliulented for her beauty. 
MARIE DE ROHAN, Duchesse de Chevreuse, &c. 
4to. In Daret's "It/ust. Frallc." 


The Dutchess of Chevreuse was in the first class of the gay and 
gallant ladies of France; and the sallies of her wit were such as 
would not have disgraced the finest geniuses of any age or country. 
It was as natural for her to love as to see; and her passion was 
constant, though she frequently changed its object. She, on some 
occasions, entered, with all the spirit that was natural to her, into 
the depth of politics; and would doubtless have been as deep in re- 
ligion, if it could have been connected with gallantry. It is not to 
be admired at, that a constitution which enabled her to swim across 
the Thames* should be amorous in an extraordinary degree. Had 
she been in the same situation with Hero, she would have swum 


· In a little volume of poems, by Sir J. 1\1. is a copy of verses complimenting 
her on this talent, which is not mentioned among her political or amorous adventures 
in the" :i\Icmoirs of Dc Rctz." 
J. (ohn) 1\1. (enllis) and J. S. (mith) entitled, u l\Iusarum Deliciæ J or the 1\Iuscs' 
HccreatioIl," 1656; 2d cd. duodecimo. 



284 


BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOR Y 


across the Hellespont to have n1et her Leander. It was probably 
some love affair that occasioned her crossing the British channel 
a second tilne;* certain it is that she had intrigues with the Duke 
of Buckingham and the Earl of Holland, in France. It appears 
from \Vren's "Parentalia,"t that she was at \Vindsor in 1638, when 
Prince Charles was installed knight of the Garter. 


· She came first into England with the duke her husband, in 1625,t in which year 
'Ier daughter Charlotte l\Iaria, of whom there is a print, was born at Richmond. It 
appears from the " Abregé Chronologique de l'Histoire de France,"9 that she also 
had issue by the constable De Luines, her first husband. 
t P. 150. 


t Finet's" Philoxenis," p. 153. 



 P.660. 



OF ENGLAND. 


285 


CIIARLES II. 


BEGAN HIS REIGN THE 30th OF JANUARY, 1648-9. 


THE INTERREGNUM. 


C LAS S I. 


'rHE ROYAL FAMILY, &c. 


CHARLES II. inscribed, " This is Charles the 
First's heir." Faithorne se. 


CAROLUS II. Van Hoeek p. Hollar f. 1650, 4to. 
CHARLES II. crouJned king of Scotland, Jan.], 1651; 
In armour. 


CAROLI, Scotorum Regis, viva et novissin1a Ef- 
figies. Hanneman p. Gaywood f. h. slz. 
CHARLES II. &c. king of Scotland, France, and 
Ireland. J. Chantry se. In a square of oaken foliage; 
large 4to. 
After the Scots had urged, or rather cOlllpelled Charles to take 
the covenant, and had actually degraded him to the impotent con- 
dition of a doge, they crowned him king at Scoon, January 1, 
1650- 1. 
CHARLES 11. 1201(' at the head of a gallant and llU- 
112el'OUS arln.y. C. 1 T aJl Dalcn se. 8vo. 



286 BI,OGRAPIIICAL IIISTORY 


CHARLES II. 'lI;as proclaillzed king, 
c. at W01"CeS- 
ter, 23 Aug'. 1651, '4to. 
Charles, soon after his coronation in Scotland, marched into 
England at the head of a numerous anny. But he tbat was the 
shadow only of a king, was little more than the shadow of a general: 
he commanded subjects who would not obey, and an army which 
would not fight.* He was presently defeated at the battle of "\V 01'- 
cester" by Cromwell, who called this decisive action his crowning 
"l)ictory. 


CHARLES II. and Major CARELESS, in an oak, /i.sh. 
5 1 tcllt. 


Upon the defeat at Worcester, Charles and this gentleman eluded 
the search of Cromwell's emissaries, by concealing thenlselves in 
an oak, in Boscobel Wood, on the borders of Staflordshire.-After 
the restoration, the oak seemed to be held in as great veneration by 
tIle English, as it ever was aIllong the ancients. Oak-leaves were 
worn on the 29th of May, by people of all ranks: the very horses 
were dressed with boughs, and every tower was crowned with 
branches of oak. The populace regaled themselves in oaken 
bowers, and the sign of the Royal Oak was erected in almost every 
town and village in the kingdom. The people went in pilgrimages 
to the tree itself: a great part of it was cut away, and converted 
into tobacco-stoppers, hafts of knives, and other J11emorials; and 
many plants were propagated from its acorns. The remains of this 
tree are enclosed with a brick wall, the inside of which is covered 
with laurel. t 


CHARLES II. in disguise, 'riding' before AIrs. Lane; 
Lord Wibnot at a distancee AI. TTandergllcht sc. h. sl1. 
eng'raved for Clarendon's "I-listory," Svo. See Mrs. 
LANE, Class XI. 


· It must 
e acknowledged, that some part of the royal army fought with prodi- 
gious bravery. The Highlanders, as we are informed by \Valker, even stood to fight 

fter they had lost their legs, and covered the very spot with their dead bodies, which 
tbey undertook to defend. See u IIist. of Independency," Part i v. p. 23. 
t -Stabis, mediamque lueucre querculll.- 
Ovid. U .Met." lib. i. v. 563. 


The root of the tree is yet to be seen. 



OF ENGL.AND. 


287 


CAROLUS Secundus, &c. Hanneman p. H. Danckers 
sc. large h. she 


CAROLUS II. R. Nason p. C. Vall Dalen sc. larg'e 
It. she 


HENRIETTA MARIA, queen-dowager; without 
inscription,. black veil; engraved 'ivithollt hatching', in 
the 17laJlner of ]J;fellan. G. F. (Faithorne) sC. h. she 
HENRIETTA MARIA. G. Faithornef. Before" The 
Queen's Closet opened," 1655, 12nlo. 
HENRIETTA MARIA. R. Cooper sc. 
HENRI ETT A MARIA; a Cr01VJl on her Ilead; half 
length. Ro. Walton e,,
'c. 
This unhappy princess, who was daughter of Henry the Great of 
France, and inherited much of her father's spirit, is said to have 
been reduced to the cruel necessity of applying to Cromwell for 
something towards her support, as queen-dowager of England. 
Certain it is, that she had but a small pension from the French 
court, and that but very ill paid. See the reigns of CHARLES I. 
and II.*' 


JACOBUS, dux Eboracensis, Æt. 18, 
Tcniers p. Hollar f. h. she In an oval of palJ7ls. 
print is very rare. 
J A l\IES, second son of the late king, lieutenant-general of the 
French army; 4to. See the reigns of Charles I. and II. 


1651. 
This 


Princeps ELIZABETI-IA, filia secunda Caroli 
Primi. Hollar j: 1650, in all oval, 121120. 


· When I refer from the Interregnum to the reign of Charles II. I mean his 
actual reign, after the Restoration. 



288 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTOR Y 


ELIZABETH STE'V ARD (Stuart) second daughter 
to the late kinO"' an ano'el takin u ' a black veil Fronz her 
b' b b J' 
head,. Stent,. Iou')" English verses. This print is pre- 
fi.red to the "Electra of Sophocles
' prescnted to her 
Hig'hness the Lad!} Elizabeth, with an Epilog'ue, shew- 
ing the parallel in two Poel1ls, the Return, and the Res- 
toration, hy C. (hristopher) J
 (ase) Printed at the 
Hague 1649, Svo." 


ELIZABETH; a snzall whole IC17g;th. (Faithorne.) 
ELIZABETH; a bust. AIellan. 


E LIZABET H; an oval. U1: Richardson. 


ELIZABETH d'Anglcterre, Femme du Roy de 
Boheme, &c. 1658. B. l1Ioneornet e..l'e. 4to. 


I have given some account of this princess, in the reign of 
James I. I shall only add here, that she came into England the 
. 17th of May, 1661; that she was then betwixt sixty and seventy 
years of age, and was one of the most sprightly and agreeable 
women of her years in the kingdon1. She died the 13th of Fe- 
bruary, 1661-2. 


CAROLUS LUDOVICUS, Palatinus Rheni, Dux 
Bavariæ, S. R. Imperii Elector. IIondthorst p. 
C. Viseher se. P. 5out17zan dirigente, Anll. 1650; a 
la1"ge head, she 
e H ARLES LE"'"IS, Count Palatine, holding; a 'riclt 
slvord in one hand, and a crown in the other, dated 1656. 
W. Vaillant f. h. slz. 


Charles Lewis, elector palatine, who died suddenly on the road 
between Manheim and Frankendal, aged 63, on the 28th of Augu3t, 
1680, was succeeded in his electorate by his son Charles; who 
dying without heirs, the 16th of May, 1685, the family became 



OF ENG LAND. 


289 


extinct, and the electoral dignity, with aU its appendages,. devol ved 
to the house of 
ewburg. See the reign of CHARLES I. 


WILI-IELMUS HENRI CDS, prince of Orange, 
son of the princess royal; on horsebach.'. ,Stent J' 4to. 
He appears to be about cig'ht years of ag'e. 
Gur.IELl\lUS HENRICUS, D. G. Princeps I\.uriacus, 
&c. a clzild, 'll}hole leiìg"tll, u'itlz a playing dog,. a crOlOll 
on the tllble. A. SzoartSllla fecit. 


The reader may see several curious medals relating to the infancy 
and childhood of 'this prince, tog-ether with many others struck in 
his more advanced age, in the" Histoire lVletalique" of the Low 
Countries. His met3.11ic history is more cqmplete than that of 
any of the princes of Europe, except that of Lcwis the Fourteenth. 


OLIVER CROMWELL, lord - protector, &c. 
FroJn a 'J7l0St e..Tcelle1lt lillzning', by Sanlliet Cooper, in the 
}Jossession of Sir Tholllas Frankland, knt. 1653.* G. 
Vertuc se. Engraved forRapin
s History.-Tllere is an- 
other, fronz the SaJ7le orig"iual, in 8vo. by Vertue. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL. Cooper p. HOllbraken se. In 
the collection of the Duke of Devonshire,. Illust. I-Iead. 
prqjilc. 
OLIVER CnOl\I'VELL, &c. P. LeZy }J. 1653. J. 
Faber f. 1740. E. collectioue W. Poulet, p;en. II. sl1. 
'J71ezz. 


OLIVER CROl\I'VELL. LeI!) p. Faber f. she nle::.:. 
Fro}]z a }Jictllre in the collection of Lord .Janzes ()a- 
'L"cndislt . 


*" Sold by Lady Frankland to l\Iiss Chudleigh, afterward dntchrss of King<,ton.- 
},onD ORf'onD. 


\'01" I I I. 


2p 



290 BIOGRAPIIIC
t\.IJ IIISTOR Y 


He ordered Lely, when he drew his portrait, to be faithful in 
representing every blemish or defect that he could discover in his 
face.. 


OLIVERJUS CnOl\I'VELL, &c. (Walke1"p,) Lonzbart sc. 
His son Richa1'1d is represented tying; on his scali; Ii. 
she t There is a copy of this by Gayu'ood. 
Mr. Evelyn, who personally knew Cromwell, informs us, that 
this print is the strongest resemblance of hÏ1n. That gentleman, 
who studied physiognomy, fancied that he read" characters of the 
greatest dissimulation, boldness, cruelty, and ambition, in every 
touch and stroke" of his countenance.! 


OLIVERIUS CROl\I'VELL. R. Walker p. P. PelhallJ 
e.l'c. 1723; h. she 1ne.
;z. 
OLIVER CR01\IWELL. Walker p. Faber f. 4to. 11leZ.Z. 
OLIVER CROl\f'VELL. Walkel" p. Careat Succcssi- 
hitS opto. h. she 'JJlezz. 
OLIVER CHOl\I'VELL. Walker 1). Pica}"t sClllp. lIir. 
(sculptarcl1JZ dire.I'it), 1724, 4to. 


. CromweB's nose, which was remarkably red and shining, was the subject or 
much ridicule. Cleaveland, in his character of a London Diurnal, sa,}'s, " This 
CromweH ßhould be a bird of prey, by his bloody beak; his nose is able to try a 
young eagle whether she be lawfully begotten; but all is not goJd that glisters." 
Again: "CromweH's nose wears the dominical Jetter." 
t The original picture was certainly in the possession of the Earl of Bradford, in 
1739. The figure, which I am persuaded is Richard Cromwell, has been caHed 
Lambert. Is it probable, that Lambert should be painted tying on Oliver's scarf? 
or, if it were, is it consistent with probability, that he should be represented so 
young 1 I say nothing of the features, which are seen, at the first glance, to be more 
like Richard's than Lambert's. I am assured, from unquestionable authority, that 
a copy, or repetition
 of this picture, was called OJiver and his son Richard, in the 
Earl of Kinnoul's family, at Duplin, in Scotland. A copy of the same originaJ, by 
Richardson, at Stow, was called Cromwell and his Page; and I think this page has 
been said to be Sir Peter Temple. 

 II Nnmismata," p. 3S9, 340. 



 Anuther done by the same painter, and deemed original. 



OF E.NGL
\
D. 


2UI 


It is well known, that the Grand Duke of Tuscany gave 5001. to 
a relation of Crmllwell, for his picture, by 'Valker.- This portrait 
is now in the Old Palace, at Florence, where there is a celebrated 
cast of his face.t 


OLIVERIUS CROlVI'VELL. Wandeek (Vandyk) p. 
P. LOInhart se. larg'e she 


This is the print of Charles I. and the supposed Duke of Espernon. 
The face of Charles is altered to that of Cromwell. 


OLIVER CRO:l\1"TELL, neatly and eJ/aetly etched, óy 
Brctlzerton, fro71z the picture given by Mr. Hollis to 

1idJley College, in Calnbridg'e, 4to. 


o LIV ARIUS Pritnus. Faith orne f. 4to. 


o LIV ARIUS, Britannicus 
llrnlour, on horsebaclc, 4to. 
Olivæ, nee non Olivarii," fol. 


Heros. Faithorne f. III 
Fronz the "Parallelunt 


· See Graham's" Essay towards an English school," &c. Artie. W ALKEn. 
t We are informed, in Breval's "Tra,'els,"t that this cast was done from a mould 
taken from Cromwell's face, u. few moments after his decease, H through tbe dexterous 
management of the Tuscan resident in London." The author observes, " that there 
is something more remarkably strong and expressive in it, than in any picture or 
bust of that usurper he had ever seen." The Earl of Corke tells us, that" it bears 
the strongest characteristics of boldness, steadiness, sense, penetration, and pride," 
and that he cannot yield to the assertion of its baving been taken from his face after 
his death, as u the muscles are strong and Iivdy, the look is fierce and commanding. 
Dcath sinks the features, renders all the muscles languid, and flattens every lIerve."
 
I, who have seen the characteristic head of Henry VII. at Strawbel'ry-hill, which is 
unquestionably a cast from a mould wrought off from that politic prince's face, pre- 
sently after his decease, and a model for his monumental effigy in 'Vestminster 
Abbey, am inclined to dissent from the Earl of Corke. It seems to be such a re- 
presentation of him as Raphael would have drawn tbe moment he expired. 


t Vol. iii. p. 154, 155. 

 From an extract of a letter of the Earl of Corke, dated Florence, October 30, 
1754, communicated by tIle ingenious 1\Ir. Duncombe, of Canterbury. This curiou, 
[('tttr waslatcly printed, with several others. 



292 BIOGRAPHICAl... IIISTORY 


OLIVER CROl\I'VELL; O. C. P. R. at the C01'"ners of 
the print,. sh. This portrait is chiefly eng'raved by 
Stipping, or Dotting. 
OLIVER CROlvt'VELL, &c. A. P. Paris; Boisseven. 


OLIVER CR01tl'VELL, &c. Under the print, 
vhiclt 
'lvas sold at Paris, are eig'ht Latin verses. See a }]ar- 
licular account of it in the" Biog'raphia, " p. 1568, note 
(KI(). 


o LIV ER CROl\l'VELL, protecteur van Engeland, &c. 
laJ'!!;e oval; ornanzents,. sh. 


OLIVER CROl\I'VELL. Rombout Vanden Hoeye C6.t'C. 
on horseback,. large sh. 
OLIVER CROl\IE'VLL; an etching, prçfi6.
1ed to the 
"Narrative of his eJnbalrned Head blownfroJn the top of 
We
tminster Hall, and é.1}hibited in Bond-street, 1799. 
OLIV ARIUS CROl\IWELL. Segerdt Tiebans e6.l"C, on 
hOJ"sebacli; large sh. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL, in arnlour. R. Walke1'"" F. 
Bartolozzi,. 1802; half sheet. 
OLIVER CROl\l'VELL. R. Walker; 
 Sherwin; fol. 
rare. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL; with a 1'"ope front the clouds 
round his neck; to "Flag'elluJ71, or Life and Death of 
O. C." 8vo. 1663. 


OLIVER CROl\I'VELL; in an oval,. witlz arllls,. G. 
Schoieten,. 8vo. 


OLIVER CROl\l'VELL; lvllole lengtlt,. zn ar1JlOllr; 



OF ENGLAND. 


, 


203 



taJ1ding; on a globe,. " Inspirato Diabolica,." 5101die1
s 
and others cutting d01vn H The Royal Oak of Brit- 
tayne ;" slJ1all folio. 
OLIVER CROl\i\VELL, with. his Page. Trevithian. 
o LIV ER CRO l\I'V ELL, on horseback,. "InvictissÏ1llus 
Archistrategus Pt"inzarius in Anp;lia prÏ1na, 
;c. Duce, 
et Auspice Christa." Psabn 91, verse 13; 4to. rare. 
OLIVER CROl\IWELL, lord-protector. Bullfinch del. 
R. Cooper sczÛjJ. FroJJt the original in the collectioll of 
Earl Spencer. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL, milord-protecteur, &c. on 
horseback. 
O. CROl\I\VELL, the late protector, on horseback " 
4to. 
OLIVER CHOl\I'VELL. B. lJIoncornet eLl'c. 4to. 


OLVERIUS CROl\I'VELL. Coenard WaUllzans se. 4to. 


OLIVER CRO:M'VELL. P. a Gunst sc. large sh.. 


OLIVER, lord-protector, began his governJJlcnt, 

'c. 
c. 4to" 
OLIVER CROl\tIWELL; inscribed O. C. a snlall oval, 
1JleZ,Z. 
OLIVER CnOl\I\VELL, with an eng'raved border, which 
is fro7Jl a different plate,. Stent; Iz. slL. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL. T. Jenner f. 4to. 
CROl\I\VELL, my lord-protecteur, &c. a French, 
print, 4to. 
OLIVEU CROl\I'VELL; oval; hcads ,of ](ing David, 



294 BIOGRAPIIICAL HISTOR Y 


SOI01JlOll, AleLrander, and Cæsar, at the corners qf the 
print; 127110. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL, standing 'lvitlz. a boole in his 
hand bet'lvi
t
t two pillars; various e'Jnble111s. Faithorne 
se. sit. 
I do not remember to have seen more than two p....oofs of .this 
fine print; Mr. 'Valpole has one, and Mr. Gulston another. lVIr. 
Bull has the original drawing. The face was altered to that of 
King William. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL; inscribed "Tyrannus;" Per- 
fidy and Cruelty crowning; hiJJl with a 'lvreatlt of vÍJ.]ers ; 
4to. 


This is before the " Life of AgathocIes, the tyrant of Syracuse," 
12mo. It is placed there as the portrait of AgathocIes, but it is 
apparently that of Cromwell. 


OLIVER CnOl\l\VELL; {/ head fro11l his cro'lvn-piece, 
by Sinzon. Vertue sc. 


OLIVER CROl\nVELL; a 'J7zedallion, inscribed, "Oli- 
var. D.G.R.P. A.L'TG. seo. Hiberniæ, Protector." 
Reverse, Cromwell 'lvith his head in Britannia's lap, his 
backside bare; French and 1)panish a17zbassador. The 
latter attenzpts to kiss his backside, but is pulled back by 
the forl71cJ'", with these words inscribed, "Retire toi, 
l"honneur apartient au roi, mon maître:" i. e. "
ìaJld 
off, t!tat honour belong's to the king' 17lY 'J7lafJter." 
The medallion is also engraved in the "IIistoire Metallique de 
la Republique de Hollande." 
The single print is very rare. Mr . Walpole has the medallion 
from which it was taken: both these are sometimes to be met with 
in the hands of the curious, in Holland." 


11ft There is an historical print of Cromwell's investiturc, or inauguration, by 
HolJar. 



OF ENGLAND. 


295 


OLIVERIUS CROl\I'VELL, &C. "Sat doctus versare 
dolos." Beneath tile oval is the head of Charles I. and 
several otller heads of the Royalists, 'lvlzo were e..'l'e- 
cuæd. ' 


The following anecdote is related by Dr. George Hickes. A 
gentleman came to Oliver to beg a lock of Charles's hair for an 
honourable lady. " Ah! no, sir, saith CrOlllwell, bursting into 
tears, that must not be; for I swore to him, when he was living, 
that not a hair of his head should perish." -" Some Discourses on 
Dr. Burnet and Dr. Tillotson," p. 25. 


OLIVER CROl\I'VELL; drawn and eng'râved by JV. 
Bond, fro11z a half-leng,th portrait; painted by Walker, 
ill 1655; ill the possession of Oliver C'l'O'l72 well, esq. 
8vo. 


CROl\I"rELL; a whole length, with a crown on llis 
head. Before his " Character;" 12Jno. 
Another whole lellg'th of hinz, which represents hint 
in a frig'ht, lvith Colonel Titus's panlphlet in his hand, 
and surrounded'loith !tis gllards. Beneath the print, 
'lchich is poorly engraved, is the author's address to hinz; 
h. she 


This address is prefixed to the celebrated pamphlet entitled, 
" Killing no l\lurder," written by Silas Titus, a man of wit, and 
secretly published in 1657, under the fictitious name of 'Villiam 
Allen. It was eagerly bought up by the royalists, at the high 
price of five shillings. The writer exerted all his rhetoric to per- 
suade the people to assassinate the usurper; and,' as l\lr. \V ood 
gravely says, " offers Oliver many convincing and sati,ifying reasons 
why he should kill himself; and 'Very fairly gives him his choice 
of hanging, drowning, or pistoling himself; shews him the abso- 
lute necessity of it, the honour he would gain by it, and, in a word, 
uses such arguments as might have prevailed upon any body but a 
hardened rebe1." Cromwell was exceedingly terrified at the pub- 
lication of this spirited piece; and was, as some imagined, almost 



2 96 
- llIOGRAPHIC1\L IIISTORY 


prevailed with to take the author's advice, from a dread of falling 
by some ignoble hand. * 


OLIVER CROl\I'VELL; as a fanatic preacher, witlt a 
')}zask ill his hand,. and as an c.:veclltione1", 'lvitlt the head 
of Charles L 


o LI VElt CRO l\I"TELL; in a pulpit, 'lDitlz a triple 
cr01vn on his head;1' preaching after the battle of Wor- 
cester. 


OLIVER CROl\l"'"ELL; dissolving' the LOllg' Parlia- 
'JJlent,. "Beg'one YOll TogllCS.-This house to lett," (.
'"tc. 
'rare. Copied by 
 Iliclzal'dsoll. 


OLIVER CROl\IW ELL; dog and lion fig'ht;1. Crol1l- 
tee II baiting' the lion (representing' the seven provinces) 
7vith tîDO bull dog's. 
o LIVER CRO
\l"TELL; dancing on the tig'ht rope. 
o LIV ER C RO l\I'VE LL; surrollnded by FaiJfa.r, Blake, 
and others;1' 1!àthcr Peters blowing ill his ear, 
'c. 


· Titus, wbo was not known to be the writer till after tbe restoration, had a 
colonel's commission given him by Charles II. who made him one of the grooms of 
his bed-chamber. He, sometimes, to divert the king, or sink a declining favourite, 
practised buffooneries better suited to Bartholomew fair, than to the court of a prince 
who certainly understood decorum and politeness. t Though Titus had pleaded 
strongly in parliament for the exclusion of the Duke of York, he was I!O less urgent 
for the abolition of the test and penal laws, as the surest bulwark against popery. 
In the reign of King James, he was sworn of the privy council. He died in 170.1-, 
aged 8
.* 


t Such low arts were practised by him, and not without Sllccess, to d(ograt1e the 
Earl of Clareudon in the esteem of Charles. 
t Colonel Titus's only child, who died an ancient maiden, in the reign of 
George II. had a whole room full of her father's papers; some of which Dr. BI;md, 
ùean of Durham, "horn she permitted to inspect them, told me were very curious. 
Sht' made her man and maid her heirs, except leaving 10,000l. to }
erdinando 
Fairfax, ('sq. anù I l\llOW not what became of thcll1.-I..oTIU OnrORI). 



OF' ENGLAND. 


297 


OLIVER CnOl\I'VELL; with a triple crown on his 
Ilead,. in the bacl;: g'rollJld the e,,
1eclttion of Charles L 
OLIVER CRO:\I'VELL; as an ape on a throne; the 
Dutch asleep,. France and Spain quarrcllinÆ', 
'c. 


OLIVER CRO)I'VELL; Dog and Lion dance,. CrOlll- 
!lvel! traJJzpling' on tile ar171S of El1g'land. 
o LIV ER CROl\['VELL; 'lvitlz a serpent's tail; FaiJfa.:r 
presenting' hint a crown. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL, rfjectiup; the offers of peace 
'JJzade by the Dutch. 


o LIV ER C RO ::\1'V'E LL, on Fortune's 'lvlzeel, vonziting 
Cr01VllS, sceptres, 
'"Ic. 
OLIVER CnOl\I'VELL, dissolving the Long Parlia- 
'lnent. B.. West lJÏn.r. J. llall sculp. 1789. 
OLIVER CROl\l'VELL, dissolving' the Long Parlia- 
'Il1cnt; half sheet,. copied frol1z Ifall's print h!J B. Read. 
lUg. 


OLIVER CRO
U'VELL; his cffig'ie standing in state at 
SOJ/zcrset-hollse. J. Caldlval! sc. 8vo. 
OLIVER CROl\I'VELL, lying' in state at Some sel- 
Jlollse. J. Caldu'alt sc. 8vo. 


In the "Letters of Mr. Hughes," &c. vol. ii. p. 308, it is said, 
that the best picture of Cromwell is that which was in the pos- 
session of Sir Robert Rich, at Rose Hall. At Sir Thonlas Frank- 
land's, in Old Bond-street, is another portrait of hhn, with the 
crown hanging over the arms. Dcssau carried this picture to 
Portugal, where it was bought by Sir Henry Frankland.. 


· The print mentioned in H nghès's U Letters," as most like the authentic family 
pictures of Cromwell, is before l\Ir. John Kimber's anonymous Life of O. Crom\\ell, 
and was engraved by Vcrtuc, 172.... 
VOL. 111. 2 (
 



298 BIOGRAPIIICAL JIISTORY 


There is, in the possession of the Rev. Dr. Edward Cooper, of 
Bath, a portrait of Cromwell, which belonged to the commissioner 
Whitelock; and another, called Cromwell's \Vife, which was the 
property of Zincke, the painter, who presented it to Dr. Cooper"s 
father. This picture is without character, and very unlike the print 
of her, which I believe to be genuine. 
This great man, whose genius was awakened by the distractions 
of his country, was looked upon as one of the people, till he was 
upwards of forty years of age. He is an amazing instance of what 
ambition, heated by enthusiasm, restrained by judgment, disguised 
by hypocrisy, and aided by natural vigour of mind, can do. He 
was never oppressed with the weight, or perplexed with the intri- 
cacy of affairs: but his deep penetration, indefatigable activity, 
and invincible resolution, seemed to render hiln a master of all 
events. He persuaded without eloquence; and exacted obedience, 
more frOIn the terror of his name, than the rigour of his adminis- 
tration. He appeared as a powerful instrument in the hand of Pro- 
vidence, and dared to appeal to the decisions of Heaven for the 
justice of his cause. He knew every nlan of abilities in the three 
kingdoms, and endeavoured to avail himself of their respective 
talents. He has always been regarded by foreigners, and of late 
years by the generality of his countrymen, as the greatest man this 
nation ever produced. It has been disputed which he deserved 
most, "a halter or a crown;" and there is no less disparity betwixt 
the characters drawn of him, and the reports propagated by his 
enemies and his friends. Colonel Lindsey affirmed that he saw him 
enter into a formal contract with the devil;* and Dawbeny has 
drawn a " Parallel betwixt l\loses the man of God, and Oliver the 
Protector."t He died in his bed, on the 3d of September, a day 
which he had long esteeined fortunate, in the year 1658. The 
French court went into mourning for him; but the famous Made... 
moiselle de Montpensier disdained to pay that respect to the me.. 
mory of a usurper. See Class VII. 


ELIZABETH CROMWELL, wife of the Pro... 


"The story of this contract has at last been explained jn .Nash's U History of 
,V oTcestersbire ;" it was not the devil, but a citizcn of VV orccstcr, who had the con- 
ference with Cromwell. 
t See H History and Policy reviewed," &c. by H. D. Lond. 16:}9; 12mo. 



OF ENGLAND. 


209 


tecto
; in a black llood. In tlte upper part of tllC print 
is a 1Jlonkey, * at tÌle bottoln are these lines.' . 


From feigned glory and usurped throne, 
And all the greatness to me falsely shewn, 
And from the arts of governn1ent set free; 
See how Protectress and a drudge agree. 
The print which is neatly engraved, is prefixed to 
a scarce and satirical book, entitled "The Court and 
Kitchen of Elizabeth, called Joan CrOffi\Vel1, the Wife 
of the late Usurper, truly described and represented." 
&c. Lond. 1664, 12mo. The head has been copied 
by Christopher Sharp, an ingenious turner of Cam- 
bridge; and by 'V. Richardson. 


Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bourchier,t and wife of Oliver 
Cromwell, was a woman of an enlarged understanding and an ele- 
vated spirit. She was an excellent housewife, and as capable of 
descending to the kitchen with propriety, as she was of acting in 
her exalted station with dignity. It has been asserted, that she 
as deeply interested herself in steering the helm, as she had often 
done in turning the spit; and that she was as constant a spur to 
}1er husband in the career of his ambition, as she had been to her 
servants in their culinary employments: certain it is, that she 
acted a much more prudent part as protectress, than Henrietta did 
as queen; and that she educated her children with as much ability 
as she governed her family with address. Such a woman would, by 
a natural transition, have filled a throne.! She survived her husband 
fourteen years, and died on the 8th of October, 1672. 


· This alludes to the famous adage of the ape, The higher it goes, the more it exposes 
its fJUckside. The curious reader may see the original of it in Bayle's If Diet." artie. 
HOSPIT AL, note (0). 
t This gentleman was of the same family with tbe ancient Earls of Essex, of the 
6ame name. His seat was in that county. 
t James Heath informs us,
 that she was a relation of l\Ir. IIamden's, and l\fr. 
Goodwin's of Buckinghamshire; and that she was, by Oliver, "trained up and 


9 See bis anonymous Life of O. Cromwell, entitled, U FlageJlulIJ," &c. p. 20, 

dit. 167fZ. 



300 


BIOGR.APHICAL HISTORY 



 


RiCl-IARD CnO
IV,lELL, lord-protector, &c. 
cloalc, band, <S'c. 


RICHARD, lord-protector, &c. Hollar f. 4to. 
RI CHARD" &c. Guil. Haynes'lvortlt sc. h. sh. 
RICHARD, &c. Galnnzon sc. 


RICHARD, &c. in arl1l0ltr; Stent; 4to. Before Pari.. 
va/'$ " Iron Age," fol. 
RICHARD, &c. Fred. Bouttats sc. llZ arl1l0ilr,. 4to. 
RICHARD, &c. an etçhillg"; 4to. 
RICHARD, &c. on horseback; view of Windsor Castle; 
large slz. Stellt. 
RI CHARD CROl\I'VELL, the D1eek knight; tlze giants 
DesboJ'ollglz and Lanzbel..t leading" h inz by the 111"17lS; 
wood-cut,. frontispiece to the first part of " Don JuaJl 
LaJ1zbcrto, or a C07Jzicaillistory of tlte late TiJJzes," 
'aid 
to be wl"itten hy Flatnzan. 
RICHARD Cn.Ol\I'VELL. T. Cross; 4to. 


made the waiting-woman of his providences, and lady-rampant of his successful 
greatness, which she personated afterward as imperiously as himself;" and that 
" the incubus of his bed made her partaker too in the pleasures of the throne." 
'Ve are told by an Italian author,. that he gradually and artfully assumed the go- 
vernmeut at the instigation of his wife. Sir James Burrow, in his" Anecdotes and 
Observations relating to Cromwell," invalidates the charge brought against her by 
this 
riter. I know no more of her, but that, about thc timc of the restoration, she 
very prudently stole out of town, and Ii\'ed for the remainder of her life in the 
obscority of retirement. 1 am credibly informed that sbe was a consiùerable time 
in Switzerland. 


· Nicholas Comnenus Papadopoli, in his cc Historia Gymnasii Patavini," tom. ii. 
lib. ii. sect. 241. His words are, " Ducta CantaLrigiæ uxore, hac impellente, ad 
gerendam rempnblicam sensim ac dissimulanter accessit." 



OF ENGLAND. 


301 


RICHARD CROl\I'VELL. J. Galll1J20Jl. 


RICHARD CROj\I'VELL, OJl horscbac/t" R. GaY'lvond; 
8171all folio. 


RICHARD CR01\I"rELL, on horseback,. vie'lo of LOll- 
dOll "'in Sillzon's ".lJfedals," p. 32. 


RICHARD CROj\I'VELL. Cooper; S. Hardin!!;, 1792; 
frOJ7l a uziniature at Sïralvberl'y-hill. 
RICHA RD CRO:U'VELL, eldest son of Oliver Cro1l1- 
well; drawn and eJlÆ'raved by W. Bond,. froJn a three 
quarter portrait ill the possession of Oliver CroJJl'lcclt, 
esq. 8vo. 
It was impossible that the feeble and un
kilful hánd of Richard 
should long hold the reins of a government, which his father, with 
aU his vigour and dexterity, found so difficult to retain. lIe suc- 
ceeded him in the protectorate; but as he was heir to none of his 
great qualities, he was presently deposed frOll1 that dignity, which 
he quitted without reluctance; and probably experienced 1110re 
solid happiness in retirement and obscurity, than Oliver did at the 
height of his glory. He passed the last years of his life, in great 
privacy, at Cheshunt, in Hertforùshire, under the assumed name of 
Clark. In the latter part of his life, he appeared at a trial in \Vest- 
minster Hall, where the Lord-chanceHor Cowper, 011t of respect to 
his former greatness, ordered him a chair.*" He is said to have 
carefully preserved a trunk full of adùresses, which ,,,,ere sent to 
him on his accession to the protectorate,t and to have bequeathed 
them to his friends. Ob. 13 July, 1712, jEt. 86,: 


· All the descendants of Oli\"cr Cromwell, of the mare line, now subsisting, are 
from his Joungt>r son Henry- See an authentic account of the family, subjoined to 
Dr. Thomas Gibbon's Sermon, preached on the death of 'YiHiam CWI11\\eIl J esq. 
July 9, 1772. 
t The practice of addressing commenced on the accession of Richard. His 
short continuance in his high station gained him the nick-name of u Tumble ùown 
Dick." 
* See Noble's II History of the Protectorate H on5e of CromweJl," for a particular 
account of this family. through all its various conncxions and dependencies. 



302 BIOGRAPIIIC
I\L HISTORY 


IIEl\'"RY CROl\J\VELL; frolll an original}>ictllre 
ill the collection of the Duke of Devonshire. I-Ial'dintJ'se. 
4to. 


HEXRY CRO:U'V EI.L; fro17z all original picture lit 
the possession of ThoJ7zas Griffith, esq. Jeffery e.l'C. 
IIE
llY CnOl\I"TELL; a half leng;tlt, in al"lJlOU1.; 'JJlez'.z. 
DU1l1iarton se. 4to. 
IIENRY CRO
l"TELL, second son of Oliver Crom- 
well; drawn and engraved by W Bond; frOllt a half 
length pOl
trait painted b.y F. Christian da Sart; in the 
possession of Oliver CroJ7l'lcell, esq. 8vo. 
Henry Cromwell, the fourth, but second and youngest, son of the 
Protector Oliver, was born at Huntingdon, January 
O, 1627; and 
baptized the 29th of the same month, at the church of All Saints 
in that place: his education was finished at Felsted-schoo], in 
Essex. As soon as it was possible, his father took him into the 
par1iament army, raised to oppose King Charles I. In 1647, he 
was becOlne captain of the genera], Sir Thomas Fairfax's, life-guard. 
In August, 1649, he went with his father into Ireland, to ql1ell the 
Roman Catholic rebellion, being then a colonel: he with Lord 
Broghill, in A pri1, 1650, fell into Lord Inchiquin's quarters, and 
killed one hundred and sixty of the enemy, and took one hundred 
and twenty foot prisoners, with their officers, and one hundred and 
fifty gallant horse; and in the year following, he assisted at the 
siege of Limerick. 
In 1655, he was sent to Ireland, with the commission of major- 
general of the army only, that it might not displease the governors 
of that kingdom, particularly Fleetwoor\. He came to Chester, in 
his way to Ireland, June 2, where he remained till the 23d, upon 
which day he dispatched a letter to ThurJoe, secretary of state, 
acquainting him, that he was treated both by the country, in his 
journey, and whilst there, with a great deal of respect: fI'mn 
Chester he went to Holyhead, where he arrived without anyacci- 
dent, July 5; he was greatly shocked to find only two Ininisters 
in the whole Isle of Anglesey, and requested that an order might 
be made to increase the number of clergy. He spent some time in 
the western parts of the kingdom, and was constantly treated with 



OF ENGLAND. 


303 


. 


every mark of esteem, particularly by the cavalier party. Upon 
his arrival in the bay of Dublin, the Inen of war that accompanied 
him, and other ships in the harbour, rang such a peal wit11 their 
cannon as though something more than usual was to be expected by 
the honour of his coming; and when he went on shore, he was 
met by most of the officers, civil anù military, about the town. 
Great caution and secrecy were used by IIenry for some tinIe, to 
cover the real business for which he was sent; but when it was 
found that it would be impossible longer to curb the spirit of tbe 
republicans, who were secretly supported by the Lord-lieutenant 
Fleetwood, he produced his commission of lord-deputy of Ireland, 
and commander-in-chief, dated November 25, 1657; but to qualify 
what he knew would be distasteful to many there, others were 
joined with him in the civil administration; but all would not do: 
the officers of the army had been long used to oppress the native8, 
and to advance their own fortunes; they had been intent upon 
little else than confiscating their estates to their own use; they 
therefore were very far from approving the government of one, who 
they knew would put a stop to their excesses; and, besides, he 
did not regard their political sentiments in the best light; and 
wished, by luoderation and condescension, to unite the whole king- 
dom, and conciliate the affections of each party to the other; they 
therefore had the hardihood to petition the Protector to restore their 
old chief governor Fleetwood, whose narrow confined notions, and 
weak understanding, were more easily made subservient to their 
projects. 
But flenry, by the wisdom and equity of his administration, Soon 
procured the love of the Irish, who regarded him as a blessing: 
this was the sentiments of the moderate and wise of all parties; 
and this it was that procured him a counter-address to the Protector 
beseeching that he might be continued their governor; and the 
nation was ruled with such skill by him, that it was become, from 
the most deplorable kingdom in Europe, by far the happiest of any 
part of the British dominions; and the most satisfied with the 
Cromwellian reign; for when the officers of his father's own regi- 
n1cnt openly spoke their dislike to his goyernment, the army and 
each of the counties in Ireland, expressive of their attachment to 
the government, as then established, declared their readiness to op- 
pose all who should endeavour to make any alteration in the state. 
Upon his brother Richard's accession to the protectorate of 
England and Scotland, he procured him to be proclaimed and ac- 



304 BI 0 G ll_A_P II ICA L IIIST OR Y 


knowledged also sovereign of Ireland: but he bad but ill return 
for his care anù attention. Richard durst not venture to renew his 
-commission, but upon the terms some of his council acquiesced in; 
and those who were the secret enemies to the family of Cromwe1J, 
and the office of protector, confined his powers so Inuch, that he 
could scarce be called chief governor. They were weal, enough to 
suppose, that by altering the title of lord-deputy, to lord-lieutenant, 
it would satisfy him; but they were mnch mistaken, for he greatly 
resented their ill usage. . He governed Ire]and with great moderation 
until the downfal of his brother, when he retired into England to 
his estate at Spinney Abbey, near Soham, in Cambridgeshire, 
where he spent the rClnainder of his life, descending from the toil- 
some grandeur of governing a nation, to the humble and happy 
occupation of husbandry. This truly great and good man ended 
his days in peace and happiness, and died March 23, 1674, very 
n1uch and very generally respected, and was buried on the 25th
 
within the communion rails of \Vicken church, close to his mother t 
over him is a black marble stone, inscribed, 
" HenricHs Cromwell, de Spinney, obiit XXIII
 
die Martii Anno Christi MDCLXXIV. 
Annoq. 1Etatis XLVII." 


C LAS S II. 


GRE1\T OFFICEIlS OF STATE. 


BULSTRODE "\VHITLOCKE, (lord-keeper). See Class VI. 


COL. NATI-li\NAEL FIENNES, (lord privy- 
seal). Vandcrg'uclzt sc. 8vo. 
Pn'mot!'d Nathaniel Fiennes, second son to Lord Say, engaged with zeal 
Juue,16;Jj. in the service of the parliament. But his courage was by no means 
proportioned to his zeal, as he surrendered the city of Bristo], of 
which he was governor, after a siege of two days. He was tried 
and condemned for cowardice, but fouud mcans to procure his 
pardon. He soon after attached himself to the Independents, and 



, . 


OF ENGI
AND. 


305 


was one of the most considerable leaders of that party.- He was 
a frequent and copious speaker in parliament, to which his talents 
were much better adapted than to the field. Many of his speeches 
and pamphlets, relative to the civil war, are in print. See a cata- 
loo-ue of them in "Athen Oxon." Ob, 16 December, 1669. 
o 


GREAT OFFICERS OF IRELAND. 


GENERAL IRETON.Cooperp.Houbrakensc.174Ij 
Illust. Head. III the possession of David Polhil, esq. 
The Lord-deputy IRETON; sold hy Walton; ?vlzole 
leng,th; large 8vo. 
HENRY IRETON, &c. Vandergllcllt sc. 8vo. 
HENRY IRETON; on /zorseback; ,
'1nall quarto,. no 
inscription,. 1'tare. 


HENRY IRETON; fol. w: N. Gardiner, 1797. 
HENH.Y IRETO
; autog'raph and seal,. in Cau!fteld's 
" Hig;1z Court of Justice<' 


Ireton, who on several occasions had signalized his valour and 
conduct in the field, approved himself a Ulan of spirit and capacity 
in his government of Ire1and. He proceeded upon Cromwell's 
p1an, and gave abundant proof of his being every way qualified 
for that extensive command. Though naturally a lover of justice, 
he made little scruple of sacrificing even that to liberty, of which he 
was passionately fond. He died at the siege of Limerick, the 26th 
of November, 1651, sincerely lamented by the republicans, who 
revered him as a soldier, a statesman, and a saint. In Crull's 
" Antiquities of 'Vestminster Abbey" is a curious panegYIic, which 
was intended for his monument: it is written in a very exalted 
strain, far beyond the COlnmon cant of epitaphs.t Ireton had by 


Promoted 
June, 16:'0. 


· Fjl'nne
. Cromwell, Vane, and St. John. were at the head of that faction. 
t II Creuas pro Dco militassc lrctonum, pro Irctono DculU," &c. 
VOL. III. 2 It. 



30G 


ßJOGRAPTIICAl. ITISTORY 


his wife Bridget, eldest daughter of Oliver Cromwell, a daughter, 
named also Bridget, who espoused Thomas Bendish, esq. In 
Watts's "Lyric Poems," is a copy of verses addressed to h
r.* See 
the preceding reign, Class VII. 


LIEUTENANT -GENER_J\L 
Walker p. Houbraken se. 1740. 
ThoJJzas Cooke, esq. Illust. Head. 
LORD-DEPUTY FLEET'VOOD; 
vhole leug,tll; iJlarJJIOllr. 


FLEETWOOD. 
In the collection of 


· Bridget Bendish, grand-daughter of Oliver Cromwell, resembled him, more 
t1lan any of his descendants, in the cast of her countenance and character. She, on 
some occasions, appeared with all the dignity of a princess; ap.d, at other times, had 
as much the appearance of a low drudge of business, being as laborious as she was 
intelligent in the management of her salt-works. After she had harassed herself 
with toil, she was as careJess how or where she slept, or what she eat or drank, as 
CharJes XII. was in the course of his campaigns. Her presence of mind on no 
occasion forsook her; nor was she ever known to betray the least symptom of fear. 
Sometimes, after a day of drudgery, she would go to the assembly at Yarmollth,t 
where the greatness of her manner, and the superiority of her understanding, never 
failed to attract respect. She was never known to break her promise; nor, in her 
common conversation, to pay much regard to truth, as it would have been rashness. 
to have affirmed any thing as a fact because she said it. Her charity appeared to 
be a virtue of the beart, as well as the hand. She exercised it in all places, and on 
every occasion; but in thc e}..ertion of it. frequently left her debts unpaid. Her 
piety was strongly tinctured with enthusiasm. She, on emergent occasions, would 
retire to her closet, where, by fasting, meditation, and prayer, she would work up 
nerspirit to a degree of rapture, and then inflexibly determine her conduct by some 
text of Scripture that occurred to her, which she r(>garded as a divine revelation. 
She would frequently fawn, dissemble, and prevaricate, and that for low, if not 
sinister ends and purposes; and was, indeed, the jest and admiration, not only of 
her friends, but even of her servants. who justly regarded JJer 
s one of the best 
mistresses in the world. She had the highest veneration for the memory of her 
grandfather, whom she re,'crenced as a consummate hero aDd glorified saint. She 
died in the year 1727, or 1728. This imperfect and contrasted sketch is chiefly 
taken from her character more at large, by Mr. Samuel Say. a dissenting minister, 
who was intimately acquainted with her, aud drew her from the life. See the Ap- 
pendix to the second volume of the" Letters," published by Mr. Duncombe. See 
also the third volume, p. 168, &c. where arc many curious and interestmg anecdotes 
of herself and family. "\Ve are there informed, that the print prefixed to the Life 
If Olive}' C,'olluæll, in octavo, said to have been published by the late Bishop 
Gibson, about the Jcar 1723, nearly rcsembles 1\l1"s. BCl1dish as well as thc Pro- 
tector. \ 


.Þ 


t Sh<.> li\T('d at South Tm\ n, in that llcighbourhood. 



OF ENGLAND. 


307 


The LORD-DEPUTY FLEET'VOOD, on horseback. 


Fleetwood, who, aH well as Ireton, was son..in-law to Cromwell, * 
was a very useful instrument to that artful man, who knew how to 
avail himself of falnily-connexions. The character of Fleetwood 
was very different from that of Ireton: he had no great skill as a 
soldier, and less as a politician; but he bad a very powerful influ- 
ence over the bigoted part of the army. He thought that prayers 
superseded the use of" carnal weapons;" and that" it was suffi- 
cient to trust in the hand of Providence, without exerting the arm 
of flesh." He would fall on his knees and pray when he heard of 
a mutiny among the soldiers; and was with the utmost difficulty 
roused to action on several emergencies. In 1659 he was declared 
commander-in-chief of the army. This was done by the intrigues 
of Lambert, who intended to make the same use of him that Crom- 
well had done of Fairfax. He died soon after the Revolution. See 
Class VII. 


C LAS SIll. 


PEERS. 
EDWARD SOMERSET, marquis of 'V orcester. 
Bocquet sc. In Park':s " Noble Autlzors;" 1806. 
ED'V ARD SOMERSET, marquis of Worcester, and 
earl of Glamorgan. Harding,. 1800; in Co,,
'e's 
" JJIoJl'JJZouthshire." 


The Marquis of Worcester, t a zealous Catholic, and a luan of 
courage and enterprise, was much in the favour and confidence of 
Charles I. who is said to have dispatched him into Ireland, to 
treat with the rebels of that kingdom, and engage them in his ser- 
vice, in opposition to the parliament. The other powers which 
were granted him, were of so extraordinary a nature, as to strike 


· Fleetwood married Ireton's ,,,idow. 
t lie is better known in our historil's hy the title of }
arl of Glamorgan. 


Promoted 
1654. 



308 BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTORY 


many of the royalists with astonishment. Nothing but the despe- 
rate situation of the king's affairs could apologize for such strange 
steps.. In 1663,thepublished a small book, entitled "A Century of 
the Names and Scantlings of such inventions as I can at present call 
to mind to have tried and perfected, which (my former Notes being 
lost) I have, at the instance of a powerful friend, endeavoured now, 
in the year 1656, to set these down in such a way as may suffi- 
ciently instruct me to put any of them in practice." At the conclu- 
sion he says, " This making up the whole century, and preventing 
any farther trouble to the reader for the present, meaning to leave 
to posterity a book, wherein, under each of these heads, the means 
to put in execution, and visible trial of all and every of these in- 
ventions, with the shape and form of all things belonging to them, 
shall be printed by brass plates." 
A practical mathematician, who has quickness to seize a hint, 
and sagacity to apply it, might avail himself greatly of these 
Scantlings, though little more than a bare catalogue. It is ex- 
tremely probable that Captain Savery took from the marquis the 
hint of the steam-engine, for raising water with a power made by 
fire, which invention alone would entitle the author to immortality.t 
That of stopping a vehicle, by instantly letting off the horses, seems 
to have been derived from the same origin.
 I am informed by the 
reverend and ingenious Mr. Gainsborough, of Henley, brother to 
the painter, on whose judgment in the mechanic powers I have rea- 
son to rely, that this book is far frOln being such a collection of 
whims and chimeras as it has been supposed to be: on the contra- 
ry, he highly esteems the author as one of the greatest mechanical 
geniuses that ever appeared in the world. 


WILLIAM CAVENDISH, marquis of Newcastle; 


. Sir Edward Hyde. in a letter to secretary Nicholas, dated 1646-7, says, IC I 
care not how little I say in that busines
 of Ireland, since those strange powers and 
instructions givcn to your favourite Glamorgan, which appear to me inexcusable to 
justice, piety. and prudence." He adds, a little below, H Oh! l\lr. Se(Oretary, 
those stratagems have given me more sad hours than all the misfortunes in war 
which have befallen the king." Chancellor Clurendon'8 " Slate Papers," vol. ii. 
p.337. ' 
t The date should he 1665. 
t See an account of it in Dr. Desaguliel"s's \V orks. See also thc II Scantling
." 
r\o. 68. 

 See " Scantlings'" No. t 9. 



OF E:\'GL.AND. 


nnn 
tJV", 


11 is 'Jnarc/z ioncss and their fa'Jniiy. Diepellbel
e del. P. 
Clollvet se. h. she prifLl'ed to "Nature's Pictures, 
drawn by Fancy's Pencil to the Life;" 1656, folio. 
This beautiful print is very scarce. It was done when the family 
was at Antwerp. See the reign of CHARLES I. Class III. and that 
of CHARLES II. Class IX. 


In the marquis's fine book of horsenlanship is a 
print ofCHAIlLES, viscount MANSFIELD, and Mr. 
HENRY CAVENDISH, on horseback; the marquis 
and marchioness, their three daughters, and their hus- 
bands; namely, the Earl of BRIDGE'V ATER,* the 
Earl of "BULLINGBROOKE" andl\tJr.CfIEYNE, 
are under a colonnade, as spectators. The plates 
for the English edition of this book are the same 
with the French, but the latter has the finest im- 
pressIons. 


JAMES STANLEY, earl of Derby. Log;gan f. 
lllr
'e 4to. 


JAJIES STANLEY, &c. copied front the above. Vcr- 
tlie sc. In tILe set of Loyalists" 
J A:\IES, earl of Derby; oval,. 8vo. III "Claren- 
don's llistory." 


· Elizahp-th, danghter of \ViIliam, then earl of Newcastle, married Jolm Egerton, 
earl of Bridgewater, in the 19th year of his age. He desired that it might be rc- 
corded on his tomb, that H he enjoJ'ed, almost twenty-two years, all tlte happiness 
that a man could receive in the sweet society of the best of wives." It might be 
added, with truth, that the virtues and the graces conspired to render her one of the 
best and most amiable women. She died the 14th of June, 1663, in the 37th year 
of her age, having left a numerous issue. The worthy earl, \\lho, upon bef decease. 
was one of the most disconsolate of men, as he had been one of the happiest uf 
husbands; and who, for many )'ears, may be said to have ('Ilflured. rather than cn- 
joyed life, died the 26th of October, 1636, in his (J.ilh year. 
ke more (.If both thc
t' 
persons in Collins's u Peerage." 



3]0 BIOGRAPIIIC.AJ
 JIISTORY 


JAl\lES STANLEY, earl of Derby; Harding'. 


JAl\IES STANLEY
 earl of Derby; ill Winstanley's 
" lJIartyrology;" 1665. 


JAl\l:ES STANLEY, earl of Derby; 'in "Noble Au- 
thors," by lffr. Park; 1806. 


JAl\IES STANLEY, seventh earl of Derby. E.Scriven 
sc. 1815; fronl the orig'inal of Vandyck, in the collec- 
tion of the Right Hon. the Earl of Derby,. in AIr. 
Lodg'e's "Illustrious Portraits." 
Lord Hyde has an excellent picture, by Vandyck, of the Earl 
and Countess of Derby and child, whole lengths. It was brought 
from Cornbury, and is esteemed the mòst capital in his collection. 
1\lr. Walpole has a painting of the countess. 
Created The Earl of Derby gave many signal proofs of his valour in tlle 
1486. civil war; particularly in that memorable action near Wigan, in 
26 Aug. Lancashire, where, with 600 hosre, he, for two hours, bravely 
1651. withstood a corps of 3000 horse and foot, commanded by Colonel 
Lilburne. We can easily believe this, and much more, of a man 
who could write so spirited a letter as that which he sent to Ireton.*' 
I-Ie was taken prisoner at the battle of W Ol'cester, and beheaded 
in violation of a promise of quarter, given him by Captain Edge, 
into whose hands he fell. He was executed the 15th of Oct. 
165] .t 


GEORGE, lord DIGBY, earl of Bristol. Van- 
dyck p. Houbrakt1l sc. In tIle collection if the Hon. 
John :J!Jencer, csq. Illust. liearl. 


. See the letter in H Hume's History," or in tbe Ie Catalogue of Royal and 
N obte Authors." 
t The heroine, his countess, who so bravely defended Latharn.house, witll no 
less bravery defended the Isle of JUan. Here she looked upon herself as queen, 
and disdaincd to submit to regicides and usurpers. She was the last person in the 
BTitish dominions, that yiclderl to the republic, 



OF ENGLAND. 


311 


GEORGE DIGBY, earl of Bristol; ill arl1l011r; half 
length,. fol. W. Hollar,. 1642; Teare. 


GEORGE DIGBY; earl of Bristol. Bocquet sc. In 
" Noble Authors," by lJIr. Park,. 1806. 
He succeeded to the title of Earl of Bristol, the 16th of January, 
1652-3. The portrait was painted in the former reign. 
The Earl of Bristol, well known for his fine parts, his levity, 
and extravagant passions, was secretary of state and privy-coun- 
sellor to Charles II. at the time of the Interregnum. But he for- 
feited both these offices, by reconciling himself to the church of 
Rome, against which he had written several pieces of controversy. 
He imputed his removal to the influence of his friend the Lord- 
chancellor IIyde, whose ruin he afterward sought with all that 
vehemence which was natural to him.* It is pity that the romantic 


Created 
15 Sept. 
20 Jam. I. 


· Among the excellent Ictters of the Lord-chancellor Clarendon, lately published,t 
in the second volume of his II State Papers,"
 is one addressed to Lord Digby,
 in 
which are some master-strokes, which shew at once the pious turn of mil1d, the 
genius and f(iendship of the writer, and are also characteristical of the great man to 
whom it is written. I shall, therefore, give the reader the following extract. It 
seems that Lord Digby, after the wreck of his fortune in the civil war, had formed 
a design of applying to the crown of France for employment and subsistence. His 
friend, then Sir Edward Hyde,!! earnestly dissuades him from this dishonourable 
expedient, telling him, that he could U no more be a servant or pensioner to an- 
other crown, than he could marry another wife." "Borrow or beg," says he, 
cc (it is very"honest) so much as will keep you alive and cleanly for one year; and 
withdraw into a quiet corner, wherc you are not known, and where not above two 
or three friends may hear of yon. If JOu can but live one ycar without being 
spoken of at all, without being in a capacity of having your own or other men's 
errors imputed to you, yon will find a strange resurrection of a good fame. In that 
retirement you will revolve the rare accidents and misfortunes of your life; in the 
consideration whereof, I fear, 'you have been too negligent; and, it llJay be, you 
may believe you have encountered new and unusual dangers, because you have not 
duly weighcd past and unusual deli\'erances. You will find as much of the inllne- 
diate hand of God in both, as can be observed in the course of a man's life, much 
superior to you in age, and it may be, in action. You may, in this disquisition, 


t 1773. * P. 330,531. 

 It appears to have been sent from Jersey, as it was written 1646-7. 
\I Sir Edward tells him in another letter, " I am so far from doubting your affec- 
tion, that, if you should tell me you did not love me, [ would not believe you; for 
I know it is not in your pow('r not to love me; fur I am very just and true to you, 
and shall bring no shamc to JOu." Clarcndon's U Papers," vol. ii. p. 384. 



3J2 


BlOC RA PIIICA L II IS TO R Y 


history of this nobleman's 1ife was never written. Dr. Swift, in one 
of his letters, styles hin1 "the Prototype 0 f Lord Bolingbroke." 
Birch. Ob, 15 l\1:arch, 1672-3. Æt. 64. Se
 the reign of CHARLES I. 


FRANCIS, lord \VITHERINGTON; from a 
dra'lving in the King/'s "Clarendon." R. Cooper ð'C. 
Lord \Vitherington was descended fronl a most ancient family in 
Northumberland, and selected by Charles 1. as one of four to be 
at-out the person of his son the prince, as gentlemen of his privy- 
chamber. As soon as the war broke out, he was one of the first 
who raised both horse and foot at his own charge, and served the 
king most eminently under the Marquis of Newcastle; for whom he 
had a very particular affection. About the middle of the war he 
was made a peer of the realm, and constantly adhered to the king, 
until his cause was entirely ruined; when he, in company with his 


consider by what frowardness of fortune it comes to pass, that a man o{ the most 
exquisite parts, of nature and art, that this age hath brought forth, hath been without 
success in those very actions for which meaner men have been highly commended;- 
that a man of the most candid and obliging disposition, of the most unrevengeful 
and inoffensive temper and constitution, should not only have fewer friends in the 
general crowd of lookers-on, than rn
J)Y stubborn and insociable complexions use 
to find, but more enemies amongst those, whose advancement and prosperity he 
hath contributed to, than ever man hath met with. And, without doubt, you will 
discover somewhat no man else can discover, and enjoy an ample benefit by the 
discovery, throughout the long course of your lif
 that is to come. I do not invite 
you to any morose or melancholy sequestering yourself from the world; if I am not 
mistaken, it will be as cheerful and pleasant a part of your life as e\'er you enjoyed. 
And after you have given your mind this diet, e).crcise, and repose, you will return 
with greater vigour upon the stage; and any shift you shall then be necessitat
d to, 
will be more justifiable to the world and comfortable to yourself." 
Sir Edward, at the conclusion of this letter, intimates a desire of his making some 
historical collections relative to this great work, of which he supplied some of the 
ma fëriais. 


*" Sir Edward, in a subsequent lettc.', dated from the H.lgue, November, 1648, 
SlIYS, ., I confess 1 bave not virtue enough to restrain me within any bounds, if I 
once let myself loose into this wilderness of l,rudcntial motives aud expedients." 
He sap afterward, in the same letter, "Is it possible that you are the only man 
that du not ðiscern a universal combination in all to ba,'e you quiet 1" It appears, 
frum these passages, that Lord Digby's parts, however excelJcnt, were far from 
Le;ng flf any service to his party. Hi3 disposition was so very mercurial. that no
 
thing was capable (1Í fixing it; aud while it rcu
aincd unfixed, was much more <.Ian- 
gcrous than useful. 



OF ENGLAND. 


313 


friend the marquis, transported himself beyond the sea, and was 
attached to the service of Charles II. in whose cause he was killed, 
fighting at Wigan, in Lancashire, a few days prior to the battle of 
Worcester. 


GIOVANNI, viconte MORDAUNTE. 
tlzorne 
'c. oval,. h. sh. 


TV: Fai- 


" 


This is one of Faithorne's best heads. There is another, in a 
small square. 


GIOVANNI, viconte MORDAUNT; 'lVith arnzorial 
bearings,. 4to. W. Richardson. 
JOHN, viconte MORDAUNT; oval. (Birrell.) 
This nobleman, who was father of the great Earl of Peterborough, 
was the most active and enterprising of the royalists during the 
usurpation. He possessed much of that vigour of body and mind, 
which was afterward so conspicuous in his SOD. He made several 
attempts to restore Charles II. for one of which he was brought to 
a public trial. He behaved himself, upon this occasion, with his 
usual intrepidity; evaded the evidence with remarkable address; 
and was, after long debate, pronounced" Not Guilty." The ma- 
IDent he was set at liberty, he began to be more active than before: 
but his great merit created him many enemies, who traduced and 
vilified him to the king. He was numbered with the neglected 
royalists. Ob. 5 June, 1675, Æt. 48.- 


Created 
10 July. 
1659. 


SCOTCH PEERS. 


"TILLIAM, duke of HAMILTON. R. Cooper sc. 
WILLIAl\I, duke of HAl\IILTON. Vander
'ucht se. 
8vo. In Clarendon's "History." 


· The following persons are in the list of Cromwell's !ord!l; namely, Natllaniel 
Fiennes, Charles Fleetwood, John Desborough, Bulstrode Whitlocke, Philip Skip. 
pon, Francis Rous. See II Parliamentary lIi!ltory." vol. xxi. p. 167. 
VOL. III. 2 S 



Created 
16 Nov. 
1641. 


Created 
16 Nuv. 
1641. 


314 llIOCRAPIIICAL JIISTORY 


WILLIAM, duke of HA1\JI LTOX. R. White sc. 


William, duke of Hamilton, who was a man of too much spirit to 
be neuter in the divisions of his country, was, in the civil war, car
 
ried by the popular current much farther than he intended to go. 
In his character were united the accomplishments of the gentleman, 
with the openness and sincerity of the soldier. In the fatal battle 
of ,V orcester, he gave the strongest proofs of _ his courage and 
loyalty. He died of a shot in the leg, which he received valiantly 
fighting for Charles II. In the article of death, he expressed the 
highest satisfaction, " that he had the honour to lose his life in the 
king's service, and thereby to wipe out the memory of his former 
transgressions, which, he always professed, were odious to himself." 
-He was brother to the duke who was beheaded. . Ob. Sept. 1651. 


ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, earl (marquis) of 
Argyle. VaJlder
'ueht se. 8vo. 


J Al\IES CAl\IPBELL, n1arquis of Argyle; four Eng- 
lish verses; 8vo. 


JAl\IES CAl\IPBELL, marquis of Argyle; in the print 
if the "Anti-papists." J. Savage se. 
J A l\IES CA l\IPBELL, marquis of Argyle. Harding se. 
J Al\IES, marquis of Argyle. Benoist se. III Snlollett.: 
The lVlarquis of Argyle was, in the cabinet, what his enemy the 
Marquis of Montrose was in the field, " the first character of his 
age and coun try for political courage and conduct." He was the 
champion of the Covenant, or, in other words, of the religion of his 
count!'y, which he zealously and artfully defended. Such were his 
abilities, that he could accommodate himself to. all characters and 
åll times; and he was the only man in tbe kingdom of Scotland, 
who was daily rising in wealth and power, amidst the distractions 
of a civil war. Much unmerited infamy has been thrown upon his 
character, which is placed in a truer light than it ever was before, 
in the" Biographia Britannica." He was, soon after the restora- 



OF ENGLAND. 


315 


tion, condemned by his capital enemy, the Earl of Middleton, for 
his submission to the English government, in the time of the usur- 
pation; a crime, in which the bulk of the three kingdoms were 
equally involved with himself. He was beheaded the 27th of lVlay, 
1661. 


JACOBUS GRAMIUS, marggraffvanMontrosse; 
'lvith a vic'lV of his Cl'l'ecution; a Dutch print, 4to. See 
the reign of CHARLES I. Class III. and VII. 


AN IRISH PEER. 


Effigies illustrissimi domini CÆCILII CAL- 
VERT, baronis Baltimore, de Ba]tinlore, in regno 
Hiberniæ; abso/uti dOllLÏni et proprietarii Pl"ovÙ1Ciar'l171l 
Tel"l"æ iWal o iæ, et Avaloniæ, in Arnerica, 
'c. An. D01ll. 
1657 . Ætatis 5 I. Ahra. Blooleling' sc. 
His portrait is in the gallery at Gorhambury. 
Cecil Calvert was son of George, the first lord Baltimore, who 
was some time secretary to Sir Robert Cecil, lord-treasurer. He 
afterward became secretary of state to James I. by whom he was 
created a peer. He obtained the grant of the province of Mary- 
land from Charles I. I t is observable that this country was for- 
merly reckoned a part of Virginia.. 


· Francis Nichols, author of the U Irish Compendium," informs us, that t
e 
title of Baltimore was conferred by Charles I. and that Cecil Calvert first received 
tbe grant of :Maryland from that prince; in both which particulars he appears to be 
mistaken. See Wood, i. col. 565. See also CI Magna Britannia," vol. vi. p. 506, 
507. 


r; 


Created 
16 Feb. 
1624. 



316 BIOGRAPIIICAL HISTORY 


CLASS IV. 


THE CLERGY. 


ARCHBISHOP, AND BISHOPS. 


JOSEPH IIENSHA W, bishop of Peterborough; 
in the "O
:iford Abnanack," 1749. 
Joseph Henshaw, descended from the Henshaws of Cheshire; 
was born in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate; and at eighteen 
years of age, entered commoner of Magdalen Hall, in Oxford, 1621, 
aud afterward became chaplain to Digby, earl of Bristol. Wood 
says" he was much in renown for his admirable way of preaching, 
but when the nation was turned topsyturvy, by the iniquity of the 
Presbyterians and other discontented people, he was despoiled of 
all, suffered much for the royal cause, was a brand snatched out of 
the fire, and lived for some time at Chiswick, in the house of Lady 
PauJet." After his majesty's restoration, he was made dean of 
Chichester; and in 1668, was elected to the see of Peterborough. 
He died in 1678, at his house in James-street., Covent-garden, and 
was buried in the church of East Lavant, near Chichester. 


JOHN 'VARNER, bishop of Rochester, and 
founder of Bromley College. Hal
dillg sc. In Lysons's 
"Environs of London," 1796. His portr'ait is also in 
the "O.lj'ord Abnanack," 1742. 


, 
John Warner, born in the parish of St. Clement's Danes, was a 
fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; where he was esteemed a 
good logician and philosopher. He was made one of his majesty's 
chaplains, prebendary of Canterbury, governor of Sion College, 
and dean of Lichfield. In 1633, he was promoted to the see of 
Peterborough; and in 1637, consecrated bishop of Rochester. He 
stood forth a zealous defender of the constitution, and was the 
Jast bishop who exerted his eloquence to preserve the ancient and 
undoubted right of his order to sit in parliament. Not long be- 



OF ENGLAND. 


317 


fore the death of King Charles I. by his majesty's command, he 
wrote a treatise against the ordinance for the sale of church lands, 
and published several sermons against the murder of the king. He 
lived to see tbe happy re-establishment of church and state, and 
shewed both the piety and munificence of his disposition. He dis- 
tributed 80001. among meritorious clergymen, who had been ejected 
from their preferment, and performed many other pious and liberal 
acts. He was also the munificent founder of Bromley College, for 
the support of twenty widows of loyal and orthodox clergymen. 
He died 1666, Æt. 86. See Wood's" Athenæ," Hasted's" Kent," 
and Lysons's " Environs." 


WILLIAM LUCY, bishop of St. David's; in the 
"Oxford Almanack," 1749. 
William Lucy was descended from an ancient family at Charl- 
cote, in Warwickshire; and was entered as a knight's son in Trinity 
CoHege, Oxford, 1610; soon after went to Lincoln's Inn; from 
thence to Caius College, Cambridge, where he took the decree of 
bachelor of divinity, and was afterward made chaplain to George, 
duke of Buckingham, and rector of Burgh-clere and High-clere, in 
Hampshire. He was often disturbed for his loyalty, and at last 
sequestered: but after his majesty's restoration, he became bishop 
of St. David's. He was a person of singular candour and virtue, 
which, in the worst of times, gained him great esteem from the very 
enemies of his order and function. Ob.1677, Æt. 86. For his writ- 
ings, &c. see Wood's" Athenæ." . 


JACOBUS U8SERIUS, archiepiscopus Arma- 
chanus, &c. holding' a ð'cull; fr'ontispiece to his" Fune- 
ral 
'erJ]zon," hy Dr. Nicholas Bal
'J
a'rd. 
Archbishop Usher, who very sincerely lamented the distress of 
his brethren, - and as sincerely wept over the ruins of the church, 


· The bishops suffered great hardships during the usurpation of Cromwell; and 
many of them were deprived of all means of subsistence. In the preceding reign, 
they were often insulted with the opprobrious appellation of U dumb dogs;" and 
they were now frequently called in derision, U poor dogs;" and that by persons. 
U whose fathers they would have disdained to have set \\-ith the dogs of thl'ir 
flock."t . 


t Job. XXI. ver. 1. 



318 BIOC;ltAPHICAL HISTORY 


was much courted by Cromwell, who was proud of expressing a 
regard for so great and so good a man. He died the 21st of March, 
1655-6, and was buried with great pomp in Westminster Abbey, 
by command of the Protector, who bore half the expense of his fu- 
neral; the other half fell very heavily upon his relations. 


JOHN RICHARDSON, D. D. bishop of Ardagh; 
aged 74, Anno Dom. 1653. T. Cross $C. 4to. 


JOHN RICHARDSON, D. D. aged 74, An. Dom. 
1653; 4to. 
 Richardson. 


John Richardson, born of an ancient family in the county of 
Cheshire, was educated in the university of Dublin, where he was 
graduated doctor of divinity, and afterward made bishop of Ar- 
dagh, in Ireland. He was a grave man and good divine, verifying 
the rule, Bonus Textarius bonus Theologus, for he carried a concor- 
dance in his memory. He was author of " Choice Observations, 
and Explanations upon the Old Testament," foJ. 1655, to which his 
portrait is prefixed. Ob. 1658, Æt. 74. 
See an anecdote of him in the reign of Charles II. Class IV. 
Article ,V A TSûN . 


EDWARD US PARRY, episcopus Laonensis. J. 
Dicl.;son f. 1660. O.roll. 4to. 


Edward Parry, a prelate of Irish extraction, was a man of an 
acute genius and an exemplary character. He was consecrated 
bishop of Killaloe, the 28th of March, 1647; and died the 20th of 
July, 1650. He was author of " David restored, or an Antidote 
against the Prosperity of the wicked, &c. in a most seasonable Dis- 
course on the 73d Psalm. Opus posthumum." 8vo. 1660; to which 
his portrait is prefixed. He was father of John and Benjamin 
Parry, successively bishops ofOssory. See lVood, ii. col. 605. 



OF ENGLAND. 


319 


INFERIOR CLERGYMEN. 


EDWARDUS REYNOLDS, S.T.D. Log-gansc. 
h. sit. 


Dr. Reynolds was dean of Christ Church. See the reign of 
CHARLES II. 


JOHANNES O'VEN, S.T.P. dean of Christ Church. See the 
reign of CUA RLES II. 


JEREMY TAYLOR, D. D. P. LOJ7zbart sc. with- 
out his Jlanze. lVIotto, ".1Von ulagna loquÙJlur, sed 
f)ivinzus, 
"c." Frontispiece to Ilis "Ductal" Dubitan. 
tiulu ;" .folio. 


JERE
lY TAYLOR, D. D. with the sallze nlotto. Be- 
fore his "Measures and Offices of Friendship ;" ad- 
dressed to the fanzous Mrs. Catharine Philips, 1211zo. 
This excellent man, who had too much learning and unaffected 
piety to be thought orthodox at this period, was deprived of his 
benefice, the rectory of U ppingham, in Rutlandshire, and retired 
into Wales, where he kept school. In his retirement, he wrote 
most of his valuable works. See an accou!lt of hiln in the reign of 
CHARLES II. 


BRIANUS 'VALTONUS, S. T.D. &c. LOJJzbart 
sc. afine head. Frontispiece to his "Polyglot Bible /' 
fol. 


BRIANUS W ALTONUS, S. T. D. IV: Richardson. 


Dr. Brian \Valton was a native of Cleveland, in Yorkshire. After 
acquiring the rudinlents of learning, he was sent to Magdalen Col- 
lege, Cambridge, from whence he removed to Peter House, and 
took his master's degree there. Afterward he becalne rector of 



320 BIOGRA PHICAL HISTOR Y 


Sandon, in Essèx, and St. Martin Orgar's, in tondon. On the 
breaking out of the rebellion, he was a faithful adherent to the 
royal cause, which occasioned him to be ejected from his livings, 
and forced to fly to Oxford; where, having leisure, he first thought 
of publishing the " Polyglot Bible." In 1645 he formed the design 
of that great work, which was published in 1657.* In 1653 he 
was actually engaged in it, as appears from a letter that he wrote 
to Archbishop Usher.t This Bible, which is beautifully printed in 
six volumes foHo, is in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Vulgate, Syriac, 
Chaldee, Samaritan, Arabic, Æthiopic, and Persic languages. Dr. 
Walton was, soon after the restoration, promoted to the bishopric 
of Chester. Ob, Nov. 29, 166l. 
It is scarce known, that an English piece of his was first printed 
in the" Collectanea EccIesiastica" of SaJlluel Brewster, esq. Lon- 
don, 1752; 4to. It is called, " A Treatise concerning the payment 
of Tyths in London." In the Life of Dr. Edward Pocock, prefixed 
to his " Theological Works," are SOllle curious particulars relative 
to the London Polyglot. 


DOCTOR JOHN GA UDEN; a whole length,. he- 
fore his" Hieraspes, a Defence, by way of Apology,f01'" 
the ltIinistry and 1Jlinisters of the Church of England," 
1653, 4to. There is a very sUlal1 whole leng,th, intended 
for hinz, before !tis "Tears, Sighs, 
;c. of tlte Church 
of England," 1659, folio, which is his principal work. 
DR. GAUDEN; a scarce and curious portrait, prifi.l'ed 
to a libel of Milton's upon the "E;KtJV BaO'LÀLKJ]," entitled 
"E;KwvaÀ1]BLvrÌ," Lond. 1649, 4to. It is in tlte engraved 
frontispiece to this paJnphlet, which represents a curtain 
drawn up by a halld, and discovers Gauden peepinB' out. 
At the top, alae these words: 


'c Spectatum admissi, risulll teneatis ?"- 


. This was the first book published in England by subscription. Blome, a noto- 
rious plagiary, afterward carried the practice of publishing books in this manner to a 
greater height than any of his contemporaries. 
t See IC Gen. Diet." Artie. \V ALTON. 



OF EN G I.iAND. 


321 


lJudeJ'"Jlcatlt are the follo1oiu{!; verses: 


" The curtain's drawn; all may perceive the plot, 
And him who truly the black babe begot; 
\Vhose sable mantle makes me bold to say, 
A Phaeton Sol's chariot rul'd that day: 
Presumptuous priest, to skip into the throne, 
And make his king his bastard issue own! 
The author therefore hath conceived it meet, 
The doctor should do penance in this sheet," 


Anothe]", diffel"cnt, u'it!z tu'elve ve1
8es. 
See sonze account of the panzphlet in Kennel's "Re- 
gister and Chronicle," p. 776, 777. 


DOCTOR JOHN GAUDEN; an etching,. 4to. 
JOHN GAUDEN, &c. oval,. in Nas!z's "Worcester'- 
shire. " 
John Gauden, a native of I\Iayland, in Essex, and rector of 
Bocking, in that county, was a man of ingenuity and learning, and 
author of several books, which gained him a very considerable re. 
putation. He had a hand in the publication of the" Eikon Basi- 
like," and has been reputed the author of it; but that he actuaUy 
wrote it is abundantly disproved by external and internal evidence.* 
He was, after the restoration, successive]y promoted to the bishoprics 
of Exeter and ,V orcester. He died the 20th of September, 1662, 
aged 57, The reader may see a remarkable account of his d<,ath, 
at p. 97 of the curious" Letters of Abraham Hill, esq." I mention 
this, as it disproves a fanatical story concerning it, the purport of 
which is, that it was owing to the promotion of Dr. l\Iorley to the 
bishopric of 'Vinchester, upon which he had set his heart. 'Vho- 
ever examines the writings of the royal and reverend authors, will 
find them specifically different; and must, from taste and sentiment, 
conclude, as well as from the peculiar circumstances of both 
writers, that Charles could no more descend to write like Gauden, 
than Gauden could rise to the purity and dignity of Charles. The 


· See the Appendix to Dr. John Burton's tI Genuineness of Lord Clarendon's 
History," YV- agstatfc's "Vindication of King Charles I." &c. 
VOL. Ill. 2 T 



322 ßIOGRAPIIIC..\L IIISTOR Y 


style of the divine is more debased with the pedantry, than em- 
bellished with the elegancies of learning. * 


DR HE
RY HAMMOND; fronl an o1"ig'inal 
]JictllJ"e in the flaIl of lYIap;dalen Colkg'e, OJ_ford. Cla171jJ 
sc. 4to. 


Henry Hammond, one of the mo
t learned divines in the seven- 
teenth century, was born at Chertsey, in Surrey, Aug. 18, 1605; 
and was the youngest son of Doctor John Hammond, physician to 
Henry, prince of 'Vales, who was Henry Hanlmond's godfather, 
and gave him his own name. He received the early part of his 
education at Etol1, and in 1618 was entered at l\lagdalen College, 
Oxford; where, in 1622, he was chosen a deroy, and after taking his 
degrees in arts at the regular time, he was, in the year 1625, elected 
fellow. 
In 1629, he entered into holy orders, and four years afterward 
was inducted into the rectory of Penshurst, in Kent, conferred on 
him by Robert, earl of Leicester, who was extremely affected by a 
SerlTIOn he preached at court, for Dr. Frewin, president of l\lag- 
dalen College, and one of the king's chaplains, who aHowed 1\11'. 
Hammond on that occasion to supply his place. In 1638, he pro- 
ceeded doctor of divinity, and in 1640, he was chosen one of the 
members of the Convocation, called with the Short Parliament 
in the April of that year. In 1643, he was made archdeacon of 
Chichester; and the same year was named one of the Assembly of 
Divines, but never sat among them. He continued undisturbed 
at his living till the middle of July, 1643; but joining in the fruit- 
less attempt, then Inade at Tunbridge, in favour of the king- and a 
reward of 100l. being promised to the person that should produce 
him, he was forced to return privately, anJ in disguise, to Oxford; 
where, having procure(l an apartment in his own college, he sought 
that place in retirement and study, which was no where else to be 
found. 
In the beginning of the year 1645, he was made one of the ca- 
nons of Christ Church, and appointed one of the king's chaplains in 
ordinary; but when Oxford surrendered, in 1646, his attendance as 


· 1\lr. Granger did not live to see the puhlication of the last volume of I_ord 
Clarendon's works, which contains a letter that may stagger the ad,'ocatcs for the 
royal origin of the II Ejkon TIasilil\.c," and which accounts for his lord
hip's silence 
011 this suhjcctø 



o FEN G LA l'T D. 


323 


chaplain ceased; yet, when the king fell into the power of the army, 
he was permitted to attend hinl again, in his several confinements 
at Woodburn, Feversham, I-Iampton-court, and the Isle of 'Vight; 
at which last place he continued tiU Christmas, 16<-17, when all his 
Inajesty's servants were put away from him. 
The trial of King Charles approaching, he wrote an address to 
the General (Lord Fairfax) and the council of officers, which he 
transmitted to them, and published. His grief for the death of his 
royal master was extreme; but after having indulged it for a time, 
he resumcd his studies, and, in 1653, he gave the public his great 
work, the" Annotations on the New Testament," which, in 1698, 
was translated, with corrections and anin1adversions, by the cele- 
brated Le Clerc.. 
A few weeks previous to the restoration of Charles II. on the 4th 
of April, 1660, he was srizcd with a fit of the stone, of which he 
died at 'Vestwooù, on the 24th of the smne month; and his 1'e- 
nlains were deposited in the burial-place of the Packington family, 
at Hampton-Lovett, in a chapel built by Sir ThOlnas Packington in 
the year 1561. 


ALEXANDER ROSSÆUS; Æt.63. L01Jzbart se. 
B(fore his " l
aJlsebia, or Vic'zo of alllleligioJls;" 8vo. 


ALEXA N DER Ross. J. Clarke sc. 1733. 


ALEXANDER Ross, with a key in his hand; 'lL'ltolc 
length,. before his" lJIllses' Interpreter /' 8vo. Another, 
81/1all; 1110tlO, "llos ct unzbra SllnlliS :" before his 
" Continuation of llalcigh's IIistory." 


Alcxander Ross, a native of Aberdeen, in Scotland, was master 
of the grammar-school at Southampton, and chaplain to Charles I. 
lIe was author of a considerable number of books, in J..atin anù 
English. lIe published, in the former of these languages, a ccnto 
on the life of Christ, entitleu, " Virgilius Evange1izans;" wl1ich is 
vcry ingenious, and was descrvcdly admired. It was collected 
entirely from Virgil. It is well known how different a ('('nto was 
gatherc(l by Ausonius from that chaste poet. Our author's grcat 
work is, " A Continuation of Sir Waltcr Rakigh's History of the 
\V orId." This i
 like a picce of bad Gothic tacked to a ma
'nitìcent 



324 BIOGRAPHIC
\L IIISTOH. Y 


pile of Roman architecture, which serves to heighten the effect of 
it, while it exposes its own deficiency in strength and beauty. He 
was so unfortunate as to attack Sir Kene]m Digby, Dr. Hervey, 
and Sir Thomas Brown, and to disparage their great abilities. This 
hurt his reputation more than the meanest of his writings could 
possibly have done. Db. 1654, Æt. 64.* 


July 8, 
1658. 


DR. JOHN HEWIT; si.1 ' Eng'Zish verses; 8vo. 
JOHN HE'VIT, D. D. Vanderguc/zt sc. 8vo. 
DR. JOHN HE"rIT, beheaded June (July) 8, 1658. 
JOHN HE 'v IT ; four Latin verses; in GaY'lcood's 
'Inanller, 8vo. His head is before llÌs book on Repentance. 
DR. JOHN HE"'I,!,; 8vo. OJlOnYJ1l011S. 
Dr. John Hewit was employed by Charles II. in agencies betwixt 
his friends, and collecting money for his support. He was disco- 
vered by a spy of Thurloe's, and tried by a high court of justice, in 
which Lisle presided. He denied the jurisdiction of the court, and 
was, with little ceremony, condemned for contumacy. He was be- 
beaded at the sanle time with Sir Henry Slingsby. 
IVIrs. Claypole, Crornwell's favourite daughter, was a very impor- 
tunate, but unsuccessful advocate with her father in his behalf. 
When she lay upon her death-bed, she upbraided hin1 with the blood 
that he had spilt, and spoke with uncommon emphasis of his cruelty 
with respect to Hewit. Such a remonstrance from a beloved child, 
in so affecting a situation, must have sunk deep into his mind: it 
was strongly suspected that his consience took the alarm, and was 
never at rest from that moment. 


Vera Effigies LAMBROCI THO
lAS, S.S. T. D. 
D. SaviZ fecit; T. Cross sc. 8vo. 
* * * * * * * * * 


,. Alexander !toss, bishop of Edinburgh, was probably of the same family with tIle 
above-mentioned person. He was deprived of his bishopric in 1689, and died in 
17
O. "He bad the chance to outlive all the brethren of his order, and aU the 
bishops likewise in England, who had becn posscssed of sees before the revolutioI1." 
-Keith's" Catalogue of the bishops of Scotland," p. 41. 



OF E
GLAND. 


325 


SYDRACH SIMPSON, late master ofPenlbroke 
flaIl; black cap, boolì, 
'c. 
Sydrach Simpson, who received his education at Cambridge, 
was, in 1650, appointed masterof Pembroke Hall, in that university, 
by the parliamentary visitors. He was a minister in London in the 
reign of Charles I. and much followed and admired as a preacher. 
Dr. Preston, Philip Nye, Jeremiah Burroughs, William Bridge, and 
Sydrach Simpson, were, as N cale informs us, cc the five pillars of the 
Independent or Congregational party, and were distinguished by 
the name of the dissenting Bretllren, in the Assen1bly of Divines."!If 
Ob. 1654. 


NICOLAUS LOCKYERUS, minister Anglica- 
nus. Hollar f. 1643; 4to. 


NICHOLAS {.lOCKYER, M.A. Hollar f. 12rno. 
ill all oval,. four Ellg'lish verses. 
N [CHOLAS LOCKYER; in an oval. W. Richardson. 


Nicholas Lockyer was chaplain to Cromwell, and a frequent 
preacher before the parliament.t He succeeded Francis Rons in 
the provostship of Eton, of which he was deprived soon after the 
restoration, and was himself succ.ceded by Nicholas l\Ionck, brother 
to the general. He was afterward ejected from S1. Bennet's, Sheer- 
hog, and Pancras, Soper-lane. He published in the reign of 
Charles I. "England faithfully watcht with her ,V oUIlds, or Christ 
sitting up with his Children in their swooning State; which is the 
SUln of several Lectures, painfully preached upon Colossians 1. 
by N. Lockyer, lVI. A." 4to. The title of this book may serve as a 
specinlen of the strain in which aU his works are written. Ob, 
1684. 


· u Hist. of the Puritans," 4to. i. 623. 
t He was a native of Glastonbury, in Somcrsetshire; and was some time of New 
Inn Hall, in the university of Oxford. On the 31st of January, 1649, he was ad- 
mitted fellow of Eton College, and elected provost, the 1st of Fcb. 1653-9. He 
was succeeded by l\Ionck, the 1st of June, l()ôO.t 


t E. HCßist. ColI. Etunclls. 



326 nIOGR.APII]C.J.\I
 JIISTOR Y 


}{OBERTUS DINGLÆUS, in artibus n1agister. 
1-Y. Cross sc. Before his" Spiritual 'I'aste described, or 
a Glinl}Jse of Christ, 
c." 1649; 8vo. 
RODERTI DINGLEI; 8vo. fV. Richardson. 
Robert Dingley was son of Sir John Dingley, knt. by a sister 
of the excellent Dr. Henry Hammond. tIe was educated at IVIag- 
òalen College, in Oxforò, where he was a strict observer of all 
church cereInonies. He afterward became a zealous Puritan, and 
was remarkably active in ejecting such as were, by that party, styled 
" ignorant and scandalous ministers and schoolmasters." He was 
rector of Brightstone, in the Isle of 'Vight, when his kinsman, 
Colonel Hammond, was governor there. The Oxford antiquary 
11as given us a catalogue of his works; the most extraordinary 
of which is, "The Deputation of Angels, or the Angel Guardian: 
I. Proved by the divine light of nature, &c. 2. FrOln many rubs 
and mistakes, &c. 3. Applied and improved for our information, 
&c. chiefly grounded on Acts xii. 15. Lond. 1654." 8vo. Db. 
1659, lEt. 40. 


ROBERT DIXON; all anoJlynzous portrait. 1V. 
Reader piJl,,
'. J. ('OUillS sc. half sheet,. rare. 


Robert Dixon, rector of Tunstall, in Kent, in the year 1644, wa
 
taken prisoner, as he passed through the Crown-Inn-yard, in 
Rochester, on his return from preaching a funeral sermon at 
Gravesend; and carried to Knole-house, near Sevenoaks, in that 
county, then a prison for malignant/;, as the royal party were called. 
From Knole, he was rewoved to Leeds Castle, Kent, also a prison 
for the same pc.rpose, where he was kept cIo
e prisoner for about 
fourteen months, suffering great hardship and ill usage, by one 
Franklyn, the then governor. The crimes laid to his charge were 
his loyalty to Charles I. and his refusing to take the oath, called 
the solemn league and co.cenant. After obtaining his liberty he was 
sequestered from his living; when a parliament party came to take 
him at n1Ìdni
ht, swearing they would cut hinl as sma)] as herbs 
for the pot. I-Iaving notice of their approach and intention, 1\1r. 
Dixon escaped into Oak-wood, not far from his own house, where, 
for about a week, he lay night and day, in fear of his life, and was 



OF ENGLAND. 


327 


tllere supplied with small n1atters privately sent him, until in a lay 
habit he fled, and so escaped that stOlom; but his house was rifled, 
and himself and family completely ruined. 
On the return of Charles II. Mr. Dixon was restored to his 
living, and made prebendary of Rochester, and doctor of divinity, 
at Cambridge, where he had his education in St. John's College. 
He wrote several learned works, particularly a folio, entitled 
" The Nature of the Two Testaments," &c. He died in l\Iay, 1688. 


GULIELMUS OUGHTRED
 Æt. 83; sLt' Latin 
ve1"ses. lV
 þ}tithorne f. e.ractly in the 1naJlJler of Hol- 
lar; 12uIO. See an account of him in the preceding 
reIgn. 


EDWARD TERRY, rector of the church at 
Greenford, Midd]esex; Æt. 64, ] 655. Vaug;/zaJl SC. 
8vo. 


ED'V ARD TERRY, &c. a copy of the above; no ua1Jze 
of engoraver. 
Edward Terry, a man of polite manners, and of exemplary life, 
was chaplain to Sir Thomas Roe, in his embassy to the Great 
Mogul, in the l'eign of J ame I. I-Ie was a curious observer in his 
travels, as appears Îrom his " Voyage to East India, &c." 1655, 
8vo. to which his head is prefixed. He was also author of several 
sermons, and other pieces of divinity, and of "A Character of 
Charles II.". He expected that the king would have preferred 
bim to the deanery of 'Vindsor; but it was given to Dr. Bruno 
Ryves, the noted authol o of the" lVlercurius Rusticus." See more 
of him in " Athen. Oxon." 


JOI-IANNES TRAPP, A. M. .lEt. 53, IG5t. 
Caywood f. h. she Before his " E.l'position of the ttwelve 
jJlinor Prophets." Ll worse ÍJnprcssion of this prillt is 


· See" Athcn. Oxon," 



328 BIOGRAPIIICAI" HISTORY 


before his" E;'lPosition of the Ne1v Testa1Jlcnt." UUdCl w 
the head are 
;Îx verses. 


" One of this age's greatest little men, &c.". 


JOHANNES TRAPP, A. M. ..lEt. 59, 1660; 4to. 


John Trapp, vicar of \Veston-upon-Avon, and schoolmaster at 
Stratford, in 'Varwickshire, appears to have been one of the most 
laborious men of his age. He has written large comments upon 
almost aU the books of the Old and New Testament, not to Inention 
several pieces of divinity of less note. He never had, or even wished, 
for any preferment besides his vicarage, which lay at the con- 
venient distance of two miles from his school. His character for 
strictness of life, and as a preacher, was such, that he was, on the 
foot of his merit, offered very considerable benefices, which he 
refused to accept, as his condition was equal to his wishes. He 
was grß,ndfather of Dr. Joseph Trapp, late vicar of the united 
parishes of Christ Church, Newgate-street, and St. Leonard's, 
Foster-lane, in London.t Ob, 17 Oct. 1669. 


BENJAMIN SPENCER; without his na1Jle;," ILis 
right hand is on a scull. Cross sc. JJfotto, "Ferendo 

epllltlls, spe1"alldo 1"esllltlls." Before llis "Golden 
.1J([ean;" folio. 


Benjamin Spencer, who was born in London about tbe Iatter 
end of the sixteenth century, was probably educated at Cambridge, 
as no mention is made of him by \Vood. He was minister of St. 
Thomas's, in Southwark, and rector in Esher, in Surrey; but, being 
a loyalist, he, by the iniquity of the times, suffered sequestration 
and imprisonment. He was lecturer to the Inercers' company, 


· This age wa
) famous for little men of great worth and eminence; namely, 
Archbishop Lauc1, the Earl of Southampton, tbe Lord Falkland, Sir Charles Caven- 
dish, brother to the :l\Iarquis of Newcastle, Siùney Godolphin, Hales of Eton, Daniel 
Featley, Chillingworth, &c. 
t Author of several books of divinity, and of an excellent series of Lectures of 
poetry, in Latin. He also publisheù Latin translations of Anacreon and :l\1ilton, 
and an English translation of Virgil, in blank verse. He has more successfully imi- 
tated the gaiety of Allacreon, than the sublimity of l\lilton, Of the majesty of 
Yirgil. 



OF ENGLAND. 


329 


and chaplain to Sir John Jacob, of Bromley, in Essex, when he 
published his book, which has the following quaint title, and nine 
epistles dedicatory prefixed:* "Chrysomeson, a Golden Mean, or 
middle Way for Christians to walk by; wherein all Seekers of 
Truth, and Shakerst in the Faith, may find the true Religion, 
independing on Man's Invention, and be established therein: 
{ as a Kev to Christianity, 
Intended as a To
chstone for a Traveller. 
as a Seamark for a Sailor." 
Speaking of this work, in his general epistle to the reader, he says, 
" The outward figure of this book is like the dish called the' Olio,' 
a mess of altogether, which I have so composed on purpose to give 
content to every appetite; at least to some, &c. I have formed it 
in the way of dialogue, because it is an inquisitive age, and also 
because such ki nd of writing comes off n10re quick and home to the 
understanding than long discourses, which oftentimes 'lJ.'earietn the 
reader, and confounds the memory." This book was printed at 
London, for B. S. the author, in 1650. 


CAVE BECK. The fig'ure of the European, in the 
frontispiece of this hook is, 'lDitlt g-r'eat p1"obability, sup- 
posed to he his portrait. 
Cave Beck, rector of St. Helen's, in Ipswich,t was author of a 
book, entitled "The Universal Character, by which all Nation's in 
the World may understand one another's Conceptions, reading out 
of one common Writing their own tongues," 1657, small 8vo. The 


· This was an expedient to procure money, as the practice of publishing books by 
subscription was then unknown. I bave heard of an author who contrived much 
better than Spencer. He prefixed a different dedication to a certain number of 
printed copies, and addressed them to every great man he knew that he thought 
loved flattery, and would pay him handsomely for it. But, perhaps, none of our 
authors ever managed better than Dr. Fuller, who, in his" Church History," and 
the Appendix to it, which make but one volume, has, with admirable contri, anee, 
introduced twelve title pages besides the general one, and" as many particular dedi. 
cations, and no less than fifty-eight or 
ixty of those boY-inscriptions, which are ad. 
dressed to his particular friends and bencfactors."
 This swells the bulk of it to at 
least the amount of forty sheets. HeyJin, in the pIcface to his" E;."amen lIistori- 
cum," has censured him for walking in this untrodden path. 
t The Seekers, and Shakers, or Quakers, were notable sects at this time. 
t .' Fasti Oxon." ii. 35. 


VOL. III. 



 Ht'ylin. 
2 U 



330 llIOGI1APIIICA L IIISTOR, \" 


most considerable work of this k;nù is that of Bishop 'Vilkins, who, 
as ,V ood says, took the hint of his treatise from George Dolgarno'& 
"AI'S Signonull," &c. publi
hed in 1661. This person, who was a 
Scotsman, was a schoolmaster at O
ford, where he died in 16870- 
Mr. Leibnitz, who was in England in 1673, "told l\1r. Boyle 
and 
Ir. Oldenburgh, that he did not think either Dr. 'Vilkins or 
Dolgarno had come to the point. They n1Ïght, indeed: enable 
nations, who did not understand each other, to correspond eaEily 
together; but they had n0t obtained the true real character, which 
would be the best instrument of the human mind, and extremely 
assist both the reason and memory, and the invention of things. 
These characters ought to resemble as much as possible those of 
algebra, which are very simple and expressive, and are never su- 
))erßuolis or equivocal, but who
e varieties are grounded on reason. 
1\11'. Leibnitz speaks somewhere of an alphabet, which he was con- 
triving, of human thoughts. Probably this alphabet had some re- 
lation to his uni\'ersallangu3g
."* 


SAl\lUEL F.c\IRCLOUGH, A.l\I. &c. TT{!Jl IIove 
SC. {J tunall head;t ill Clarke's "Lives /' folio. 
SA
IU EL FA I He LOUG H; 8vo. in the "NOllCOllfoJ'JJl- 
Ù;ts' lJICJJ10rial." 


Samuel Fairclough, v;ho 'was born at Ha,'erill, in Suffolk, was 
one of the most finÌshed scholars and celebrated preachtrs among 
the Inodern Puritans of his time. He was educated at Queen's 
College, in Cambridge, and was there supposed to be puritanically 
inclined, when, at an early age, he was private tutor to Mr. 
Compton, afterward earl of Northampton, and was chosen to act 
the part of Surda, in the comedy of Ignoramus, which he obsti- 
nately refused, though strongly solicited, and even laughed at for 
l1Ìs refusal by the vice chancellOl'. He declared, that he thought it 
unlawful for a man to wear women's clothes, though in a comedy. 
Upon this declaration his pupil frankly oftèred to act his tllto;'S 
part, and that of Vince, which was alottcd for himself. He was 
some time lecturer at Lynn, in Norfolk, and afterward successively 
minister of Darnardiston and Ketton, in Sutfolk, to which benefices 



 It Diog. Brit." arlic. '" lLKI1\S, notc (S.) 
t This print maJ Le IJlaced here, or in thc reign of CharlC'3 I. 



OF ENGLAND. 


331 


he was preferred by Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston. In 1662, he was 
ejected for nonconformity, and was succeeded in the rectory of 
Ketton by Mr. Tillotson, \vhom he resembled in several circum- 
stances of his character. He was, in the pulpit, confessedly supe- 
rior to any divine of his persuasion, and preached constantly four 
times a week; once to the clergy, many of whom frequented IJis 
lectures. His discourses were well digested and carefully committed 
to writing before they were publicly delivered. He had then his 
notes constantly before hinl; but such was the strength of his me- 
nlory, tbat he scarce ever was seen to turn his eyes from the audi- 
ence. This truly pious and worthy man died the 14th of Decem. 
ber, 1677, aged 84. His funeral sern10n was preached by an emi- 
nent conforming divine. 


FRANCISCUS ROBERTS, Æt.48, 1656; h.sll. 
Before his" ()lavis Biblioru171.'" 


Francis Roberts, who was minister of 81. Augustin's, in London, 
and afterward rector of Wrington, in Somersetshire, was an assist- 
ant to the commissioners appointed by the parliament, for the ejec- 
tion of such as were then called "scandalous, ignorant, ,and insuf- 
ficient ministers and schoolmasters." He was author of several 
pieces of practical divinity; but his principal work is "Clavis Bib. 
liorum, or A Key to the Bible'" successively printed in 8vo. 4to. 
and folio. Db. 1675. See a catalogue of his work sin "A the n. 
Ûxon." 


HENRY STUBBES; Ob. Jul,y (7) 1678, .lEt. 73 ; 
121720. 


Henry Stubbes was a puritan divine of distinguished merit, who 
was educated at \Vadham College, in Oxford. In 1654, when he 
resided in the city of 'VeIls, he was appo_iuted one of the commis- 
sioners for ejecting "ignorant ånd scandalous ministers." ]\tIr. 
Wood speaks of him as a seditious preacher; but Dr. Calamy, who 
is acknowledged to be q writer of nlore candour, gives us a very 
different character of him; and represents him as a man of great 
humility, meekness, and charity, and "above aU factious induce- 
n1ents."* Certain it is, that his incessant and disinterested labours 


· See " C;,lamy's Account of the ('jected Ministers," p. 318, t't seq. 



332 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


in the ministry, his practical writings, which breathe a spirit of 
piety, and the correspondent life of the author, gained him great 
esteem and reverence from the moderate of all persuasions.-l\Ir. 
Baxter preached his funeral sermon. 


JOHANNES GOODWIN, S. Theol. Cantabrig. 
Ob. Anno Ætat. 72, 1665. 
JOHN GOOD'VIN; with a wind-mill over his head, 
and a weather-cock upon it; 4to. 
JOHN GOODWIN; 'lvith a 'lvind-mill, 8sc. w: Rich- 
ardson. 
John Goodwin, minister of Coleman-street,. was a man who 
Inade more noise in the world than any other person of his age, 
rank, and profession. He had the hardiness to introduce Armi- 
nianism among the Calvinists, which he bravely and zealously de- 
fended, both in his sermons and writings. It is hard to say, 
whether he displayed more courage in attacking or repelling the 
enemy. It is certain that he had a very powerful body to deal with, 
as it was said, that" he wa$ a man by himself; was against every 
man, and had every man almost against him." His genius seemed 
to be adapted to polemical divinity, and to an age of faction and 
tumult. He was appointed by the council of war to attend upon 
Charles I. a ]ittle before his execution. This was deemed an insult 
upon fallen majesty; as no luan more eagerly promoted, or more 
zealously defended the murder of the king. His discourses and 
writings on this subject were well remembered at the restoration; 
but it was also remembered, that he had SOWlI the seeds of 
division among the sectaries, which is supposed to have saved his 
]ife. 


CHRISTOPHER LOVE, Æt. 35, Aug. 22, 1651. 
T. Cl"OSS sc. 4to. 
CHRISTOPHER LOVE, Æt. 35, IG52. Cross sc. 
121110. 


It U Johannes Goodwin, Norfolc." became felluw of Queen':. College, in Cam- . 
bridge, in 1617. ,1\1S. Lambeth, Nu. 805. 



OF ENGLAND. 


333 


CHRISTOPHER LOVE, in the pulpit. A. Conradus f. 
large h. she 
CHRISTOPHER LOVE; a s1Jzalloval. 
CHRISTOPHER LOVE. Vandergucht sc. 8vo. 
CHRISTOPHER LOVE; a snzall oval, in a squal"e. 
(Cross.) 
CHRISTOPHER LOVE. (Gaywood) oval fralne; 121no. 


Christopher Love, who was successively nlinister of St. Anne's, 
Aldersgate, and St
 Laurence Jewry, in London, was author of 
sermons, and other pieces of practical divinity,* which gained him 
a considerahle reputation. He was convicted by the high court of 
justice of holding correspondence with the king, and conspiring 
against the republican government; for which he was condemned 
to be beheaded. The strongest application was made to the par- 
liament for his pardon, not only by his wife and friends, but also by 
several parishes in London, and by fifty-four ministers; who could 
only procure a respite of his execution for a month. He was be- 
headed in July, 1651. 
There is a sheet print of his execution, with a Dutch inscription. 
scarce. 


ARTHUR JACKSON. BOllest p. Logg'an sc. 4to. 
Arthur Jackson, n1Ïnister of St. 1\1ichael, Wood-street, aùhered 
strongly to the parliament, upon the commencement of the civil 
war. He was a particular friend of Love, and refused to give evi- 
dence against him; for which he was fined 500l. and committed 
close prisoner to the Fleet. He, at the head of the Presbyterians, 
presented the Bible to Charles II. when he made his triumphant 
procession through London. There was a particular propriety in 
choosing this person for that office, as he had written a commentary 
upon several parts of it. This work, to which his head is prefixed, 
is in three vols. 4to. He was a man of prodigious application. Dr. 
Calamy informs us, that he "studied 14 or 16 hours a day, at the 


'" His Sermons, in threc volumes 8vo. were published in 1652, 1654, and 1651. 
with his funeral scrmon by Thomas Manton. 



334 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


university; and.constantly rose at 3 or 4 of the dock in the morn- 
ing, summer and winter, to redeem his time, and held it at" the age 
of 73."* Ob, 5 Aug. 1666. 


GULIELMUS BRIDGE. 5ïlet'win sc. 121120. 


W ILLIAl\I BRIDGE. P. Hobnes,. 121120. altered and 
inscribed "Hen1"}} Stubúes." 
\V [LLIAl\I BRIDGE; in tlze "Nonconfol"nlists' MeJ7l0- 
. 'rial. " Cald1vall sc. 


William Bridge, who, in 1637, was silenced by Bishop Wren 
for nonconformity, retired afterward to Rotterdam, where he was 
ejected pastor of a congregational church. Upon the breaking o'nt 
of the rebellion, he returned to England, and was chosen a member 
of the Assembly of Divines. He was many years resident at Yar- 
mouth.-In Peck's "Desiderata Curiosa,"t is a letter of William 
Bridge to Henry Scobell, esq. clerk of the council, about aug- 
menting the income of preachers, with the names of the Inde- 
pendent ministers of prime note in the county of Norfolk. This 
shews that he was a leading man among the Independents. He 
was author of one-and-twenty treatises, in two vols. 4to. 1657; 
Sermons before the parliament, &c. Ob.12 March, 1670, Æt. 70. 


IVIR. JOHN :pUR.A.NT; U Ãfoderata Durant;" 
sJJzall 8vo. 


John Durant was a minister of special note at Canterbury, where 
he usually preached in the cathedral church. 'Vhen the Bartho- 
lomew Act took place, he was ejected thence for nonconformity. 
He was author of several sermons; of "Comfort and Counsel for 
dejected Souls;" and other treatises on similar subjects, in a very 
singular canting style.! 


.. See Calamy's " Account of the ejected 1\Iinisters," p. 3. 
f Vol. ii. lib. xiii. No.9. 
t In his" Sips of Sweetness," upon Isaiah xl. 11.
 reprinted in 1662, are the fol- 
lowing passages: " TVili gently lead tllOse that woe with young; that is, Christ will 



 " He shaH fecd his flock, like a shepherd; he shall gather the lambs with his 
arm, and carry them in I.is bosom, and shall ,::ently lead those that are with young." 



OF E:NG LA KD. 


335 


CUTHB
RTUS SIDENHAM, or (Sydenhan1), 
Æt. 31, 1654. Ga.Y'lDoodf. Before his" Greatness of 
the lJI!Jsterie of (;odlincss," 1656; Sz:o. 


CUTIl13ERT S.IDEXIIA1\J, in a cloak. 
"llypocrisie IJiscovercd," 1654; 8vo. 
Cuthbert Sidenham, who was educated at Oxford, was author of 
sermons, and other practical pieces of divinity. His" Hypocrisie 
Discovered," &c. was the subject of seven sermons, taken from his 
mouth, in short hand, by one of his friends, and published without 
alteration.' It luust presently appear, to an attentive reader, that 
that this circumstance is far from being a recommendation of these 
discourses. '" He wrote a warm piece of controversy in vindication 
of " the two honourable patriots," Oliver Cromwell and Sir Arthur 
Haslerig; in which he has endeavoured to wipe off the aspersions 
of the famous incendiary John Lilburne. Ob, lVIarch, 1654. 
.' 


Before his 


be very kind to those saints t1mt step asidc." And he thus comforts those that are 
big with young ill a sinful sense: " 0 ye 
inning ewes, who have been big with 
young! bath not h
 gone after JOu, and found you, and laid :rou upon his 
:shoulders, rejoicing? It may be, thou hast been wandering, like Dinah, from thy 
father's honse, and art big with young, and afraid to go hume; but fear not, go and 
try, he will not cast you out of dours, though you come with big bellies; he will 
deal gently with you, though with Joung. And then it is our glory to bc Christ's 
ewes; and then, when a woman is big with )'oung, and cries out, 0 1lI'y belly, my 
belly! here is a point of comf\)rt, that Christ is sweet tu such persons." Afterward 
he thus exclaims: " 0 blessed cwes! 0 believing ewcs! and 0 believing bees, 
that suck the honey of sin-hatred out of the wormwood of sin actcd!" In another 
placc, he tells us, that U Christ accounts their very stammerir.gs sweet. .l\leih, 
meih! saith the little one, and the mother counts it music."f IncrediLI
 as it may 
seem, much in this strain was the popular eloquence that prevailed at this period; 
eloquence that attracted cl'o\\dcd audiences, and which was cagerly cOlllluiucd to 
writing by the dcvout scriues. "Of all mortals," says Sir John Bil'kenhead, " I 
admire the short-hand \lien who have the patience to write from his IlJUuth: Had 
they thc art to shortcll it intu sense, they might write his whole sermon 011 the back 
of their nail."t . 
. If some modern sermons werc taken down in short-hand, and published as tb<,y 
were dclh'cred, it would be a clear proof of what the fooli;)hucs5 of preaching. aided 
by the power of action, can duo 


t See this. and more, in L'Estrangc's " Di::.senter'
 Sa)'ings." 
t " Chal'acter of ..111 
\s
cmLly-l\lan," p. 17, iU. 



336 BI 0 GRAPHICAL IllS TOR .Y 


JOHANNES FROST, Æt. 31. Vaughan sc. 4to. 
John Frost was fellow of St. John's College, in Cambridge, and 
afterward pastor of the church of St. Olave, in London. He was 
author of a volume of discourses, entitled "Select Sermons," &c. 
J 658, fo!' to which is prefixed his head. He died about the time of 
the restoration. 


JAMES NALTON. J.Clzantrysc.12nlo.inonoval. 
JAl\IES N ALTON, preaching. G. 
f. 
J Al\IES N ALTON; in an oval. 
 Richardson. 
Jmnes Nahon was some time pastor of St. Leonard's, Foster-lane. 
He was concerned in what was called" Love's Plot," and fled into 
Holland, to avoid punishment for conspiring against the Inde- 
pendent government. Baxter commends him highly for his great 
piety and learning, and his uncommon seriousness as a preachen He 
was often so deeply affected with his subject, as to shed tears while 
he was preaching, and it was no unusual thing to see the tears 
trickling down the cheeks of the congregation at the same time. 
A discourse, with which the preacher appeared to be so sensibly 
moved, could scarce fail of finding its way to the hearts of his 
audience. This good man was, especially in the latter part of his 
life, subject to n1elancholy, which sometimes threw him into de- 
spair. He died of this horrid distemper, in December, 1662. A 
considerable number of his sermons are in print. 


MR. THOlVIAS CA WTON, Æt. 54; 8vo. Fron- 
tispiece to his Life, 1662. 
rrH01\IAS CA'VTON, Æt.54, 1659. J
 Richardson. 


Thomas Cawton, minister of Wivenhoe, in Essex, and afterward 
of St. Bartholomew's, behind the Royal Exchange, was educated at 
Qu
en's College, in Cambridge. He there laid the foundation of 
that learning in which he had few equals, and began to distinguish 
himself by that piety in which he had scarce a superior. He was 
eminent for his knowledge in the ancient and modern languages, 
and was well known in England and Holland as an orientalisi. 
He was very instrumental in promoting the gre3.t work of the 



OF ENGL.AND. 


337 


Polyglot Bible, and was an encourager of Dr. Castle's Polyglot 
Lexicon. He was deeply concerned in Love 7 s unhappy affair, and 
fled into Holland at the same time with N alton, where they were 
joint pastors of the English church at Rotterdam. He died abroad, 
the 7th of August, 1659. The account of his life is an artless 
picture of a man who did great honour to his profession, and was 
a pattern of virtue in every social relation. The author tells us, 
that when Mr. Cawton first received the sacrament, he fainted: 
and he ever afterward expressed the profoundest reverence, and the 
most elevated devotion, at that awful solemnity. The very learned 
Thomas Cawton, whose life is in the" Biographia," was his son. 


OBADIAH SEDGWICK; sinall8vo. 
OBADIAH SEDG'VICK; fro'J7z a picture in the pos- 
session of N. Collis, bookseller, Kettel"ing, North amp- 
tOllslzire. "Tv. Richardson. 


Obadiah Sedgwick, who had been chaplain to Sir Horace Vere, 
in his expedition into the Netherlands, was successively preacher 
of St. Mildred's parish, in Bread-street, and minister of St. Paul's, 
Covent-garden; where he preceded his son.in-law, Dr. Manton. 
He was one of the Assembly of Divines, a trier of ministers, and a 
frequent preacher before the parliament. He espoused their cause 
with uncommon zeal, and was very forward, both by preaching and 
acting, to carryon the great work of reformation "in church and 
state.". He was author of a considerable number of sermons, and 
other pieces of practical divinity. Ob. 1657. 


· Sir John Birkenhead, speaking of the popular declaimers in the reign of 
Charles I. says, u 'Tis pleasant to observe how finely they play into each other's 
hands. l\IarshaIlt procures thanks to be given to Sedgwick; and (for his great 
pains), Sedgwick obtains as much for l\larshall, and so they pimp for one another. 
nut yet (to their great comfort be it spoken), their whole seven years' sermons at 
'Vestminster, are to be sold in Fetter-lane and Pye-corner." 


t Stephen l\farshall, an Independent, was minister of Finchingfield, in Essex. 
He was, as Newcourt informs us, called "The Geneva BulJ,JJ
 Wood styles him 


t u Repertorinm," ii. p. 265. He had this appellation from Cleavelard, \'yho, 
in his" Rcbel Scot," has this distich: 
u Or roar, like Marshall, tl1at Geneva Bull, 
Hen and damnation a pulpit fulJ." 
VOL. III. 2 X 



-338 BIOGRAPIIICAL IIISTOR Y 


HEZEKIAH HOLLAND, n1inister of the gospel, 
at Sutton Valence, in Kent; 8vo. 


HEZEKIAH HOLLAND; 8vo. TV: Richardson. 


Hezekiah Holland styles himself Anglo-Hibernus in his" Expo- 
Eition, or a short, but full, plain, and perfect Epitome of the m03t 
choice Commentaries of the Revelation of St. John," 1650,4to. 
This was, for the most part, delivered by way of exposition, in his 
parish church of Sutton Valence. 


JOHANNES MURCOT, Æt.30. Faithornef. 4to. 
Frontispiece to his Works; very scarce. 


JOHANNES MURCOT, Æt. 30, 1654. TV: Richardson. 
John l\lurcot, a.Presbyterian, studied at 1\1erton College, in Ox- 
ford, from which he relnoved when that city was garrisoned for 
Charles I. He was, for some time, a Ininister in Cheshire; and 
afterward at Dublin, where he was one of the preachers in ordinary 
to the lord-deputy. He was much admired for his preaching, was 
a man of great industry in his profession, and of unCOl1unon strict- 
ness of life. Mr. Wood styles him a " forward, prating, and prag- 
Inatical Precisian;" and tells us, that he gave up the ghost, "very 
unwillingly," at Dublin, the 3d of December, 1654. The authors 
of his life inform us, that he longed for his dissolution, and ex- 
pressed the greatest joy when it approached. See his Life before 
his ,V orks. 


Vera effigies JO. ROGERS. Saville p. Holla1" f. 
1653. Arnls, a chevron belïDi
1:t three stags current. It 


U the Archflamen of the rebellious Rout.". He, with his sonMin-Iaw, Philip N ye, 
was sent to Scotland to expedite the covenant. Severa} 'years afterward, they were 
appointed to treat with Charles I. at the Isle of 'Vight, for which each had a pre- 
mium of 5001. ,Marshall, Nye, and Peters, are spoken of in much the same terms 
by the royalists, as being alike preachers of resistance, and notorious for their zeal 
nnd activity in promoting the rebeIlion. The most memorable of IHarshall's works, 
is his sermon preached at the funeral of Pym, to which is prefixed the head of the 
latter, by Glover. 


· IC i\ thcnæ," ii. 38. 



OF ENGLAND
 


339 


nppcars that Vertlte's description of this portrait is ta/Len 
fro1lt an irllpeliect prillt. See his "Catalog'ue of Hal.. 
tar's Works," first edil. p. 74. 
JOHN ROGERS. R. Gaywood; s1Jzall oval. 


John Rogers, who was Ininister of Purleigh, in Essex, became 
afterward pastor of St. Thomas the Apostle's, in London. It ap- 
pears, that he was also minister of Christ Church, in Dublin. He 
was a great fanatic, and no less popular among the Anabaptists 
and Fifth l\1onarchy Men, than I.ove was among the Presbyterians. 
After Cromwell had deserted these sectaries, he took umbrage at 
the great popularity and enterprising spirit of Rogers; and was 
little less apprehensive of Feake, who was also regarded as a leadel' 
of that party. * They were both Ï1nprisoned, anù the Protector \\'as 
thought to act with extraordinary clemency in sparing their lives. 
This was imputed to a secret regard that he retained for his old 
friends the Independents. The writings of Rogers are of a very 
singular cast. Zachary Crofton wrote an answer to a book of his, 
entitled, "A Tabernacle for the Sun, or Irenicum Evangelicum, an 
Idea of Church Discipline," 1653; before which is his head by 
HoHar. The same person was author of "Bethshemesh clouded, 
or some Animadversions on the Rabbinical Talmud of Rabbi John 
Rogers." 


DR. BAILEY; 817zall quarto; 1nezz'. Woodburn eLl'C. 
Thomas Bailey, the fourth and young'est son of Bishop Bailey, 
was educated at Cambridge, and having commenced B. A. \vas 
presentt:
d to the sub deanery of \Vells by Charles I. in 1638. In 
1644, he retired with other loyalists to Oxford; where, proceeding 
in his degrees, he was created D. D. and two years after, we find 
him with the lVlarquis of Worcester, in Ragland Castle, after the 
battle of Naseby. In the year 1649, he published" The Royal 
Charter granted unto Kings by God himself, &c. to which is added, 
a Treatise, wherein is proved, that Episcopacy is Jure Di-âllo." 8vo. 
These writings occasioned his being committed to Newgate: 
whence escaping, he retired to Holland, and became a zealous 


Ludlow informs us, tllat Rogers and S.}'mpsoIl, ministers, pleadled øg'linst 
Cromwell's u
urpatioll,-" ,Memoirs," 11. p. 490. 



340 BIOGRAPHICAL IIISTORY 


Roman Catholic. Some time after he settled at J:?ouay, and atlast 
went to Italy, where he lived and died extremely poor. 


THOMAS LARKHAM, &c. Æt. 54; 'lvithout tlte 
eng1-aver's nanze; prifi.1'ed to his "Sermons." 
THOl\IAS LARKHAlVr, Æt. 50, 1652. T. Cross; scarce. 


Thomas Larkham, a zealous Puritan, was persecuted by the 
Star-chamber, and other ecclesiastical courts, in the reign of 
Charles I. which occasioned his flying to New-England. Upon his 
return, he was chosen ministf'r of Tavistock, in Devonshire, where 
he was greatly esteemed. He was author of several books; but 
his principal work is his "Discourse of the Attributes of God, in 
sundry Sermons," 4to. 1656. Db. 1669, Æt. 68. 


THOMAS MOCKET, Æt. 68, 1670. Cross sc. 
12mo. 


Thomas Mocket, who wa3 master of arts of both universities, 
was educated at Queen's College, in Cambridge. In the reign of 
Charles I. he was minister of Holt, in Denbighshire, and afterward 
of Geldesden, in Hertfordshire. He was chaplain to John Egerton, 
earl of Bridgewater, when he was lord-president of the marches 
of Wales. He was author of several books of practical divinity, of 
which the most considerable is his "Gospel Duties and Dignity," 
4to. 1641. The most singularly remarkable of his works is entitled, 
" Christmas, the Christians' grand Feast, its Growth; and Obser- 
vation of Easter, Whitsuntide, and other Holidays, modestly dis- 
cussed anù determined," &c. I..ondon, 1651.* 


JOSEPH SYMONDS, late vice-provost of Eton ; 
Æt. 50; 4to. 
JOSEPH SVl\IONDS, &c. TV: Richardson. 
Several pieces, written by a person of both his names, occur ill 
the Sion and Bodleian Catalogues. They were printed in 1641, 


· One of the popular topics or preaching at this time, was against festivals, to 
,dlich fasts were somctimes 5ubstituted, merely from a principlc of opposiliou. 



OF ENGI...AND. 


341 


1651, 1655. In one of these he is called" Minister of St. Martin's, 
Ironmonger-lane." l\Iention is made of him, under that appellation, 
in Archbishop Laud's" Account of his Province," for 1639. See 
" The History of his Troubles and Tryal:' p. 559. 


SAMUEL MOORE; in a black cap and cloak. 
M"arshall sc. 8vo. Under the head in a small oval, is 
this 1notto: "]{on est 'I1zortale quod opto." The print 
'JJzay be placed here, or in the preceding reign. 
He was author of a book caUed the " Yearnings of Christ's 
Bowels," &c. printed in 1648 and 1654, 8vo. 


"ROBERT MATON, preacher of the Word," 
&c. Cross sc. In MS. under the head. 


Robert Maton, who was born at Tudworth, in Wiltshire, and 
educated at Wadham College, in Oxford, was strongly possessed 
with the millenary notions; and, like other enthusiasts, his con- 
temporaries, seems to have dreamed that the Millennium would 
have been ushered in by the rebellion. He was author of " Israel's 
Reden1ption, or a Prophetical History of our Saviour's Kingdom 
on Earth," &c. on Acts i. 6; 1642, 8vo. "A Discourse of Gog and 
Magog, or the Battle of the great Day of God Almighty," on 
Ezek. xxxviii. 2. "A Comment on the xx. Chapter of the Reve- 
lation," 1652, 4to. "Isra.el's Redemption redeemed, or the Jews' 
miraculous Conversion to the Faith of the Gospel, aud Return into 
their own Land, and our Saviour's personal Reign on Earth, proved 
from the Old and New Testament," &c. 1646. This was reprinted 
under the tide of "The Fifth Monarchy," &c. in 1655, with his 
head prefixed.. 


WILLIAM BENN. J. Cald'lvall sc. In the " Non- 
conformists' lIIemorial." 
"\ViHiam Benn, born in Cumberland, 1600, and educated in the 
free-school of St. Bees, was member of Queen's CoHege, Oxford; 
then he obtaincd a presentation to Okingham, in Berkshire, and 


· See "\' uorl. 



342 ßI 0 G RA PII I CA L II 1ST 0 R Y 


did 'th
 duty jointly with one Bateman. He was also appointed 
chaplain to the Marchioness of Northampton, and continued in her 
service till 1626; when, through the interest of John White, he 
was made rector of Allhallows church, and preached gratuitously 
to the prisoners in the jail within his parish. The place being 
llluch frequented, he caused a chapel to be built within the prison 
walls. He was ejected from his parish for nonconformity. It 
was his custom to pray in his study seven times a day, and in his 
}1rayers to give God thanks for certain deliverances of him from 
danger in the course of his life past. He retired to Dorchester, 
where he died, 1680, Æt. 80. At this great age he is said never to 
have used spectacles. 


THOMAS HILDER, of Sand\vich, in Kent, Æt. 
53, 1651. His name is not inscribed. Unde'r the print, 
which was engraved hy Vaug,'han, are eight verses. 
" The effigies here on which you look," &c. 
His dress denotes h Ï1n a puritan divine. 
He was author of an uncommon book, entitled" Conjugal Coun- 
sel, or seasonable Advice both to unmarried and married Persons," 
to which is prefixed his print, 8vo. It was written chiefly for the 
use of Samuel, IVrehetabel, and Anne Hilder, his children, to whom 
he has addressed himself in a long dedication. 


HUGH PETERS, in the pulpit; a full cong'l'eg'a- 
lion: he is 1'"epresented turning an hour-glass; near llim 
are these words.' "I kJlOZV YOll are good fellows, stay and 
take the other g'lass." Before his Life, by J;VilliaJJl, 
Young, lJI. D. (a Welsh physicilln.) 121710. 1663. 
HUGH PET ERS, in a pulpit, 
"c. copied f'J'"ol]l the above, 
and p1"tji..red to his" Jests." 
HUGH PETEItS; u,itlt II 'lvÙzd-17Ûll on his head, 
'c. 
fV. Riclzardson. 
I-IUGJI PETERS; in the print tvitlt John 1'11lrlow. 



OF ENGLAN D. 


343 


HUGH PÈTERS; in the print of the Regicides. 
HUGH PETERS, Æt. 57. P. Coles. 


HUGH PETERS; whole length; standing on the COJJl- 
1JlOn-Prayer,. councils drawing bap;s of llzoney witlt a 
(,'0 rd. (
Faithorne.) 


HUGH PETERS; in Caulfield's "Hig'h Court qf Jus- 
tice. " 


HUGH PETERS; with a wind-rnillon Ilis head.. Tile 
devil is 'lvhisperin{!; in his ear, 8vo. To this print lvas 
afterward qffi:red the name of Father Peters.* 
Hugh Peters, who was the son of a merchal1tt at Fowey, in Corn- 
wall, was some time a member of Jesus College, in Cambridge, 


· Before Sir John Birkenbead's U Assembly-Man," which contains a general and 
very satirical character of a fanatic divine belonging to the assembly at Westminster, 
is a frontispiece, by }'aithorne, which is supposed to have been intended for Hugh 
Peters, or some active zealot of that period. The figure is a whole length, in a 
cloak, treading on the fathers, councils, common-prayer, &c. 
Sir John, speaking of an Assembly-l\Ian, says,t ,I' His whole prayer is such an 
irrational bleating, that (without a metaphor) 'tis the calves of his lips. He uses 
fine new words, as savingab]e, muchly, Christ-J esusness ; and yet he has the face 
to preach against prnyer in an unknown tongue.9 
II Sometimes he's foundered; and then there is such hideous coughing; but that's 
very seldom; for he can glibly run over nonsense, as an empty cart trundles down 
a hill. 
II His usual auditory is most part fe!ßale; and as many sisters flock to him as at 
Paris on St. l\hrgaret's day, when aU come to church that are, or hope to be, with 
child that year." 
t See II H. Petel's's Legacy to his daughter," p. 98. 


t P. 1 L l, 15. 
9 Dr. South, in vol. v. p. 493, of his II Sermons," where he mentions the simpJi. 
city of St. Paul's language, says, II This was the way of the apostles discoursing of 
things sacred. Nothing here of the fringes # the north-stm.; nothing of nature's 
becoming unnatural; nothing of the down of angel's wings, or the beautiful lochs of 
cÌte1'ubims; no staa'ched similitudes, introduced with a thus have I seen a cloud 1"olling 
in its airy mansion; and the like. No, these were sublimities above the rise of the 
apostolic spirit; for the apostles, poor mort",ls! were content to take lower steps. 
and to tell the world in plain terms, that he Uìl
o believed should be sm."ed, aud that he 
who beliel'ecl 'lOt should úe damned." 



344 


BIOGR1\PIIICAL HISTORY 


whence he is said to have been expelled for his irregular beha- 
viour.. He afterward betook himself to the stage,t where he ac- 
quired that gesticulation and buffoonery which he practised in the 
pulpit.! He was admitted into holy orders by Dr. Mountaine, 
bishop of London; and was, for a considerable time, lecturer of St. 
Sepulchre's in that city: but being prosecuted for criminal conver- 
sation with another man's wife,
 he fled to Rotterdam, where he 
was pastor of the English church, together with the learned Dr. 
William Ames. lIe afterward exercised his ministry in New-Eng- 
land, where he continued about seven years. He was a great 
pretender to the saintly character, a vehement declaimer against 
Charles I. and one of the foremost to encourage and justify the re- 
beIlion.1I The historical and critical account of his life, published 
a few years since, is chiefly taken from " A dying Father's last 
Legacy, &c. or H. Peters's Advice to his Daughter." See the reign 
of CHARLES II. 


JOHANNES PORDAGE.
 Faithornef. 4to. Pre- 


· See his Life by Dr. Young, p. 6. 
t Life, p. 7. 
f The English language was much corrupted by the preachers at this period. 
The eloquence of the pulpit differed widely from every other species, and abounded 
with such figures of speech as rhetoric has found no name for... The language of 
prayer was no less corrupted than that of preaching; the second person in the Tri- 
nity was frequently addressed in the familiar, the fond, and the fulsome style; 
much of which seems to have been borrowed from U The Academy of Compli. 
ments," a foolish book published about this time. 
9 Life, p. 20. 
U 'Vhen Charles was brought to London for his trial, Hugh Peters, as Sir Philip 
\Varwick says, U was truly and really his gaoler."tt Dr. \Vhite Kennet informs us, 
that he bore a colonel's commission in the civil war; that he was vehement for the 
death of tIle king; that it was strongly suspected that he was one of his masked 
executioners; and that one Hulet was the other.-" Register," &c. p. 277. 284. 

 As I have never seen the book to which this head belongs, I am in doubt as 


.. This is exemplified in a pñnted account of a sermon of Hugh Peters's on 
Psalm evii. ver. 7. U He led them forth by the right way, that they might go to the 
city of hahitation." He told his audience that God was forty years leading Israel 
through the wilderness to Canaan, which was not forty days' march; but that God's 
right way was a great way about. He then made a circumflex on his cushion, and 
said, that the Israelites were led "crinkledum cum erankledum." See the story at 
large in tbe u Parliamentary History," vol. xxii. p. 72. 
ft l\Iemoirs, p, 340. 



OF ENGLAND. 345 


fi.1/ed to Izis " Theologiæ 3fystria," 1683; 4to. Copied 
hy W. Richardson. 


John Pordage, who is placed by Baxter at the head of the 
Behmenists, was some time preacher of St. Laurence's church, in 
Reading, and afterward rector of Bradfield, in Berkshire. He was 
a man of much natural enthusiasm; and having over-heated his 
imagination by reading the works of Jacob Behmen, he, like that 
visionary, fancied himself inspired. He pretended to know divine 
truth by a clearer light than that of the Scripture, which he con- 
sidered as little better than a dead letter. He was accused by Chris- 
topher Fowler, a clergyman of Reading, before the- comlnissioners 
of Berks for ejecting n1Ïnisters, of preaching anti-scriptural doc- 
trine, of blasphemy, and familiarity with evil spirits. Much of the 
history of this strange enthusiast may be seen in Fowler's" Dæmo- 
nium Meridianum." He acknowledges himself, in his answer to 
that book, that he had sensible communion with angels; and that 
he knew good spirits from bad by his sight, and even by his smell. 
He also acknowledges, that his house was, for a month, infested 
with evil spirits; and that he had a visible conflict with a fiery 
dragon, which filled a large room; CI that an impression was made 
in the brick-wan of his chimney, of a coach drawn with tigers and 
lions, which could not be got out, till it was hewed out with pick- 
axes; and another on his glass-window, which yet remaineth." 
But these spirits, as he believed, were raised by one Everard, whom 
he looked upon as a conjurer. This man, who appeared to be a 
proselyte of Pordage's, was for several weeks a sojourner in his 
family. The character of Pordage may be sUllllned up in very few 
words; he was far gone in one of the most incurable kinds of 
madness, tlzefrenzy of enthusiasm. See more of him in his "Vindi- 
cation of himself against several Aspersions," &c. Lond. 1655. 
See also 'V ood's "Athenæ," II. 578; and Baxter's " Life," fol. 
part i. p. 77. 


to the person whom it represents. I have lately 
ecn the same print, as I appre 4 
bend, inscribed, " Effigies Johannis Pordage, Philosophï, :l\Icdici, Theologi, Au- 
thoris hujus Figuræ Hieroglyphicæ." He is styled "chymist," in â manuscript 
inscription under the head, in the Pepysian library. Quære, if a son òf the clergy
 
man, who had several children, of whom Samuel was a poet. 
VOL. III. 2 y 



346 B lOG RAP II I C A L II 1ST 0 R Y 


SAMUEL KEl\1E; IS. T. Bac. Æt. 33, lû38. G. 
Glover sc. 
'malt quarto:1. scarce. 


Samuel Keme, after being some time at Magda1en College, 
where he took holy orders, proceeded bachelor of divinity, and was 
made rector of the church at Albury, in Oxfordshire. lIe was 
chaplain to, and captain of, a troop of horse in the regiment of 
Basil, earl of Denbigh, in which he prayed and preached to en- 
courage the soldiers to fight. A. Wood says, he was a man of 
a very servile spirit, a flatterer, a time-server, an Epicure, a 
lecher, &c. anù always pretended to saintship; and when at col- 
lege, was said to be the most notorious 1iar that ever wore long ears. 
He died at A1bury 1670. He published several sermons, &c. See 
\V ood's " Athenæ." 


A SCOTCH DIVINE. 


ROBERT LEIGH'fON, S. S. TI
. Professor pri. 
marius, et academiæ Edinburgenæ præfectus, 
Et. 46, 
1654. R. White sc. s1Jlalt 4to. 


Comec. 
15 Dec. 
1661. 


ROBERT LEIGHTON, Æt. 40, 1654; prefi.t'ed to !Lis 
"Works," 1 7 58. R. Strang'e. 
This exceIIent person is represented by Bishop Burnet as one of 
the most perfect characters of his own, or any other age. He was 
learned, eloquent, and devout; but his piety was the most unaffected 
in the world. His charity was comprehensive with respect to 
speculative opinions; but he could. never overlook flagrant vices 
and corruptions in the professors of any religion. He was, for his 
singular merit, preferred to the bishopric of Dumblain, and after- 
ward to the archbishopric of Glasgow. He had many enemies 
among the rigid Episcopalians, as he was strongly inc1ined to n1ake 
some concessions to the Presbyterians, in order to an accommoda- 
tion." Though he was upwards of seventy years of age, he appeared 
in great health and spirits, and in the full possession of all his 


.. }jurnet's" Histor
T of his own Time," i. 275, et seq. 



OF ENGLA ND. 


347 


faculties, tile day before he died; but was even then apprehcn8ive 
of his approaching dissolution. He seemed to think the circum- 
stances that usually attend death wor3e than death itself; and 
wished to die at an inn to avoid the sorrowful looks and trouble- 
some assiduities of his friends: The event was according to his 
wish, for he died at the Ben Inn, in \Varwick-Iane, in 1684. IIis 
select works were published in 8\'0. 1746. See more of hiin in 
Burnet's "History of his own Times," and in Dr. Doddridge's 
"Life." The last reentioned author published his expository works, 
and other valuable remains. 


JOH1\NNES D'ESPAGNE, Sancti Evangelii 
l\1inister; Doctrina singulari, Studio indefesso, 
J\lorum suavitate, ad versornm Tolerantia, inclytus. 
Before his" Essay," 
'c. SVD. 
John D'Espagne was minister of a French congregation, which 
assembled at Durham-house, in the Strand; and, after that was 
IJulled down, at the chapel in SOlllerset-house, which was procured 
for that assembly by order of the Hou3e of Lords, * by many of 
whom he was much followed and admired. He wrote on the sacra- 
filent, and several other subjects in French. The following books, 
which are the IllOst considerable of his works, have been translated 
into English: "The Use of the Lord's Prayer, maintained against 
the Objections of the Innovators of these times," Englished by 
C.1VI. London, 1646. "An Essay on the \V onders of God in the 
Harmony of the Times, Generations, and most illustrious Events 
therein enc1osed; from the original of Ages to the Close of the 
New Testmnent," 1662, 8vo. This was published after his de- 
cease, by his executor. 


PRIESTS OF 1'I-IE CHURCI-I OI
 ROME. 


RIClll\.RDUS CARPENTERUS. 
sJJzall 4to. FroJJl his " lIDO SerJJlOJlS." 


Faitlzorne sc. 
The /)'ccond is 


· The Frend! church in the Savoy was erected in the reign of Char1es II. It 
was under the jurisdiction uf the Bi
hop or London, and the English Liturgy was 
uscd. 



348 BIOGRAPHICAL llISTORY 


entitled, "Astrology proved harnzless, useful, pious;" 
on Gen. Ì. 14. "And let theln be for sig'Jls." It is 
dedicated to kIt'. Ashmole. The head is at the end of 
the dedication. These sel'"17l0nS were printed at London, 
in 4to. 1657.* See the reign of Charles I. and II. 


PETRUS WRIGHT, Sacerdos e Soc. Jesu, ob 
Fidem passus, Londini, 1651. C. Galle sc. 
PETRUS WRIGHT. J. Thane. 


Peter \Vright was a Jesuit and a missionary in England. He 
was some time chaplain to the Marquis of Winchester, and after- 
ward to Sir Henry Gage, governor of Oxford in the time of the 
civil war.t He assisted that great man in his last moments, being 
with him when he received his fatal wound in the skirmish at 
Culham-bridge. 'Vright, happening afterward to be seized, was 
tried and condemned to die on account of his sacerdotal character. 
He suffered at 'ryburn, the 29th of May, 1651. The principal evi- 
dence against him was Thomas Gage, brother to Sir Henry, who, 
from a Franciscan friar, was "turned priest-catcher, and captain 
of the band of pursuivants." He had almost an unlimited power 
to search the houses of CathQlics in the reign of Char]es I.t 


The foIlowing person was of Scottish extraction" 


ALEXANDER MORUS, summus Vir, &c. Cris- 
pin de Pas figu. half lenp"th,. h. sh. 
ALEXANDER Monus. v: Scllllppen
 
ALEXANDER MORus. J. CorreJls,. 4to. 


, 


· It is probable that he professed himself a Protestant when his Sermons werð 
printed. 
t This is the Jesuit hinted at in Clarendon, vol. ii. 8vo. p. 55
. 
t Dod. iii. 114. 



OF ENGLA.ND. 


- 3
19 


ALEXAN DER MORUS. Van SOlner; 1ne,ZZ. 


ALEXANDER MORUS. 1P: Vaillant; L. Visschet. 


ALEXANDER MORE; inscribed "Merriento lJIori"'
 
no na1Jze of engraver,. sheet. 


Alexander More, who was the son of a Scotsman, at Castres, in 
Languedoc, was one of the completest scholars, and most eloquent 
and graceful preachers of his age. He was well skilled in the 
Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic languages, and was an excel- 
lent divine, poet, and historian. He distinguished himself at a very 
early period, when he, on the foot of his merit, was elected Greek 
professor at Geneva, where he succeeded Spanheim in the divinity- 
chair. He was honoured with another divinity-chair in the cele- 
brated school at Middleburgh; and, by the invitation of the magis- 
tratea of Amsterdam, succeeded the famous Gerard V ossius in the 
professorship of history, in which he appeared to advantage, 
though he was successor to so great a man. He afterward be- 
came minister of the Protestant church at Paris. He was intimate 
with Salmasius, and took his part against lVlilton, who treated him 
as a lecher and a libertine; not, indeed, without so me founda- 
tion, as his character was not untainted with regard to women. It 
appears, that his morals raised him some enemies: his merits per- 
haps more; and his temper, which was ambitious, fickle, bold, and 
presumptuous, most of all. 
The reader may see an account of his works, which are chiefly 
tl1eological, in Bayle, who particularly mentions his quarrel with 
Milton.* He died at Paris, in the house of the Dutchess of Rohan, 
in September, 1670. The print, which is well executed, is much 
like him. 


· Artie. l\IORUS, note (1\1). It appears, in note (K), that he was in England in 
1661 and 1662. 
It will be worth the reader's white to see what is !!laid of him by Jolm Albert Fa- 
bricius, in the preface to his Ie Observations in varia Laca N. T." and by Dr. 
N ewton, in his cc Life of l\iilton," p. 27, &c. 
:Miltoll sUIJposed that 1\Iorus was the author o( a treatise against him; and there- 
fore abused l\lorus by mistake.-LoRD IIAILU. 



3GO DIOGltAPIIIC.AL IIISTOlt Y 


Lr\ Y -1">REACIIERS. 


OLIYER Cn.Ol\l\VELL exercised what he called" the sword 
of the spirit," upon every occasion, where he thought the military 
sword would be ineffectual. He well knew that the people were 
ever more disposed to be led Ly preachers than captains, and, to 
extend his influence over them, he united both characters. 'There 
is a sermon, saiù to have been preached by him, on Rom. :xiii. 1. 
"The last Lord's Day, in April, 1649, at Sir P. T .'8 house, in 
Lincoln's-Inn-fields. *' It was published in 1680. As it abounds 
with low ribaldry, and egregious nonsense, it carries with it no 
intenlal evidence of its being genuine.-Harrison, Vane, and Peter 
PeU, were also lay-preachers in the time of the Interregnum: the 
first of these persons was head of a rebaptized congregation in 
London.t 


CLAS S 'T. 


COMlVIOl'lERS IN GREAT EMPLOYlVIENTS. 


EDV ARDUS NICHOLAS, &c. A. Jiertoc/is f. 
h. she 


This print, which was from a private plate, is uncommon. The 
- picture whence it was engraved was painted by Adrian Hanneman, 
in 1653, when Sir Edward was sixty years of age. I-Ianl1eman, at 
that tim
, resided at Brussels.! 
Sir Edward Nicholas was horn the 4th of April, in the year 
1593, anù entered of the Middle Temple in 1611. In 1622, he 


· Probably Sir Peter Temple. From the date ûf this piece, it is probable that it 
was written in ridicule of Cromwell. This, it should sc('m, is the scrmon to which 
Voltaire alludes, when he sa)'s that Cromwell wa'i a clergyman of the church of 
England, and chap]ain to ni
hop \Villiams; he gelt 
hose falsehoods, rcady made, out 
of the Ilmgazinc of Gregorio Leti.-LoRD IJAIU:S. 
t II Mystery of the good old Cause," p. 
H. 
t 1\18. Letter of nIr. ''''111. Nicholas. 



OF EXGl.
\
D. 


351 


marrifù Jane, daughter of Henry Jay, of Holston, in Norfolk. 
Between the years 1611 and 1642, when he was rnade seC'retary 
of state, he was one of the six clerks in Chancery, and successivf>ly 
secretary to Lord Zouch, and the Duke of Buckingham, in the 
office of high-admiral. It is remarkable that the latter was speaking 
to him when he was stabbed by Felton. I-Je was afterward clerk 
of the council, and continued in that employment tiU the seals were 
given him by the king. He attended his majesty to Oxford, and 
resiùed with him there till he went to the Scots army. On the 
surrender of Oxford to Fairfax, he retired to the Prince of 'Vales, 
in Jersey. From that time to the restoration, he lived, for the most 
part, with Sir Edward Hyde, afterward earl of Clarendon/ at Caen, 
in Normandy. The above account is taken from an authentic 
Jetter, sent with the print already described, to the late professor 
Ward, of Gresham College, by l\ll'. 'Villiam Nicholas, w110 died a 
few years since at Horsley, in Surrey,t He was descended fronl 


· 'Vhen Sir Edward Hyde, his most intimate friend, was apprehensive th.lt iIi, 
life would be of a very short duration; as the parliament was thought to meditate 
a sudden attempt upon Jersey, the place of his retirement. in 1647; he, in a mt"- 
morial, designed to be opened at his death, rlcsired that l1is papers should be com- 
mitted to the custody of Secretary Kicholas: that he should, " if it pleased God 
to redeem his majesty from the llOrrid oppressions under which he then groaned. 
rccehrc his maj(>sty's absolute direction what should be done with these papers." 
He then desired that they might H be carefully ð.amined and perused by the lord 
keeper, Sir Thomas Gardiner, 1\lr. Geoffery Palmer, Dr. Sheldon, Dr. Earles, and 
Dr. l\Iorley, or as many of them as 1\lr. Secretary Nichola
 should be able to draw 
to him." In case of the death of the secretary and himself, lIe signified that the 
papers should be delivered to Lord Capel and Lord Hopton, whose advice 
md as- 
sistance was to have been always used; and he desired them to pursue his former 
wishes."* 
If the reader be curious to contemplate the picture of a great and good man in 
exile, reflecting, with death in prospect, on a life uniformly spent in the service 
of his God, his king, his country, amI his friends, he wiH read with a melancholy 
pleasure, perhaps with tears, the contents of the packet of papers, \vhich were wriU{'n 
in tbis interesting and awful situation; and were, upon his decease, to have been 
dispatc,hed to the secretary, his worthy friend.
 
t William Nicholas, esq. grandson to the secretary, was brought up a Turkey 
merchant. He was one of the restorers of the Antiquarian Society, in 1717. Ha\"Ìng 
survived the rest of his family, the estates in Londun, 'Viltshire, Surrey, &c. de- 
scended to him.1I 


t Chancellor Clarendon's CI Paper
," vol. ii. p. 351. 

 See ibid. p. 532. 11 Dr. Ducarel. 



352 BI 0 G RAPIIICAL HIST OR Y 


the secretary, and the last of his family. See more of Sir Edwara 
- Nicholas in the reign of Charles II. 


JOHN THURLO'V. Cooper p. Houbralien sc. 
In the collection of the Lord J{l'lne
' Cavendish. This 
head is, 'llJitlz good reason, supposed to have been done fOl" 
some ollicr persoll. 


JOHN THURLOE, &c. Vertlie sc.1741; englY1Vedfor 
llis " State Paper
." 


JOHN THUllLOE; fronz a g;old nlec/al, in tlie }Jossession 
oj" D}". .JIead; a head-piece. 


THURLOE and HUGH PETERS, 1'ecelV1Jlp; a petltlon 
of four deputies fro}}t tIle states if Holland. fJYllerlvin sc. 
4to. 


JOHN THURLOW; zn Si1non's ".JIedals," p. 21. 
Vertue sc. 


JOlIN THURLOE, secretary of state to the Pro- 
tector Oliver and Richard Cronlwell. J. Bu!finch del. 
R. Cooper sc. 1810. Fronz the original, ill the collectioll 
of Earl Spencer. 


Mr. Cambridge has a good picture of him, of the authenticity of 
which he has no doubt. 
John Thurloe, secretary of state to 01iver Cromwell and his son 
Richard, was as amiable a man in his private, as he was great in 
in his public, character. His knowledge and his judgment, his 
industry and dispatch, were equally extraordinary; and he was as 
dexterous in discovering secrets, as he was faithful in keeping them. 
His "State Pap"ers," in 7 vols. folio, are an excellent history of 
Europe during this period, and are at once a proof of his abilities as 



OF ENGLAND. 


'IIÞ 


353 


a statesman, and his excellence as a writer. I-Ie was advanced to 
the office of secretary of state) the 10th of Feb. 1653-4. Ob, 21 
Feb. 1667-8, Æt.51. 


HENRY LAWRENCE, president of the council; 
fr0J11 a dr{l'lving in tÞe King's " Clarendon." R. CoopeJ'" 
sc. 4to. 


Henry Lawrence, a gentleman of courtly breeding, on the break- 
ing out of the troubles, withdrew himself to RoHand, but afterward 
Caine back to England, and became a Inember of the Long Parlia- 
ment; and, for a time, concurred in aU the republican measures that 
distinguished their sitting, until the trial and beheading of the 
king; when he fell off, and absented himself entirely from the 
councils of the ruling party, for which Cromwell (then lieutenant- 
general), with great zeal declared, " that a neutral spirit was more 
to be abhorred than a cavalier spirit; and that such lllen as he,- 
were not fit to be used in such a day as that, when God was cut- 
ting down kingship, root and branch." But Lawrence shortly after 
came into play again in the Little Parliament, and contributed much 
to the dissolving of them, and setting up the Protector, and resting 
the government in a single person, affirming, "that other foundation 
could no man lay." For this useful service, Cromwell took him 
into his particular favour and confidence; constituting him presi- 
dent of the council, ånd nominating him one of the forty-three per- 
sons that were to sit in the other house, under the appellation of 
a House of Lords. 
He is reported to have been of a very arbitrary disposition, and 
to have signed many illegal warrants, for carrying to prison, and 
banishing innocent persons, without any other cause than bare sus- 
picion of their being h05tile to the existing government. 


EDMUND LUDLOW, knight of the shire for 
the county of Wilts, in tile pal'1liall1ent 'lv/zich beg'an 
Nov. 3, 1640, one of the cOlillcil of state, lieut. {5'cn. of 
the horse, and comrnandel'"-in-ch icf of the forccs ill Ire- 
land. Drawn and etched, 1760, by J. B. Cipl"iani, a 


VOL. III. 


2z 



354 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


Florentine, frol1z a proof Î1npressioll of a seal, in tile 
possession of Tholllas Hollis, of Lincoln"s Inn, F. R. 
and A. 
y. S. h. she 


EDl\IUND LUDLO'V, esq. Ravenet sc. 4to. 
EDl\IUND LUDLO"T; 8vo. V. Gucht; in Clarendon"s 
" Hið,tory." 
EDl\IUND LUDLOW, autograph and seal; in Caulfield"s 
" Hi{5'h Court of Justice." 
ED:MUND LUDLO'V. (R. White.) Preji
l'ed to his 
" .1.11"eJJloirs," 1698; 8vo. 


Edmund Ludlow was, at twenty-three years of age, made a 
colonel of a regÏ1nent, and soon after promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general. He, in that quality, commanded in Ireland, and 
had a considerable hand in subduing that country, where he ac- 
quitted himself with great courage and conduct. He entered with 
zeal into all the measures of the republican party, and tells us him- 
self, that "he had the honour of being one of the late king's 
judges.". About the time of the restoration, he retired into 
Switzerland, and was there thirty-two years, among a people who 
loved his principles) and respected his person. He composed his 
"Memoirs" in this land of liberty. Ob, 1693, Æt. 73. 


SIR ARTHUR I-IESLERIGGE ;frollzan original 
picture at Nosely Hall, the seat of Lady Heslerigge. 
R. Grave sc. 8vo. 


Sir Arthur Heslerigge, bart. eldest son and heir of Sir Thomas 
Heslerigge, of Nosely, in Leicestershire, knt. created by King 
James I. a baronet, was so disgusted with the arbitrary government 
of King Charles I. that he intended to quit his native country and 
emigrate to New-England, in America. He was a melnber of 
parliament for the county of Leicester in tbe 15th and 16th years 


· "l\Iemoil's," ii. p. 871, 8vo. 



OF ENGLAND. 


355" 


of the reign of Charles I. and distinguished himself by his acrimony 
against the king; and was the person who preferred the bill of 
attainder against the Earl of Strafford, whose death he sought more 
than any other member of the house. 
In the civil war he was one of the foremost to decide the cause, 
between the king and his parliament, with the sword, throwing 
away the scabbard without a wish to ever take it again; early 
falling into the scheme to ruin the king, and with him to set aside 
monarchy. Charles, conscious of this, exhibited articles of high.. 
treason against him; and afterward excepted him out of his gene- 
ral pardon. He was colonel of a regiment of cuirassiers, called the 
lobsters, from their being so completely armed: they did infinite 
hurt to the royalists, by breaking the horse; however, they were 
routed at Roundway-down, and Sir Arthur very much wounded. 
Ho1lis lays the accident to his cowardice and unskilfulness. 
He took the protestation, and the covenant; was one of the com- 
missioners for martial law, in 1644; and in 1647, one of the com- 
Inittee of safety at Derby-house. He was named a commissioner 
of the high court of justice, erected to try the king, in which he sat, 
but did not sign the warrant for the king's death. He was one of 
the council of state, in 1649; and 1650, governor of Newcastle, 
where he magnificently entertained the then Lord-general Crom- 
wen. Was chosen a member of one of Oliver's parlian1ents, in 1654, 
and 1656; being returned for the town of Leicester in the former, 
and for the same place, and Newcastle-upon - Tyne, in the latter; 
but was excluded, because he would not subscribe not to molest 
the government. The Protector in vain endeavoured to gain him: 
he made him one of the members of his other house; but coming 
privately to town, that he might not be asked questions, he, instead 
of resorting to this house, went to the commons, openly exclaiming 
against this innovation and infringement of the government. 
He was also a member of Richard's parliament, for the town of 
Leicester; but was never conten t till he had deprived hirri of all 
power; and discovering Lambert's ambition, under pretence of 
approving the Derby petition, and wishing to have it read, he 
ordered the doors of the house to be shut, and Lambert to be ac- . 
cused of high-treason. At this time, Sir Arthur seems scarce him- 
self; his friend Ludlow declaring that he was lost, in his own im- 
portance, it so far threw hinl off his guard, that he feU an easy 
prey to the cunning and insincerity of Monk, who flattered him 



:356 BIOGltAPHICAL HISTORY 


every way, and made him one of tbe five commissioners of tbe par- 
liament forces with himself (which he wished at. first to decline); 
conducted him into the parliament as one of the secluded members, 
and at length he became so well satisfied with the general's good 
intentions to the parliament, that when he pulled down the city 
gates, he exclaimed, "Now George, we have thee for our own, body 
and soul!" and then running to the parliament said, "All is our 
own, he will be honest." Monk having deceived him as long as 
was necessary, first ordered his regiment to be removed from Lon- 
don, and then took off the mask 
 and, as he told Slingsby Bethel 
(who came to him upon business, and found him lost in a pro- 
found revery), that he had that m!Jrning been with Monk, who had 
refused to give any satisfaction about the Commonwealth, and had 
even treated him with rudeness and contempt; adding, " We are 
undone! we are undone I" His courage now for the first time left 
him; and his subsequent behaviour, by no means was equal to his 
former conduct; nor with that declaration that he had published, 
protesting his intention to live and die with the Commonwealth. 
In 1660, he was sent to the Tower, by order of the king, for 
endeavouring to g
in some of the old officers to attempt a diversÌon 
in favour of his dear lost Commonwealth. He was excepted out 
of the act of indemnity, and it was with difficulty his life was 
spared, it being owing entirely to the honourable conduct of l\lonk, 
then duke of .A.1bemarle, who assured the House of Peers, that 
he had promised Sir Arthur, that if he would remain quiet, as he 
h,ad two regiments, he should be pardoned at the king's return. 
He died in the Tower, of a fever, occasioned by grief, in 1660, or 
1661. 


THOMAS KILLEGREW, who had been page of honour to 
Charles
. was, in 1651, appointed resident at Venice by Charles II. 
His pricipal business was to borrow money of the English mer- 
chants in that city, for the king's support. His behaviour, during 
his residence, did no honour to his n1aster or himself. The Venc- 
tians were so much scandalized at his irregularities, that they com- 
pelled him to leave the republic; and a complaint was preferrcd 
against him to the king, át Paris, by their ambassador. See the 
reign of CUA ItLES II. Class VIII. and IX. 


SAlVIUEL MORLANDUS, serenlSSÙlll dOJJzlni pro- 



OF ENGLAND. 


357 


tectoris ad f"egeln Galliæ, ducelnque Sabaudiæ, de rebus 
ValensÙl17Z IJlterllllJlciu8; et delude e.rtra ordilleln COJJl- 
nlÏssarius. P. Lilly (LeZy) p. P. Lornbart sc. lz. slz. 


SIR SA1\IUEL lVIORLAND; a slJzall oval; (W. Hollar) 
anonY'JllOus" scarce. 


SIR SAl\IUEL MORLAND, in a u'ig; prtfìLTed to the 
"DesCl.iption of his t'tDO Aritlznzetical InstrUJ7lcnts," 
1673, I 21no. 


Samuel Morland, of Sulhamsted Banister, in Berkshire, was 
some time one of the under secretaries to Thurloe.* He was enl- 
ployed by the Protector in several embassies, and was, in 1657, his 
resident at Geneva. His" History of the Evangelical Clnnches 
of Piedmont" was published in folio, 1658, with his head prefixed. t 
He was sent to Savoy, to forward the charitable collection made in 
England for the Vaudois, and found the conveyance very difficult, 
as their enemies were hovering round to intercept it. The method 
of expediting money by bins was then much less known than it is 
at present. In the beginning of the year 1660, he waited on the 
king at Breda, and nlade several important discoveries; and was, 
in consideration of his services, the same year created a baronet. 
In 1695, was published his" Urim of Conscience," a small octavo, 
before which, as I am informed, there is a neat print of him, in a 
large wig, and point cravat, tied with a black riband; and some 
account of himself. I know not when he died, but am certain that 
he lived to an advanced age, and was, in the latter part of his life
 


· The Protector coming late at night to Thurloe's office, and beçhming to gh-e 
rlirection about somcthin 5 of great importance and secrecy, he took notice that 
1\lr. l\IorJand, one of the clerks, was in the room, which he had not observed before; 
and fearing he might have overheard their discourse, though he pretended to be 
asleep upon his desk, he drew a poniard, which he always carried under his co
t, 
and was going to dj'}patC'h :l\Iorland upon the spot, if Thurloe had not with great 
entreaties prevailed with him to desist, assuring him that l\IorJand had set up two 
nights together, and was now certainly fast asleep." 
t In vol. iii. of Bishop Gibson's Papers, in the Lamheth Library, is au u ALreviate 
of the Life <:,f Sir Samuell\Iuriand, ùart." "HiuCIl by himself. There arc also many 
Letters and P;\pcrs by hilll in the samc volume. 



358 llIOGRAPIIICAL HISTOR Y 


affiicted with blindness. He was master of the mechanics to 
Charles II. He invented the drum-headed capstan for weighing 
heavy anchors, the speaking.trull1pet, an engine for quenching fires, 
an arithmetical instrument, &c. Mention is made of several of his 
works in the Bodleian Catalogue. 


ALGERNON SIDNEY. J. B. CijJriani d. J. Ba- 
sire 
c. 1763; h. she Under the head is the following 
inscription.' "At the time when Mr. Algernon Syd- 
ney was ambassador at the court of Denmark, 
Monsieur Terlon, the :French ambassador, had the 
confidence to tear out of the book of mottoes, in the 
king"s library, this verse, which Mr. Sydney, accord- 
ing to-the liberty allowed to all noble strangers, had 
written in it, 


---' Manus hæc inimica tyrannis, 
Ense petit placid am sub libertate quictem.' 
" Though Monsieur Terlon understood not a 
word of Latin, he was told by others the meaning of 
that sentence, which he considered as a libel upon 
the French government, and upon such as was then 
setting up in Denn1ark by French assistance or ex- 
ample." Lord Molesworth's preface to his "Ac- 
count of Denmark." 


Algernon Sydney, a younger son of Robert, earl of Leicester, 
was colonel of a regiment in the civil war, and one of the ambas- 
sadors sent to Sweden and Denmark by Richard Cromwell. He 
was a man of a philosophic turn of mind, had seen much of the 
abuse of kingly power, and was apprehensive of Dluch more. 
Hence he became as zealous a republican, from speculation and 
principle, as others were from animosity and faction. See more 
of him in the reign of CHARLES II. Class IX. 


ALEXANDER ERSKEIN, S. Regiæ l\Iajestatis 



OF ENGLA.ND. 


359 


Sueciæ a Consiliis secretioribus aulicis et bellicis, 
&c. ad Tractatus Pacis universalis Plenipotentiarius. 
Anselmus van Hull p. Corn. Galle sc. 1649, h. sh. His 
portrait is in Suyderhoef's fine print of the treaty of 
lJ1Únster. * 
Illustris et Generosus Dominus ALEXANDER ERS- 

KEIN, S. R. M. &c. three quarters, ill a 'rich Orlla17lC/lled 
border; arnzs,. eig'ht Latin lines. John Durr sClllp. 
very rare. 
ALEXANDER ERSKEIN. Tiebout sc. 1796; 8vo. 
This gentleman was probably of the Kelly branch of the family 
of Marr; Sir Alexander Erskine, of that house, having been 
ennobled by James VI. Many of his descendants have been named 
Alexander; but there is no account of the person in question in 
Douglas's" Peerage." 


PHILIP, earl of PEMBROKE, when the House of Lords was 
abo1ished, condescended to sit among the commons, as knight of 
the shire for Berks. See the reign of CHARLES 1. Class. II. 



 


\VILLIAM PRYNNE, the voluminous writer, was, to use the 
epithet of Lord Clarendon, no less 'Columinous as a speaker. Cle- 
toent Walker mentions, with due commendation, a speech of his 
addressed to the House of Commons, a little before the death of 
Charles I. in which he proves his concessions to the parliament to 
be sufficient ground for a peace.t He has, in this speech) recapi- 
tulated the arguments on both sides with great freedom and pro- 
priety. He continued to speak roundly of abuses, when others 
thought it prudent to be silent; and though he had lost his ears 
for his patriotism, he was determined to be a patriot still, though 
at the hazard of his head. See the preceding reign, Class IX. 


· One of a set of prints of the ambassadors who were present at tIle treaty or 
J\Iunster. 
t (( Hist. of Independency," part. ii. p. 15. This speech is reprinted in the 
cc Parliamentary History." 
, 



360 


llIO G RA.PIIICA L IllS TOR Y 


PRAISE GOD BAREBONE; *a head in (I square; 
8vo. 


PRAISE GOD BAREBONE; an etching. G. P. H. 


PRAISE GOD 
Preacher's New." 


BAREBONE; prifLred 
R. Grave sc. 


to 


" New 


July 4, 
16;)3. 


Em'eLone, who was by occupation a leather-seller, was one of 
the most active, if not the most able, members of the parliament as- 
sembled by Cromwell, which took its denomination from his nalne. 
'Vhen lVlonk came to London, with a view of restoring the king" 
and was intent upon the readmission of the sec1uded mell1bers, 
this man appeared at the head of a numerous rabble of fanatics, 
which was alarming even to that intrepid general. A petition was 
presented by their leader to the parliament, for the exclusion of the 
king and royal family. Monk, who knew the popularity of Bare- 
bone, was obliged to n1ake a general muster of his army, and wrote 
a letter to the parliament, in which he expostulated with them for 
giving too. much countenance to that furious zealot and his ad- 
herents.t 


· I have been informed that there were three brothers of this family, each of 
whom had a 
entence of his name; viz. Praise God Barebone; Christ came into 
the world to save BareLone, and If Christ had not died thou hadst been damned 
TIarcùone. Some are said to have omitted the former part of the sentence, and to 
have called him only" Danm'd Barebone." l\lr. Hume has given us a list of 
names of this kind. In l\Iontfaucon's u Diarium Italicum,"f is a sepulchral inscrip- 
tion of the year 396, upon Quodvultdcus, with the following note: II Hoc ævo non 
pauci erant qui piis sententiolis nomina propria concinnarent: v. g. Quodvultdeus, 
Deogratias, Habetdeum, Adeodatus." 
t See Roger Coke's" Detection," &c. ii. p. 89, 90. That author tells us, that 
'\Villiam Prynne, (( tied to a great basket-hilt sword,"
 was the first of the secluded 
members that entered the House of Commons. 


t Edit. 4to. p. 270. 
9 Gladius 
\iigatus Cic.-Spuken of a littlc man who wore a large sword. 



OF ENGLAXIJ. 


3GI 


C L i\ S S '7 I. 



IEN OF THE ItOBE. 


BULSTRODUS 'VHITl.OCK, Eques l\.uratlls, 
JVindsorii procoJlstabularills, !/{[ccarii c01J17uiss. dudu}}l 
'Jllu/ 5 'ni sig'illi CllstoS, 
'c. }'ait!zornc sc. 


There is a copy qf this by Hlllsúerg;h, h. sll. 


BULSTRODE'VIIITLOCK. ll. GaY1cood sc. 4to. 


BULSTRODE 'V HITLOCK. Richardson
' 4to. 


This print may be placed in the reign of CharJes II. in which 
it was eng'cared. There is a portrait of him, which was painted in 
Sweden, and is very like Faithorne's print. It is in the possession 
of the Rev. Dr. Cooper, late of Phil is-court, at Henley-upon_ 
Thames.* This gentleman's father married the heiress of the 
'Vhitlock family. 
Bulstrode'Vhit1ock, a man of integrity, espoused the cause to 
which he adhered from principle; and though warmed, was never 
overheated by party. His knowledge in the laws was very ex- 
tensive; his judgment, his experience, his dexterity and ad(hess in 
the management of afi
lirs, were no less extraordinary. He was a 
leading tuember of the House cf COlnmons, a principal commis- 
sioner in the treaties of Oxfonl and Uxbridge, and one of the am- 
bassadors seut by Richard Cromwell to luediate a peace betwixt 
Sweden and Denmark. His candour was conspicuous in thp 
warmest debates; and though he still adhered to the siùe that was 


· Tn the timc of the eÏvil war, 1\11'. \Vhitlock was lIppointed governor of the 
town of Hcnley, and of the fort of Philis-court, his own seat, ill which was a gar- 
ri...on of JOO foot, and a troop of horse. He was known to IJc a ni811 of great per- 
sonal courage, thongh he was ncvcr called upon to f''''t'rci
e it in tI militarJ capacitJr. 


VOL. I II. 


3A 



302 ß lOG It A P II I C 1\ I... II 1ST 0 11 Y 


uppermost, it appears to have been more owing to his moderation 
than the flexibility of his principles. See the Class of Authors, in 
the reign of Charles II. 


HENRY ROLLE, lord chief-justice of the upper 
bench. Hertoclzs f. h. sh. 


Henry Rolle was one of the six judges who accepted of a com- 
mission from the Commonwealth, soon after the death of Charles 1.11;- 
He was intimately acquainted with the most elninent lawyers of his 
time; and was in the knowledge of his profession scarce inferior to 
the greatest. His reading and his practice were equally extensive; 
and he seems to have been formed by nature for patient study, 
deep penetration, and clearness and solidity of judglnent. He soon 
discovered the hinge upon which every cause turned, and when he 
was convinced himself, had the art of easily convincing others. 
His integrity, even under the usurpation of Cromwell, was acknow- 
ledged by the generality of the royalists themselves. He was, of 
all the judges, the most averse from trying any of the king's party 
for treason: he indeed thought their defence, in which they insisted 
upon the illegality of the government, was too well founded. He 
died the 30th of July, 1656, and was succeeded in his office by the 
celebrated Glynn. He was author of the Reports and Abridgment 
which bear his name. t See" Athen Oxon." 


CHIEF-JUSTICE GLYNNE. J. Cahhcallsc. 4to. 
III Pennant's" JVales." 


Sir John Glynne was born at Glyn-llivon, in the year 1602; his 
father was Sir 'Villiam Glynne, knight; his mother was a Griffith, 
of Caernarvon. His education was after the best moùe; the school 
was that of the college at 'Vestminster: his academic learning was 
instilled into him at IIart-hall, Oxford; and his knowledge of the 


· See "r alker's " Hist. of Independency." part ii. p. 119. 
t 1\Ir. Hargrå\Te, at p. 9 of 1JÏs edit. of Coke upon Littleton, speaks of RolIO:s 
ahridgment, as II a work most excellent in its kind, and in point of method, succinct- 
ness, legal precision, and many other respects, fit to be proposed as an example for 
other abridg:nents of law." 



o Ji' EN G I.J AND. 


363 


law at J
incolll'8 Inn, where he became a bencher. His abilities 
were immediately discovered by the popular party, by whose in- 
fluence he was n1ade steward of \Vestminster, recorder of London, 
and twice elected Inelnber for the former, in the two parliaments of 
1640. I-Ie was, next to Pym, the most active manageI: again.st the 
Earl of Strafford. The unfortunate peer remarkell, that Glynne 
and Maynard treated him like advocates; Palt-ner and 'Vhitlock 
like gentlemen; and yet omitted nothing material that could be 
urged against him. The author of Hudibras seems to catch at this 
part of the character of these great lawyers: 


Did not tbe learned Glynne and l\Jaynard, 
To make good subjEcts traitors, strain hard 
 


In the case of Strafford, and in that of the impeachment of the 
twelve bishops, they acted on principle. This appears evident fro 111 
the prosecution they afterward underwent, for the noble stand they 
111ade against the ruin of the constitution, planned, and afterward 
effected, by the anny. On September 8th, 1646, they were expelJed 
the house, committed to the Tower, and had a charge of high- 
treason brought against them. Glynne soon determined to submit 
to the rising powers, and was restored to his place in the house; 
appointed one of the ten commissioners for carrying on the treaty 
with the king in the Isle of 'Vight; and voted by the house to be 
a serjeant at law, in the new call it thought fit to make. He, as 
weB as the artful 'Vhitlock, evaùed aU concern in the trial of the 
king; but afterward temporized funy with the powers in being. 
Cronnvell soon made him one of his council; and, in 1654, he was 
constituted chamberlain of Chester: in the following year was (on 
the refusal of the Chief-justice Rolle) sent into the \Vest, with a 
commission to try Colonel Penruddock, and the other insurgents. 
Rolle lost his place for his scruples; and in his fOOln the serjeant 
was rewarded wit.h the office of lord chief-justice of the upper bench. 
He was grateful to his patron; for, being appointed one of the C0lU- 
Inittee to receive the Protector's scruples about being 111ade kin
, 
he urged the acceptance with the utmost zeal. It is amusing to 
compare the change of sentiment from the year 1648, whcn the 
kingly office was voted to be unnecessary, burdensome, and dan- 
t;erous, with the opinion of 1657, when the learneù seljeant td1s 
Cromwell, that it is e
sclltial to the seLtlemellt of the nation. 
Notwithstal1dill
 thc usurper did not dare to assume the name, he 



364 BIOC;U,APHIC...\.L HISTOI{ Y 


n1Ímicked the powers, anù honoured his advocate with calling him 
np by writ into his House of Peers; that motley assembly of the 
year 1657. The prudent lawyer maintained his ground till the year 
of the restoration, when, by a 111asterpiece of cunning, he published, 
in octavo, the arguments he had used to prevail with his former 
master to mount the throne, under the title of MON ARCHY asserted 
to be the best, the most ancient, an<llegal form of government. How 
flattering must this have been to the rightful prince, to find the 
ancient mode acknowledged as most eligible (even after the long 
abuse of it in his family) by one of the ablest supporters of the 
protectorate! 
'Vhether this recomnlended him to the new governlnent, or whe- 
ther he made his peace before, is not certain. He was received by 
Charles with distinguished marks of favour, who not only knighted 
him, but bestowed upon him the honour of prime serjeant, and even 
created his eldest son a baronet. In the Convention Parlia
ent, 
he was elected for the county of Caernarvon; and was appointed 
one of the committee for examining the acts passed during the late 
1.1surpation, which were inconsistent with the present government; 
and how the many fines, recoveries, &c. made in the late courts of 
law, might be confirmed and rendered good. He had likewise a 
concern in the act of general pardon, and in all others in which 
the assistance of an able lawyer was requisite. 
lIe retired from the house in the following parliament, and lived 
till the year 1666, when he died in London, and was buried in his 
own vault, beneath the altar of St.lVIargaret's church, 'Vestminster. 


JOlIN l\tJA YN AI{D. J. 5 t tú1V se. 4to. 


J01Hl lVlaynard, a very able lawyer, was made a serjeant at Jaw, 
Feb. 9, 1653-4, previous to the trial of Charles I. lIe had the teme- 
l'ity to oppose the all-conquering army, for which, in 1647, they sent 
him, with Glynne, to the Tower; and when the parliament voted no 
Ulore addresses to be presented to the king, he told them that by 
it they dissolved themselves. The same conduct led him to plead 
the cause of 1\11'. George Coney, a merchant of London, who had 
the boldness to oppose paying a tax, imposed by the Protector 
Oliver, without the consent of parliament. On this his highness so 
far forgot justice, that l\lay 8, 1655, he sent him, Serjeant Twysden, 



OF EN GLA.N }J. 


365 


auù Counsellor Wadham 'Vyndham, to the Tower; from whence 
they were not released before they had made their submissions. 
He was again called by Charles II. to the degree of serjeant, 
June 1, 1660; who, November 9 following, made him his own 
seljeant. He was a sound lawyer, and a good man, and one of 
the most impartial dispenser of justice of any of his contemporaries. 
He was knighted by King Charles II. 


1\1 A TTHE\V HALE was eminent, at this period, for the several 
qualifications that compose the character of an able lawyer, and a 
good rnan. He was made a judge in 1653-4; and was, without 
exception, the most impartial dispenser of justice of any of his con- 
temporaries. See the reign of CHARLES II. 


SERJEANT BR1\.DSHA'V; a head, partly scraped, 
.. '{(nd partly stipped; larg'e 4to. - 'fhere is an account of 
him in the preceding reign, Class XII. 


JOHN RUSH\VORTH, esq. barrister of Lincoln's Inn, was far 
more eminent as an historian than a lawyer. See a description of 
bis portrait among the Historians, in the reign of CHA RLES II. 
Class IX. 


'VILLIAl\l PRYNNE, Æt. 49, 1653; 
follr English 't}erses. See 
the reign OfCUARLES I. See also Class V. 


DOCTOR LEVENS; a ð'lllall !lead, in the frontis- 
piece to Winstanley' ð' " Loyal JJfartY1'"ology," 8vo. 


DOCTOR LEVENS; enlarg'ed frOJll the above prillt; 
8vo. 


Doctor Levens, a gentleman well descended of an ancient family 
in Oxfordshire, was brought up to the profession of the law; but 
at the first conunencement of the civil war J exchanged his gown for 
a sword, and valiantly served the king, till the surrender of Oxford, 
and was one of the persons included to remain exempt from penal- 
tics at the capitulation of that city. After the dcath of the king, 



366 B I 0 (
H. A P II I C.\ L II 1ST 0 It Y 


he engaged in the service of his son and successor Charles II. hav- 
ing a commission from him for the l'aising forces, and blank com. 
missions for divers officers; but whilst he was in pursuance of the 
design he was discovered and brought to trial, before a high court 
of justice, by whom he was found guilty, and suffered death oppo- 
site the Royal Exchange, in CornhilJ, July 18, ] 650. Hopes were 
beld out to him that his life would be spared, if he would reveal 
the parties' names that were engaged with him in his undertaking; 
but this he peremptorily rejected, saying, he was no way ashau1ed 
of his cause, but would justify it with his last breath. 


TIIOMAS FIDELL, of Furnival's Inn, gent. one 
of the attorneys of the court of conlffion bench, aged 
fifty-six years. T. Cross se. 
Thomas FideU was author of a book, entitled, " A perfect Guide 
for a studious young Lawyer; being Precedents for Conveyancing." 
The first edition, before which is his portrait, was published in 4to. 
1654. 


A LORD CHANCELl
OR OF IRELAND. 


M.A.JOR-G.ENERAL DISBREW,* on lzorscbacli,. 
51cnt,. 4to. 
JOHN DES BOROUGH; front a 17zcdal by A. Sinlon, 
1657. J. Thane e.t'c. 


Jon N D ESEOROUG II ; 
vilh the J]lCck ](night {{ud La})ze 
beFt,. 'lCOOd-Cllt. 
JOHN DESnOllOUGII, on horseback; an etching'. 
(Clauss/n.) ßZ llichardson. 
JOHN DISDllE'V; 
'JJlall 
D"olc lcng;th, ill aJ"J1l0llr. 


John Dcsl>ürou;;h (or Dl
nRowE) was bred to the law, hut. was 
never like tu risc to any eminence HI, that profession. lIe was 


· 
ic.: Orig. 



OF EX{; LA_ND. 


3G7 


clumsy and ungain in his person, clownish in bis manners, and 
boisterous in his behaviour. He was brother-in-law to Cronnvell; 
but was so violent a republican, that he cOllld never be reconciled 
to the name or office of a king, in the nearest of his relations, or 
even in the best of mankind. He was one of the council of state 
to the Protector, general at sea, n1ajor-general of the counties of 
Gloucester, 'Vilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall. But 
though he enjoyed these great offices under him, he abhorred his 
power, and was ever intriguing with the republicans. He was pro- 
moted to the chancellorship of Ireland by his nephew Richard; but 
was one of the chief instruments in pulling hin1 down, and trans- 
ferring his power to the army. Desborough himself was Lut a tool 
in the hand of Lambert. 


TN D 01<' "Of.. III. 


Printed by J. F. DOVE, St. John'i Square. 



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